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God of war and bloodshed. Symbols include the boar and the spear. Son of Zeus and Hera.
Numerian, February or March 283 - October or November 284 A.D.
Consular busts are scarce for this dynasty.RA93244. Billon antoninianus, Bastien 562 (3 spec. cited), RIC V-2 -, Cohen VI -, SRCV III -, Hunter V -, La Venčra -, Choice aVF, well centered, flow lines, tiny encrustations, scattered light porosity, weight 3.080 g, maximum diameter 22.85 mm, die axis 0o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 6th emission, c. 284 A.D.; obverse IMP C NVMERIANVS AVG, radiate bust wearing imperial mantle right, eagle-tipped scepter in right hand; reverse MARS VICTOR (Mars the Victor), Mars advancing right, nude except for helmet and cloak tied in belt at waist and flying behind, transverse spear in right hand, trophy over left shoulder in left hand, C in right field; very rare; $370.00 (€303.40)
Julia Domna, Augusta, 194 - 8 April 217, Rabbathmoba, Arabia
Rabbathmoba (also called Areopolis or Aresopolis), on the Karak plateau, was probably the Biblical Ir-Moab conquered by Alexander Jannaeus. Its ruins are 18 kilometers north of Kerak in Jordan. Rabbath-Moba minted coins during the reigns of the Severan emperors between 193 and 222 A.D.RY94929. Bronze AE 31, Sofaer 10 (same dies); cf. Spijkerman p. 268, 18 (dated PE); Meshorer City Coins 271; SNG ANS -; Rosenberger IV -, F, dark green patina, scratches, pit on reverse, irregular flan edge, weight 14.582 g, maximum diameter 31.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rabbathmoba (near Kerak, Jordan) mint, c. 210 - 211 A.D.; obverse IOYΛIA CEBACTH, draped bust right; reverse PABBAΘMΩBA, cult statue of Ares standing facing in military dress on a high base with pilasters, short sword erect in right hand, spear and round shield in left hand, base flanked on each side by a flaming altar, no date; from the Ray Nouri Collection; rare; $135.00 (€110.70)
Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.
In 231, Severus Alexander accompanied his mother Julia Mamaea to Syria and campaigned against the Persians. Military command rested in the hands of his generals, but his presence gave additional weight to the empire's policy. The Romans were defeated and withdrew to Syria. After heavy losses on both sides, a truce was signed accepting the status quo. In 233, Alexander celebrated a triumph in Rome to commemorate his "victory."RB89054. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 635, BMCRE VI 843, Cohen IV 163, Hunter III 163, SRCV II 7979, VF, dark patina, centered on an oval flan, small edge cracks, slight double strike, weight 20.911 g, maximum diameter 33.6 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 231 - 235 A.D.; obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate,draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse MARS VLTOR (Mars the avenger), Mars advancing right in military garb, spear transverse in right hand, shield in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; ex John Jencek; $120.00 (€98.40)
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Rabbathmoba-Areopolis, Arabia
Rabbathmoba (also called Areopolis or Aresopolis), on the Karak plateau, was probably the Biblical Ir-Moab conquered by Alexander Jannaeus. Its ruins are 18 kilometers north of Kerak in Jordan. Rabbath-Moba minted coins during the reigns of the Severan emperors between 193 and 222 A.D.RY94947. Bronze AE 27, cf. SNG ANS 1414, Sofaer 6, Spijkerman 8, Rosenberger IV -, Meshorer City-Coins -, F, light earthen deposits, parts of legends off flan/unstruck, reverse off center, small edge split, weight 8.132 g, maximum diameter 26.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rabbathmoba (near Kerak, Jordan) mint, 9 Apr 193 - 4 Feb 211 A.D.; obverse [AVT KAI Λ CEΠ - CE]OV ΠEB (or similar), laureate head right; reverse RABBAΘM-[WBWN APHC] (or similar), cult statue of Ares standing facing on platform with four legs set on base, wearing military dress, sword erect in right hand, spear and round shield in left hand; from the Ray Nouri Collection; rare; $90.00 (€73.80)
Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.
Mars is usually depicted nude and Virtus in military garb, but this figure is identified as Mars because it appears to be male.RA94172. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 636a, RSC IV 1322, Cunetio 1278, Normanby 264, SRCV III 10416, RIC V-1 S330 (S) corr. (obv. leg.), Hunter IV - (p. lxiv), aVF, tight flan cutting off much of legend, ragged edge, weight 1.953 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 180o, 10th offficina, Rome mint, 261 - 262 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse VIRTVS AVGVSTI (to the valor of the Emperor), Mars (or Virtus) standing left, helmeted, right foot on helmet, wearing military garb, olive branch in right hand, inverted spear in left, foot on helmet, X left; scarce; $60.00 (€49.20)
Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.
Virtus was a specific virtue in ancient Rome. It carried connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). Virtus applied exclusively to a man's behavior in the public sphere, that is to the application of duty to the res publica in the cursus honorum. Private business was no place to earn virtus, even when it involved courage or feats of arms or other good qualities. There could be no virtue in exploiting one's manliness in the pursuit of personal wealth, for example. It was thus a frequently stated virtue of Roman emperors and was personified as the deity Virtus.RA73256. Billon antoninianus, Webb Carausius 1172, RIC V-2 1040 (R), Hunter IV -, SRCV IV -, Burton Latimer -, Bicester -, F, green patina, obverse slightly off center, earthen deposits, scratches, weight 2.586 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 225o, unmarked mint, c. mid 286 - 287; obverse IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS AVG (courage of the Emperor), Virtus (or Mars) standing right, helmeted and draped, spear vertical in left hand, right hand resting on large grounded shield, no mint marks; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; rare; $50.00 (€41.00)
Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.
Although Ares was viewed by the Greeks primarily as destructive and destabilizing, worthy of contempt and revulsion, for the Romans, Mars was a father (pater) of the Roman people. He was the father of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. In early Rome, he was second in importance only to Jupiter, and the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Latin Martius), and in October, which began and ended the season for military campaigning and farming.RA73268. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 844 (S), Webb 940, Hunter IV -, SRCV IV -, aF, well centered, nice green patina, weight 3.971 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain British mint, c. mid 286 - 287; obverse IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG, radiate and draped bust right, early reign "moustache" portrait; reverse MARS VICTOR (Mars the Victor), Mars walking right, transverse spear in right hand, trophy over shoulder in left, no field marks, nothing in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; scarce; $50.00 (€41.00)