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Gold Coins
Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander the Great, 336 - 323 B.C.

|Alexander| |the| |Great|, |Macedonian| |Kingdom,| |Alexander| |the| |Great,| |336| |-| |323| |B.C.||stater|NEW
Alexander the Great lifetime issue, struck by his Satrap in Lydia, Menander. Menander, the commander of a force of mercenaries in Alexander's army, was appointed by Alexander as the satrap in Lydia in 331. In 323 B.C., he was commissioned to conduct a reinforcement of troops to Alexander at Babylon, where he arrived there just before Alexander's death. In the division of the provinces after the death of Alexander, Menander received his former government of Lydia. He appears soon to have attached himself to the party of Antigonus. In the new distribution of the provinces at Triparadisus in 321 B.C., he lost the government of Lydia, which was given to Cleitus; but this was probably a promotion by Antigonus, as he commanded part of Antigonus' army in the first campaign against Eumenes in 320 B.C. The following year, Menander learned of the escape of Eumenes from Nora, and advanced with an army into Cappadocia to attack him, forcing him to take refuge in Cilicia. After this, no further mention of Menander is found in history.
SL96805. Gold stater, Price 2537, Müller Alexander 145, SNG Cop 645, ICG AU50 (2064440108), weight c. 8.5 g, maximum diameter 16.5 mm, die axis 0o, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, lifetime issue, c. 334 - 323 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Corinthian helmet ornamented with a coiled snake; reverse Nike standing half left, wreath in extended right hand, stylus in left, tripod lebes with loop handles (control symbol) to left, AΛEΞAN∆POY downward on right; mint luster that is not captured by the photograph; ICG| Lookup; $5200.00 SALE |PRICE| $4680.00
 


Persian Empire, Lydia, Anatolia, Darios I to Xerxes II, c. 485 - 420 B.C.

|Persian| |Lydia|, |Persian| |Empire,| |Lydia,| |Anatolia,| |
Darios| |I| |to| |Xerxes| |II,| |c.| |485| |-| |420| |B.C.||daric|NEW
This type was minted in Lydia, Anatolia, while under Persian control, prior to Alexander the Great's conquest. The Persian or Achaemenid Empire (c. 550 - 330 B.C.) was the largest empire in ancient history extending across Asia, Africa and Europe, including Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of Central Asia, Asia Minor, Thrace and Macedonia, much of the Black Sea coastal regions, Iraq, northern Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine and Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and much of ancient Egypt as far west as Libya.Persian Empire
SL97378. Gold daric, Carradice Type IIIb, Group A/B (pl. XIII, 27); Meadows Administration 321; BMC Arabia pl. XXIV, 26; Sunrise 24; Lydo-Milesian standard, NGC MS, strike 5/5, surface 3/5, flan flaw (4629125-050), weight 8.30 g, maximum diameter 15.8 mm, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, c. 485 - 420 B.C.; obverse kneeling-running figure of the Great King right, bearded, crowned, wearing kidaris and kandys, quiver on shoulder, transverse spear downward in right hand, bow in extended left hand; reverse oblong irregular rectangular incuse punch; ex Heritage auction 231925 (20 Jun 2019), lot 63061; NGC| Lookup; $3500.00 SALE |PRICE| $3150.00
 


Persian Empire, Lydia, Anatolia, Xerxes II - Artaxerxes II, c. 420 - 375 B.C.

|Persian| |Lydia|, |Persian| |Empire,| |Lydia,| |Anatolia,| |Xerxes| |II| |-| |Artaxerxes| |II,| |c.| |420| |-| |375| |B.C.||daric|NEW
This type was minted in Lydia, Anatolia, while under Persian control, prior to Alexander the Great's conquest. The Persian or Achaemenid Empire (c. 550 - 330 B.C.) was the largest empire in ancient history extending across Asia, Africa and Europe, including Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of Central Asia, Asia Minor, Thrace and Macedonia, much of the Black Sea coastal regions, Iraq, northern Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine and Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and much of ancient Egypt as far west as Libya.Persian Empire
SH97377. Gold daric, Carradice Type IIIb, group C (pl. XIV, 42); BMC Arabia pl. XXV, 12; SNG Cop 276; Meadows Administration 323; Sunrise 28, aEF, well centered, edge scrape/damage, weight 8.081 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, c. 420 - 375 B.C.; obverse kneeling-running figure of the Great King right, bearded, crowned, wearing kidaris and kandys, quiver on shoulder, transverse spear downward in right hand, bow in extended left hand; reverse oblong irregular rectangular incuse punch; ex Heritage auction 232040 (30 Sep 2020), lot 61098; $2200.00 SALE |PRICE| $1980.00
 


Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.

|Valens|, |Valens,| |28| |March| |364| |-| |9| |August| |378| |A.D.||solidus|
Valens ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from the Danube to the Persian border. He allowed Goths, who were driven from their home by the Huns, to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by Romans that they rebelled. Valens was defeated and killed by the Goths at the battle of Hadrianople.
SH94513. Gold solidus, RIC IX Antioch 2(c)i3, Depeyrot 30/2, SRCV V 19566, Cohen VIII 32, Hunter V -, VF, well centered, bumps, marks, scratches, slight bend, weight 4.345 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 180o, 6th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, Oct 367 - end 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENS PER F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, emperor standing facing, head right, vexillum with cross on flag in right hand, Victory standing on globe presenting wreath in left hand, ANTS (S recut over Z) in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $1250.00 SALE |PRICE| $1125.00
 


Byzantine Empire, Justin I, 10 July 518 - 1 August 527 A.D.

|Justin| |I|, |Byzantine| |Empire,| |Justin| |I,| |10| |July| |518| |-| |1| |August| |527| |A.D.||solidus|NEW
They look similar, but there is a significant physical difference between angels and Victory. Angels are all male. Victory (Nike) is female. On Byzantine coinage, the male angel replaced the female Victory after the reunion with Rome was concluded on 28 March 519 A.D.
SL96954. Gold solidus, DOC I 2i, Wroth BMC 5, Morrisson BnF 2/Cp/AV/12, Sommer 2.2.2, Tolstoi 8, Ratto 385, Hahn MIB I 3, SBCV 56, NGC Ch XF, edge bend, clipped (4284830-013), 10th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 522 - 527 A.D.; obverse D N IVSTI-NVS P P AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, helmet with plume and diadem, pellets on cuirass, spear in right hand and behind head, shield on left arm ornamented with mounted cavalryman right attacking prostrate enemy; reverse VICTORIA AVGGG I (victory of the three emperors, 10th officina), angel standing facing, long cross in right hand, globus cruciger in left hand, star right, CONOB in exergue; NGC| Lookup; $1000.00 SALE |PRICE| $900.00
 


Byzantine Empire, Justin I, 10 July 518 - 1 August 527 A.D.

|Justin| |I|, |Byzantine| |Empire,| |Justin| |I,| |10| |July| |518| |-| |1| |August| |527| |A.D.||solidus|NEW
This type is not rare, but apparently the 7th officina was not very active during this issue. Hahn identifies three specimens from the 7th officina, one from his own collection, but the 7th officina, is missing from the Dumbarton Oaks, British Museum, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Tolstoi and Ratto collections. Dumbarton Oaks and the other collections do list the type from other officinae - see DOC I 1a - 1h.2, Morrisson BnF 2/Cp/AV/3-12, Tolstoi 11-16, Ratto 381-382. Wroth BMC does not list the type but Sear notes this is only an error.
SL96956. Gold solidus, Hahn MIB 2 (3 spec., one from his own collection), SBCV 55, Sommer 2.1, DOC I -, Tolstoi -, Ratto -, Wroth BMC -, Morrison BnF -, Ch XF, wrinkled, marks (4284830-010), 7th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 518 - 519 A.D.; obverse D N IVSTI-NVS P P AVI, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, helmet with plume, diadem and trefoil ornament, spear in right hand over shoulder and behind head, shield on left arm ornamented with mounted cavalryman right attacking prostrate enemy; reverse VICTORI-A AVCCC Z (victory of the three emperors, 7th officina), Victoria standing half left, head left, long staff topped with an inverted staurogram (P) in right hand, star left, CONOB in exergue; NGC| Lookup; rare from 7th officina; $1000.00 SALE |PRICE| $900.00
 


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius, 5 October 610 - 11 January 641 A.D.

|Heraclius|, |Byzantine| |Empire,| |Heraclius,| |5| |October| |610| |-| |11| |January| |641| |A.D.||solidus|
On 4 October 610 A.D., Heraclius arrived at Constantinople with a fleet from Africa. Assisted by an uprising in the capital, he overthrew Phocas, who was killed by the mob. Heraclius gained the throne with help from his father Heraclius the Elder. His first major act was to change the official language of the Eastern Roman Empire from Latin to Greek (already the language of the vast majority of the population).
SH94510. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 3d; Morrison BnF 10/Cp/AV/07; Tolstoi 10; Sommer 11.3; Hahn MIB 5; SBCV 731; Wroth BMC -; Ratto -, aEF, nice luster, well centered slightly uneven strike, light marks, weight 4.440 g, maximum diameter 21.9 mm, die axis 180o, 10th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 5 Oct 610 - 613 A.D.; obverse D N hERACLI-VS PP AVC, bust facing with short beard and mustache, wearing helmet and chlamys, helmet with cross on arc and plum, cross in right hand; reverse VICTORIA AVGy I (victory of the Emperor, 10th officina), cross potent on three steps, CONOB below; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarce; $900.00 SALE |PRICE| $810.00
 


Byzantine Empire, Justinian I, 4 April 527 - 14 November 565 A.D.

|Justinian| |I|, |Byzantine| |Empire,| |Justinian| |I,| |4| |April| |527| |-| |14| |November| |565| |A.D.||solidus|NEW
Justinian's sole rule lasted almost four decades during which he re-conquered N. Africa, Italy, and parts of Spain, codified the legal system, and built St. Sophia. Unfortunately, he depleted the treasure built by Anastasius and most of his territory gains were lost shortly after his death.
SL96953. Gold solidus, DOC I 3h, Wroth BMC 5, Tolstoi 8, Ratto 443, Hahn MIB I 5, Sommer 4.1, SBCV 137, Morrisson BnF I -, NGC XF, clipped (4284830-004), 9th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 527 - 538 A.D.; obverse D N IVSTINIANVS P P AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, helmet with plume, diadem and trefoil ornament, spear in right hand over shoulder and behind head, shield on left arm ornamented with mounted cavalryman right attacking prostrate enemy; reverse VICTORIA AVGGG Θ (victory of the three emperors, 9th officina), angel standing facing, wearing chiton and peplos, long cross in right hand, globus cruciger in left hand, star right, CONOB in exergue; NGC| Lookup; $900.00 SALE |PRICE| $810.00
 


Anastasius, 11 April 491 - 1 July 518 A.D.

|Anastasius| |I|, |Anastasius,| |11| |April| |491| |-| |1| |July| |518| |A.D.||solidus|NEW
Anastasius converted the government to monetary payments, mandating that taxes be paid with cash rather than with goods, and also paying for goods and services with cash. This practice decreased the potential for embezzlement and the need for transportation and storage of supplies. It also allowed for easier accounting. He eliminated the practice of providing soldiers with their arms and uniforms; instead he allotted each soldier a generous sum of money with which to purchase their own. These changes to imperial policy seem to have worked well; taxpayers often paid smaller tax bills than they had before, while government revenue increased. The increase in revenue allowed the emperor to pay soldiers a higher wage, which attracted native Roman soldiers to the military, as opposed to the barbarian and Isaurian mercenaries which some previous emperors had been forced to rely on.
SL96957. Gold solidus, DOC I 7j, Tolstoi 9, Ratto 321, Morrisson BnF 1/Cp/AV/14, Hahn MIBE 7, Sommer 1.4, SBCV 5, Wroth BMC -, XF, pierced, bent and straightened (4284830-017), 10th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 507 - 518 A.D.; obverse D N ANASTA-SIVS P P AVC, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, helmet with plume, trefoil ornament and diadem, pellets on cuirass, spear in right hand and behind head, shield on left arm ornamented with mounted cavalryman right attacking prostrate enemy; reverse VICTORI-A AVCCC I (victory of the three emperors, 10th officina), Victoria standing half left, head left, long staff topped with an inverted staurogram (P) in right hand, star left, CONOB in exergue; NGC| Lookup; $900.00 SALE |PRICE| $810.00
 


Byzantine Empire, Justin I, 10 July 518 - 1 August 527 A.D.

|Anastasius| |I|, |Byzantine| |Empire,| |Justin| |I,| |10| |July| |518| |-| |1| |August| |527| |A.D.||solidus|NEW
They look similar, but there is a significant physical difference between angels and Victory. Angels are all male. Victory (Nike) is female. On Byzantine coinage, the male angel replaced the female Victory after the reunion with Rome was concluded on 28 March 519 A.D.
SL96958. Gold solidus, DOC I 1f, Hahn MIB 2, Sommer 2.1, SBCV 55, Morrisson BnF -, Wroth BMC -, Tolstoi -, Ratto -, Ch XF, wrinkled, clipped (4284830-018), 8th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 518 - 519 A.D.; obverse D N IVSTI-NVS P P AVI, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, helmet with plume, diadem and trefoil ornament, spear in right hand over shoulder and behind head, shield on left arm ornamented with mounted cavalryman right attacking prostrate enemy; reverse VICTORI-A AVCCC H (victory of the three emperors, 8th officina), Victoria standing half left, head left, long staff topped with an inverted staurogram (P) in right hand, star left, CONOB in exergue; NGC| Lookup; $900.00 SALE |PRICE| $810.00
 




  



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REFERENCES

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Calicó, X. The Roman Avrei. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain. (Paris, 1880 - 1892).
Estiot, S. "L'Or romain entre crise et restitution (270-276 apr. J.-C.). I. Aurélien" in Journal des Savants 1 (1999), pp. 51-148.
Giard, J., P. Besombes & S. Estiot. Monnaies de l'Empire romain. Bibliothèque nationale de France. (Paris, 1998 - ).
Göbl, R., et al. Moneta Imperii Romani. (Vienna, 1984 - present).
Mattingly, H. & E. Sydenham, et al. The Roman Imperial Coinage. (London, 1926 - 2020).
Mattingly, H. & R. Carson. Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum. (London, 1923 - 1963).
Monnaies de l'Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276 (RIC V Online) http://www.ric.mom.fr
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow. (Oxford, 1962 - 1982).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values. (London, 2000 - 2014).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

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