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Before the Roman invasion, Britain was populated by Celtic tribes with well-established cultural and economic links with continental Europe. Although Julius Caesar conducted the first Roman campaign in Britain in 55 B.C., the conquest did not begin until A.D. 43, during the reign of Claudius. The British tribes initially opposed the Roman legions, but by 84 the Romans had decisively conquered southern Britain and had pushed into what is now southern Scotland. In 122 they fortified the northern border with Hadrian's Wall, which spanned what is now Northern England. In 142 Roman forces pushed north again and began construction of the Antonine Wall, but they retreated back to Hadrian's Wall after only twenty years. Following the conquest, native Britons were subject to the Roman governors but mostly kept their land, and a distinctive Romano-British culture emerged. The Roman Empire retained control until its departure about A.D. 430.
Lot of 2 Coins, England, Edward I Longshanks, 1272 - 1307
NEW Elias identifies this type as probably the "moneta nova" of the currency reform of 1291, and perhaps struck until 1294. The Bordeaux mint closed in 1294 due to war activity and did not reopen until 1305.
Known as Edward Longshanks for his height of 6 ft. 2 in., and sometimes as the "Hammer of the Scots." Edward was ruthless in pursuing his aims and crushing those who opposed him. He conquered large parts of Wales and almost succeeding in doing the same to Scotland.ME95904. Silver denier au leopard, Elias 18, Duplessy Féodales 1042, Poey d'Avant 2775, SCBC-SII 8018; 0.793 and 0.931g, 18.7mm, F-gF, both coins, Burdigala (Bordeaux, France) mint, c. 1291 - 1294; obverse + EDVARDVS REX (King Edward), leopard passant left above upper horizontal line, AGL (England) between two horizontal lines, E below lower horizontal line, all within inner circle; reverse + DVX AQIT BVRD (Duke of Aquitaine, Burdigala), cross pattée, within inner circle, E in the upper left (1st) quarter; $190.00 (€174.80)
Great Britain, Victoria, 20 June 1837 - 22 January 1901
Queen Victoria inherited the throne at 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no legitimate surviving children. The UK was already a constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon and was identified with strict standards of personal morality. Her reign of 63 years and seven months is known as the Victorian era.UK94024. Copper half farthing, SCBC 3951, EF, stains, light marks and rim bumps, weight 2.386 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 0o, London mint, 1852; obverse VICTORIA D: G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F: D: (Victoria, by the Grace of God, Queen of Britain, Defender of the Faith), first uncrowned portrait ('Young Head') of Queen Victoria left, ribbons in her hair; reverse HALF / FARTHING / 1842 in three lines, crown above, rose, shamrock, and thistle below; ex CNG e-sale 453 (2 Oct 2019), lot 893 (part of); ex Brondesbury Park Collection; $55.00 (€50.60)
Belgic Celts in Britain, Atrebates, Verica, c. 10 - 43 A.D.
At the time of Caesar's invasion of Britain, the Atrebates, "the settlers," covered Sussex, Berkshire, west Surrey, parts of Hampshire, north-east Wiltshire.SL86748. Gold quarter stater, Little Horse Rearing type; Bean VERC1-2, Cottam ABC 1199, Van Arsdell 466-1, Hobbs 1179, SCBC 124, NGC EF, strike 5/5, surface 3/5 (2400434-001), weight 1.19 g, maximum diameter 9.2 mm, die axis 225o, Calleva mint, c. 10 - 40 A.D.; obverse COM F in linear rectangle tablet, pellet in annulet above and below; reverse horse prancing right, VI above, exergual line below; ex Stephen Album auction 21 (15 Jan 2015), lot 1 (realized $900 plus fees); NGC| Lookup; SOLD
Celts, Atrebates and Regni, British Tribes, South of the Thames, c. 60 - 20 B.C.
At the time of Caesar's invasion of Britain, the Atrebates, "the settlers," covered Sussex, Berkshire, west Surrey, parts of Hampshire, north-east Wiltshire. The Regni, originally Regini, "the stiff ones," occupied Sussex in Roman times.SH01358. Gold quarter stater, uninscribed 'Bognor Cogwheel' type; Cottam ABC 509, SCBC 48, gVF, scyphate, weight 1.39 g, maximum diameter 13.0 mm, die axis 180o, obverse extremely stylized head of Zeus or Apollo; reverse horse right with triple tail, floral sun above, cog wheel below, wheel right; a beautiful example of Celtic art; SOLD
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Cottam, E., et al. Ancient British Coins. (Chris Rudd, Norfolk, UK, 2010).
de Jersey, P. Celtic Coinage in Britain. (London, 1996).
de la Tour, H. Atlas de monnaies Gauloises. (Paris, 1892).
Hobbs, R. British Iron Age Coins in the British Museum. (London, 1996).
Nash, D. Coinage in the Celtic World. (London, 1987).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol. 1: Europe. (London, 1978).
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