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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Gods, Non-Olympian| ▸ |River God||View Options:  |  |  | 

River Gods
Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D., Tyre, Phoenicia

|Phoenicia|, |Valerian| |I,| |October| |253| |-| |c.| |June| |260| |A.D.,| |Tyre,| |Phoenicia||dichalkon|
Romans refounded Tyre as a colony in 64 B.C., when Pompey annexed Phoenicia to the Roman Empire. Tyre flourished under the Rome and remained a Roman port city, even under the Byzantine Empire, until the 7th century when it was taken by Muslim conquest.
RP96396. Bronze dichalkon, BMC Phoenicia p. 289, 465 var. (murex shell on right); Rouvier -; Baramki AUB -; SNG Hunt -; SNG Cop -, F, rough dark green patina, earthen deposits, weight 16.345 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 0o, Tyre mint, Oct 253 - Jun 260 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, laureate bust right; reverse COL TVRO METR, river-god (Adonis?) standing facing, head left, nude to waist, himation around hips and legs, right hand dropping incense on flaming altar at her feet on left, long grounded reed vertical in left hand, murex shell on left; from the J. Berlin Caesarea Collection, 1971 Caesarea Maritima surface find; Coin Archives records only one specimen of the type at auction in the last two decades; extremely rare; $400.00 (€368.00)
 


Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D., Edessa, Mesopotamia

|Mesopotamia| |&| |Babylonia|, |Severus| |Alexander,| |13| |March| |222| |-| |March| |235| |A.D.,| |Edessa,| |Mesopotamia||AE| |25|NEW
In 230, the Persian King Ardashir I invaded Mesopotamia. Ancient historians disagree about the success or failure of Alexander's counterattack against Persia in 232, but there is no doubt that Alexander had enough success to recover Edessa and make the town the "Metropolis Colony of the Edessans." No documents mention this event but it is clearly attested on the coins, including this one. Both sides suffered heavy losses and agreed to a truce. In 233, Severus Alexander celebrated a triumph in Rome to observe his "victory."
RY92578. Bronze AE 25, SNG Cop 215; SNG Hunterian II 2548; BMC Arabia p. 104, 82; Lindgren I 2578 var. (head bare, etc.), VF, black patina with light earthen highlights, weight 9.755 g, maximum diameter 24.8 mm, die axis 150o, Mesopotamia, Edessa (Urfa, Sanliurfa, Turkey) mint, as caesar, 221 - 222 A.D.; obverse M A AΛEΞN∆EPOC KA, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse M A K AVP E∆ECC, Tyche seated left on rocks, wearing turreted crown, veil, and mantle, sacrificing at flaming altar before her, river-god swimming at her feet; from the Errett Bishop Collection; scarce; $160.00 (€147.20)
 


Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt

|Roman| |Egypt|, |Antoninus| |Pius,| |August| |138| |-| |7| |March| |161| |A.D.,| |Roman| |Provincial| |Egypt||drachm|
The Nilometer measured the height of the annual Nile flood. Sixteen cubits was considered the ideal height of the annual Nile flood. Less could mean drought or famine. Even in modern times, grand celebrations were held when the flood reached 16 cubits. In years when the flood failed to reach 16 cubits, the celebrations were canceled, and prayers and fasting were held instead. The peak flood occurred at the end of August, which explains why the Egyptian year began on 29 August.
RX94446. Bronze drachm, Geissen 1708; Savio 2764; Milne 2230; BMC Alexandria p. 136, 1152; Kampmann 35.602; SNG Cop -; Hunterian -, aF, a few pits, edge splits, weight 21.805 g, maximum diameter 39.9 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 153 - 28 Aug 154 A.D.; obverse AYT K T AIΛ A∆P ANTWNINOC CEB EYC, laureate and draped bust right, from behind; reverse Nilus reclining left, reed in right, genius emerging from cornucopia in his left, wearing lotus crown, himation from waist down, domed Nilometer in background on left, L I-Z (year 17) above, crocodile right and water plants below; $95.00 (€87.40)
 


Maximinus I Thrax, March 235 - May 238 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt

|Roman| |Egypt|, |Maximinus| |I| |Thrax,| |March| |235| |-| |May| |238| |A.D.,| |Roman| |Provincial| |Egypt||tetradrachm|
In 237, King Ardashir I of Persia renewed his attacks on the Roman province of Mesopotamia.
RX94235. Billon tetradrachm, Geissen 2585; Dattari 4590; Milne 3285; BMC Alexandria p. 231, 1803; Kampmann 65.67; Emmett 3328/4 (R3), Choice F, well centered, dark brown patina, weight 12.256 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 236 - 28 Aug 237 A.D.; obverse AVTO MAΞIMINOC EVC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust, seen from behind; reverse Nilus reclining left, lotus on head, nude to the waist, himation around hips and legs, cornucopia in left hand, reed in right hand, elbow resting on hippopotamus, date L∆ (year 4) left; $90.00 (€82.80)
 


Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D., Flaviopolis, Cilicia

|Cilicia|, |Domitian,| |13| |September| |81| |-| |18| |September| |96| |A.D.,| |Flaviopolis,| |Cilicia||AE| |23|
Flaviopolis was founded in 74 A.D. by Vespasian, as part of an imperial program for the urbanization of the Cilician Plain. Until then the rural hinterland, as well as the city of Anazarbos, was probably administered by the Tracondimotid dynasty from Hieropolis Castabala. Some mosaic floors, inscriptions, and building blocks have been found at Kadirli, and a 6th century church has been excavated. Flaviopolis was bishopric of Cilicia Secunda in the Christian era.
RB96500. Bronze AE 23, RPC II 1758; SNG BnF 2167; SNG Levante 1530; SNG Cop 135; SNGvA 8670; SNG Hunterian 2376; BMC Lycaonia p. 78, 2; Lindgren-Kovacs 1494, F, dark green patina, light earthen deposits, a little rough/porous, slightly off center, weight 7.180 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 0o, Flaviopolis (Kadirli, Turkey) mint, fall 89 - fall 90 A.D.; obverse ∆OMETIANOC KAICAP, laureate head right; reverse ETOYC ZI (year 17) ΦΛAVIOΠOΛEITΩN, turreted and veiled Tyche seated right on throne, two stalks of grain in her right hand, half-length figure of river god Pyramus swimming right at her feet, his head turned facing ; ex CNG e-auction 463 (11 Mar 2020), lot 210; $80.00 (€73.60)
 


Macedonian Kingdom, Philip V or Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C.

|Macedonian| |Kingdom|, |Macedonian| |Kingdom,| |Philip| |V| |or| |Perseus,| |187| |-| |168| |B.C.||AE| |23|
Philip V was king of Macedonia, 221 - 179 B.C. Philip's reign was principally marked by an unsuccessful struggle with the emerging power of the Roman Republic. He would lead Macedonia against Rome in the First and Second Macedonian Wars, losing the latter but allying with Rome in the Roman-Seleucid War towards the end of his reign. Perseus was the last king of the Antigonid dynasty who ruled in Macedonia, 179 - 168 B.C. After Perseus lost the Battle of Pydna on 22 June 168 B.C., Macedonia came under Roman rule.
GB97605. Copper AE 23, SNG Cop 1298, AMNG III 14, SNG Alpha Bank -, SNG Munchen -, F, dark blue-green patina, crackled rough surface, light earthen deposits, small edge splits, weight 8.393 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 0o, Amphipolis mint, 187 - 168 B.C.; obverse head of river-god, Strymon, right, with short horns and crown of reeds; reverse ornamented trident head, MAKE/∆ONΩN in two flanking upward lines, monograms flanking shaft socket; scarce; $80.00 (€73.60)
 


Macedonian Kingdom, Philip V or Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C.

|Macedonian| |Kingdom|, |Macedonian| |Kingdom,| |Philip| |V| |or| |Perseus,| |187| |-| |168| |B.C.||AE| |23|
This coin was found in Southwestern Bulgaria (Serdi region) in 1997 alongside imitatives of the type struck by the Serdi Celts. The choice was appropriate for the Serdi Celts as the river Strymon runs through the Serdi region.
GB46739. Copper AE 23, SNG Cop 1299, SNG Alpha Bank -, SNG Munchen,, VF, dark green patina, porous, weight 7.113 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 0o, Amphipolis mint, 187 - 168 B.C.; obverse head of river-god, Strymon, right, with short horns and crown of reeds; reverse ornamented trident head, MAKE/∆ONΩN in two flanking upward lines, monograms below; ex Alex G. Malloy Serdi Celts Collection; scarce; $70.00 (€64.40)
 







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REFERENCES|

Imhoof-Blumer, F. "Fluss- und Meergötter auf griechischen und römischen Münzen (Personifikationen der Gewässer)" in RSN 23 (1923), pp. 173-421.
Malloy, A. "The Danubian Celts" in Alex G. Malloy Auction Sale XLVI, June 24, 1997. NumisWiki webpage
Molinari, N.J. & N. Sisci. Potamikon: Sinews of Acheloios. A Comprehensive Catalog of the Bronze Coinage of the Man-Faced Bull, With Essays on Origin and Identity. (Oxford, 2016).

Catalog current as of Monday, May 10, 2021.
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