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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Judean & Biblical Coins| ▸ |Herodian Dynasty||View Options:  |  |  |   

Herodian Dynasty, 37 B.C. - 92 A.D.

The Herodian dynasty was a royal dynasty of Idumaean (Edomite) descent, ruling the Herodian Kingdom and later the Herodian Tetrarchy, as a vassal state of the Roman Empire. The Herodian dynasty began with Herod the Great, who assumed the throne of Judea, with Roman support bringing down the century long Hasmonean Kingdom. His kingdom lasted until his death in 4 B.C., when it was divided between his sons as a Tetrarchy, which lasted for about 10 years. Most of those tetrarchies, including Judea proper, were incorporated into the Roman Judaea Province from 6 A.D., though limited Herodian de facto kingship continued until Agrippa I's death in 44 A.D. and nominal title of kingship continued until 92 A.D., when the last Herodian monarch, Agrippa II, died and Rome assumed full power over his domain.

Judean Kingdom, Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C.

|Herod| |the| |Great|, |Judean| |Kingdom,| |Herod| |the| |Great,| |37| |-| |4| |B.C.||eight| |prutot|
Matthew (2:1-23) describes the Massacre of the Innocents. Wise men from the East visited Herod to inquire the whereabouts of "the one having been born king of the Jews," because they had seen his star. Herod, as King of the Jews, was alarmed. The chief priests, citing Micah 5:2, told Herod the anointed one would be born in Bethlehem. Herod sent the "wise men" to Bethlehem, instructing them to "report to me, so that I too may go and worship him." However, the Magi were warned in a dream not to report back to Herod. Joseph was warned in a dream that Herod intended to kill Jesus, so he and his family fled to Egypt. When Herod realized he had been outwitted, he gave orders to kill all boys of the age of two and under in Bethlehem and its vicinity. Joseph and his family stayed in Egypt until Herod's death, then moved to Nazareth. Herod was guilty of many brutal acts, including killing his wife and two sons, but no other source from the period refers to the massacre. Bethlehem was a small village, the number of male children under the age of two might not have exceed 20, and this may be the reason for the lack of other sources for this history.
JD111099. Copper eight prutot, Hendin 6204; Meshorer TJC 44; Meshorer AJC II 1; BMC Palestine p. 220, 1; RPC I 4901 HGC 10 651, F, off center, weight 6.129 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 0o, Samaria mint, 40/39 or 38/37 B.C.; obverse HPΩΔOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ (Greek: of King Herod), tripod, ceremonial bowl (lebes) above, LΓ - P (year 3 of the tetrarchy = 40 B.C.) across fields; reverse military helmet facing, with cheek pieces and straps, wreathed with acanthus leaves, star above, flanked by two palm-branches; scarce; $250.00 SALE PRICE $225.00


Judean Kingdom, Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C.

|Herod| |the| |Great|, |Judean| |Kingdom,| |Herod| |the| |Great,| |37| |-| |4| |B.C.||2| |prutot|
Meshorer TJC 48 and 48a are described with an open diadem but the plate coins have closed diadems. The diadems on Meshorer 49 are open. This coin appears to have an open diadem.
JD111337. Bronze 2 prutot, Meshorer TJC p. 222 & pl. 44, 49; Sofaer 19; Hendin 6211a (S); HGC 10 654; RPC I 4905; BMC Palestine p. 223, 28 ff., VF, well centered with full legend, dark patina, highlighting earthen deposits, weight 2.911 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis 315o, Jerusalem mint, c. 30 B.C.; obverse HPΩΔOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ (Greek: of King Herod), cross surrounded by a open diadem; reverse shallow bowl on a tripod table, flanked by curved palm branches; scarce; $225.00 SALE PRICE $203.00


Herod Archelaus, Ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.

|Herod| |Archelaus|, |Herod| |Archelaus,| |Ethnarch| |of| |Samaria,| |Judea,| |and| |Idumea,| |4| |B.C.| |-| |6| |A.D.||prutah|
Herod's most famous and ambitious project was his magnificent expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 20 - 19 B.C. Although work on out-buildings continued another eighty years, the new Temple was finished in a year and a half. To comply with religious law, Herod employed 1,000 priests as masons and carpenters. The temple was destroyed in 70 A.D. Today, only the four retaining walls of the Temple Mount remain standing, including the Western Wall.
JD98786. Bronze prutah, cf. Meshorer TJC 68f, Hendin 6223 (S), RPC Online I 4912, Sofaer 62 (cruder than published specimens), VF, crude style, dark patina, highlighting earthen deposits, tight flan, uneven strike, remnant of pre-strike casting sprue, weight 0.844 g, maximum diameter 13.9 mm, die axis 135o, Jerusalem mint, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.; obverse HPΩΔ (or similar, Greek abbreviation: of King Herod), anchor; reverse two cornucopias splayed outward, adorned with ribbons, caduceus between horns, N(?) (blundered Greek, abbreviating Ethnarch) above; from an Israeli collection; rare crude variant; $220.00 SALE PRICE $198.00


Judaean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa II, c. 49 - 95 A.D., for Domitian

|Agrippa| |II|, |Judaean| |Kingdom,| |Herod| |Agrippa| |II,| |c.| |49| |-| |95| |A.D.,| |for| |Domitian||full| |unit|
We use the dating provided by RPC Online, which adopts 60/61 A.D. for year 1 of the era used by Agrippa II. This solves a number of issues with previous dating schemes, but adds the oddity of a large number of issues of posthumous coinage for Vespasian and Titus. This coin struck for Titus, for example; dated year 30 using this era is 89/90 A.D. Titus died in 81 B.C.
JD98848. Bronze full unit, Hendin 6328 (RR); RPC Online II 2296; BMC Palestine p. 243, 56; SNG ANS 315; Meshorer TJC 179; Sofaer p. 268 & pl. 218, 260, gF, well centered, earthen encrustation, edge split, weight 10.858 g, maximum diameter 26.2 mm, die axis 0o, Caesarea Paneas (Banias, Golan Heights) mint, 94 - 95 A.D.; obverse AYTOKPA ΔOMITIA KAICAP A ΓEPMANI (Emperor Domitian Caesar Germanicus), laureate head of Titus right; reverse Tyche-Demeter standing slightly left, head left, stalks of barley in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, ETOY - EΛ BA / AΓPI-ΠΠA (year 35, King Agrippa) in two lines divided across the field below center; from an Israeli collection; rare; $180.00 SALE PRICE $162.00


Herod Archelaus, Ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.

|Herod| |Archelaus|, |Herod| |Archelaus,| |Ethnarch| |of| |Samaria,| |Judea,| |and| |Idumea,| |4| |B.C.| |-| |6| |A.D.||prutah|
Grapes, the vine and wine were an important part of the ancient economy and ritual. Grapes were brought to the Temple as offerings of the first-fruits and wine was offered upon the altar. The vine and grapes decorated the sacred vessels in the sanctuary and a golden vine with clusters of grapes stood at its entrance.
JD110301. Bronze prutah, Hendin 6227; Meshorer TJC 73; BMC Palestine p. 232, 10; SGICV 5539; RPC I 4917, VF, well centered, green patina, highlighting earthen deposits, prominent sprue cuts, reverse edge beveled, weight 2.272 g, maximum diameter 16.5 mm, die axis 315o, Jerusalem mint, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.; obverse HPΩΔOY (Greek: of Herod), bunch of grapes, leaf on left; reverse EΘNOPXOY (Greek: Ethnarch), tall helmet with crest and neck straps viewed from the front, small caduceus in lower left field; from an Israeli collection; $180.00 SALE PRICE $162.00


Judean Kingdom, Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C.

|Herod| |the| |Great|, |Judean| |Kingdom,| |Herod| |the| |Great,| |37| |-| |4| |B.C.||prutah|
Herod the Great, a Roman client king of Judea, has been described as a madman who murdered his own family and a great many rabbis, prepared to commit any crime in order to gratify his unbounded ambition, and as the greatest builder in Jewish history. He is known for his colossal building projects throughout Judea, including his expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, the construction of the port at Caesarea Maritima, the fortress at Masada and Herodium. Vital details of his life are recorded in the works of the 1st century Roman-Jewish historian Josephus.
JD98783. Bronze prutah, Hendin 6207 (R); RPC Online I 4904; Meshorer TJC 47; HGC 10 655 (S); BMC Palestine p. 222, 18; Cohen DCA 807, F, obverse off center, earthen deposits, porous, reverse edge beveled, weight 2.951 g, maximum diameter 15.3 mm, die axis 0o, Samaria mint, 37 B.C.; obverse palm frond, uncertain objects (leaves?) on both sides; reverse HPΩΔOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ (Greek: of King Herod), aphlaston, LΓ (year 3) left, P right; from an Israeli collection; rare; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00


Herod Archelaus, Ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.

|Herod| |Archelaus|, |Herod| |Archelaus,| |Ethnarch| |of| |Samaria,| |Judea,| |and| |Idumea,| |4| |B.C.| |-| |6| |A.D.||prutah|NEW
The galley refers to Archelaus' voyage to Rome at the beginning of his reign. His father had modified his will, naming Archelaus' younger brother, Antipas, king. Archelaus appealed to Rome and was awarded a large share of the kingdom and the title ethnarch. The galley reminded those that thought to challenge him that he had the backing of Rome. -- Ancient Jewish Coinage by Ya'akov Meshore
JD111612. Bronze prutah, Hendin 6228; Meshorer TJC 72; Meshorer AJC 5; SNG ANS 243; RPC Online I 4916; BMC Palestine p. 233, 27, Choice aEF/EF, well centered, bold strike, dark green patina, highlighting earthen deposits, edges ragged where flan casting sprues were snapped off, weight 0.964 g, maximum diameter 14.0 mm, die axis 135o, Jerusalem mint, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.; obverse H P W (counterclockwise from below), prow of galley left; reverse EΘN (Ethnarch), surrounded by wreath; from the collection of a Texas clergyman, ex Zuzim Inc. (Isadore Goldstein, Brooklyn, NY); $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00


Judaean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa II, c. 49 - 95 A.D., Struck for Vespasian

|Roman| |Judea| |&| |Palestina|, |Judaean| |Kingdom,| |Herod| |Agrippa| |II,| |c.| |49| |-| |95| |A.D.,| |Struck| |for| |Vespasian||AE| |27|NEW
Herod Agrippa II was a teenager studying in Rome when his father died. He was too young to rule, so his father's kingdom was made a Roman province. In 49 A.D., he was given the kingdom of his uncle Herod of Chalcis as a tetrarchy, with the right to oversee the Temple in Jerusalem and appoint its high priest. In 53, Claudius made him king of areas previously ruled by Philip: Batanea, Trachonitis and Gaulonitis, and Lysanias in Abila. In 55, Nero added Galilee and Peraea. Paul the Apostle pleaded his case before Agrippa at Caesarea Maritima (Acts 26). Agrippa sided with Rome during the Jewish revolt. He ruled until at least 95 A.D. His territories were in Syria, Northern Palestine, and Galilee and excluded Jerusalem and Judaea.
JD111375. Bronze AE 27, RPC Online II 2275; Sofaer 225; BMC Palestine, p. 240, 9; Hendin 6312 (S) var. (no crescent), F, nice portrait for the grade, dark patina, light earthen deposits, some corrosion, weight 15.259 g, maximum diameter 27.4 mm, die axis 0o, Caesarea Paneas (Banias, Golan Heights) mint, 74 - 75 A.D.; obverse AYTOKPA OYECΠA KAICAPI CEBACTW, laureate head of Vespasian right; reverse Tyche-Demeter standing slightly left, head left, wearing kalathos, cornucopia and grain-ears, crescent upper left, ETOY - KΣ BA / AΓPI-ΠΠA (year 26, King Agrippa) in two divided lines across fields below center; scarce; $140.00 SALE PRICE $126.00


Herod Archelaus, Ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.

|Herod| |Archelaus|, |Herod| |Archelaus,| |Ethnarch| |of| |Samaria,| |Judea,| |and| |Idumea,| |4| |B.C.| |-| |6| |A.D.||prutah|
A brockage occurs when a blank is struck with a previously struck coin which adhered to the opposite die. Click here to read a detailed explanation.

In his will, his father named his younger brother king. Archelaus sailed to Rome to appeal and was awarded a share of the kingdom. The galley reminded those that thought to challenge him that he had the backing of Rome.
JD98793. Bronze prutah, Hendin 6228; Meshorer TJC 72; Meshorer AJC 5; SNG ANS 243; RPC Online I 4916; BMC Palestine p. 233, 27, VF, brockage, scratches, green patina, weight 1.070 g, maximum diameter 13.7 mm, die axis 0o, Jerusalem mint, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.; obverse HPΩ (counterclockwise from below, Greek: of Herod), prow of war galley left; reverse incuse of obverse (brockage, normal reverse: EΘN (Greek: Ethnarch), surrounded by wreath); from an Israeli collection; $125.00 SALE PRICE $113.00


Herod Archelaus, Ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.

|Herod| |Archelaus|, |Herod| |Archelaus,| |Ethnarch| |of| |Samaria,| |Judea,| |and| |Idumea,| |4| |B.C.| |-| |6| |A.D.||prutah|
The galley refers to Archelaus' voyage to Rome at the beginning of his reign. His father had modified his will, naming Archelaus' younger brother, Antipas, king. Archelaus appealed to Rome and was awarded a large share of the kingdom and the title ethnarch. The galley reminded those that thought to challenge him that he had the backing of Rome. -- Ancient Jewish Coinage by Ya'akov Meshore
JD110336. Bronze prutah, Hendin 6228; Meshorer TJC 72; Meshorer AJC 5; SNG ANS 243; RPC Online I 4916; BMC Palestine p. 233, 27, Choice VF, well centered, green patina, highlighting earthen deposits, sprue cuts, obverse edge beveled, weight 1.277 g, maximum diameter 14.2 mm, die axis 0o, Jerusalem mint, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.; obverse H P W (counterclockwise from below), prow of galley left; reverse EΘN (Ethnarch), surrounded by wreath; from an Israeli collection; $120.00 SALE PRICE $108.00




  






REFERENCES

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Meshorer, Y. Ancient Jewish Coinage. (New York, 1982).
Meshorer, Y. A Treasury of Jewish Coins from the Persian Period to Bar Kokhba. (Jerusalem, 2001).
Meshorer, Y., et al. Coins of the Holy Land: The Abraham and Marian Sofaer Collection at the American Numismatic Society and The Israel Museum. ACNAC 8. (New York, 2013).
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Roman Provincial Coins (RPC) Online - http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/.
Samuels, C., P. Rynearson & Y. Meshorer. The Numismatic Legacy of the Jews as depicted by a distinguished American Collection. (New York, 2000).
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Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 7: Cyprus to India. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
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