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Gaul was a historical region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, most of Switzerland and Netherlands, the Po Valley in Northern Italy, and the west bank of the Rhine in Germany. About 390 B.C., the Gauls invaded and sacked Rome. In 222 B.C., Cisalpine Gaul (the region between the Alps and the Po Valley) was conquered by the Romans. The best description of pre-Roman Gaul is in the first chapter of the Commentarii de Bello Gallico, by Julius Caesar, which begins: "All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in ours Gauls, the third. All these differ from each other in language, customs and laws..."
Monnaies grecques en Gaule, Le tresor d'Auriol et le monnayage de Massalia 525/520-460 a. J.-C.
Greek currency in Gaul. The Auriol Hoard and the coinage of Massalia 525/520 - 460 B.C.BK13582. Monnaies grecques en Gaule, Le tresor d'Auriol et le monnayage de Massalia 525/520-460 a. J.-C. by A. Furtwängler, TYPOS III, 1978, p. 336, 4 maps, 8 pages of diagrams, 44 plates, international shipping at the actual cost of postage; $90.00 SALE PRICE $72.00
Lot of 3 Celtic Gaul, Cast Potin Coins, c. 100 - 50 B.C.
The following list was provided by the consignor and has not been verified by FORVM: 1) Celtic Gaul, Senones, 52 B.C., cast potin, AE15, 3.27g, Head right, hair divided into large curls, pulled back / Bird left, pentagram above tail, two annulets behind. Delestrée-Tache 2631, CCCBM 156-159, De la Tour 7565. 2) Northeast Gaul, Suessiones, c. 100-50 B.C., cast potin, AE22, 4.20g. Two confronted ibexes, globe between / Wolf confronting boar, annulet between. Delestrée & Tache 211. 3) Northeast Gaul, Leuci, c. 100-50 B.C. cast potin, 17mm, 3.64g. Celticized male head to left / Boar left. Delestrée-Tache 225.LT99418. Cast potin, Lot of 3 coins, F - VF, c. 100 - 50 B.C.; no tags or flips, the actual coins in the photographs, 3 cast potin; $90.00 SALE PRICE $72.00
Massalia, Gaul, c. 475 - 460 B.C.
Massalia (Marseille) is the oldest city of modern France, and was founded around 600 B.C. by Greeks from the Asia Minor city of Phocaea.GA95211. Silver obol, Chevillon OBM-1 (fig. 29); Brenot Period 2, 1; Furtwängler Massalia, Em. VI, pl. III, 4; De La Tour 511; SNG Cop -, gVF, toned, nice metal, weight 0.889 g, maximum diameter 10.1 mm, die axis 0o, Massalia mint, 475 - 465/460 B.C.; obverse archaic head of Apollo left; reverse crab, M below; ex Forum (2016), ex CNG e-auction 368 (10 Feb 2016), lot 4; ex Poindessault-Vedrines (31 March 1997), lot 339.; very rare; SOLD
Augustus and Agrippa, 16 - 15 B.C., Colonia Augusta Nemausus, Gallia Narbonensis
The reverse commemorates the conquest of Egypt in 30 B.C. and was probably issued in connection with Augustus' visit to Gaul in 16 B.C.RP46954. Bronze dupondius, RPC Online I 523, RIC I 157, SNG Cop 697, SNG Tübingen 142, SRCV I 1729, aVF, weight 12.023 g, maximum diameter 27.2 mm, die axis 180o, Gaul, Nemausus (Nimes, France) mint, 16 - 15 B.C.; obverse back to back heads of Agrippa and Augustus, Agrippa (on left) facing left wearing a rostral crown, Augustus bare head right, IMP above, DIVI F below; reverse crocodile right chained to a palm, wreath with long ties over COL - NEM (NE ligate) above crocodile divided by palm, two palm fronds below crocodile; rare variant; SOLD
Augustus and Agrippa, 9 - 3 B.C., Colonia Augusta Nemausus, Gallia Narbonensis
The reverse commemorates the conquest of Egypt in 30 B.C. This theme was probably used at Nemausus because the colony was settled by Egyptian Greeks and veterans from Anthony's army that had surrendered to Octavian at Actium. This was the last of the COL NEM issues, distinguished by the addition of the title P P (Pater Patriae), an honor bestowed to Augustus in 2 B.C.SH92630. Bronze AE 23, RIC I 155, RPC Online I 523, SNG Cop 698, SNG Tüb 152, SRCV I 1729, NGC VG, strike 4/5, surface 3/5 (6155614-001), weight 6.642 g, maximum diameter 23.4 mm, die axis 270o, Colonia Augusta Nemausus (Nimes, France) mint, 9/8 - 3 B.C.; obverse back to back heads of Augustus and Agrippa, Agrippa head left wearing a rostral crown, Augustus bare head right, IMP above, DIVI F below; reverse crocodile right chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties over COL - NEM above, two palms fronds below; from the Errett Bishop Collection, NGC| Lookup; SOLD
Nemausus, Gaul, c. 40 B.C.
Colonia Nemausus was founded as a colony by Tiberius Claudius Nero in 45 or 44 B.C. for veterans that had served Julius Caesar under his command in Gaul and the invasion of Egypt. He was the first husband of Livia and was persuaded or forced by Octavian to divorce her. At the wedding he gave her in marriage to Octavian "just as a father would." The myrtle crown (Corona Ovalus) was bestowed upon a general by the Senate for an ovatio (minor triumph and triumphal ornaments), but not a triumph. Tiberius Claudius Nero as quaestor to Julius Caesar defeated the fleet of Ptolemy XIII on the Nile in January of 47 B.C. Suetonius notes that for this he received a priesthood. No ovation is recorded. However, about 16 lines are missing from the restored Fasti Triumphales describing awards dating 54 - 45 B.C. Presumably, Tiberius Claudius Nero received the myrtle crown for what was certainly among the top Roman military achievements against foreigners during this gap.RP97011. Silver obol, RPC Online I 519 (18 spec.), SNG Cop 691, De Luynes 764, CCBM II 597, De la Tour 2718, VF, toned, off center on a small flan, scratches, light earthen deposits, ragged chipped edge, weight 0.234 g, maximum diameter 10.3 mm, die axis 180o, Nemausus (Nimes, France) mint, c. 40 B.C.; obverse helmeted and draped bust right; reverse NEM COL in two lines within myrtle wreath; rare; SOLD
Roman Republic, Cn. Domitius Calvinus, 39 B.C.
SH35110. Fouree silver plated denarius, cf. Crawford 532/1, Sydenham 1358 (official Osca mint), VF, weight 3.475 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 180o, illegal mint, obverse OSCA, bearded male head (Hercules?); reverse DOM COS ITER IMP, sacrificial implements; SOLD
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