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Hadrian, one of the "Five Good Emperors," abandoned the expansionist policy of Trajan and established a policy of defense and consolidation during which Hadrian's Wall in Britain was constructed. He traveled to nearly every province of the Empire, more than any other emperor, often ordering grandiose building programs to improve infrastructure and the quality of life in those regions. An ardent admirer of Greece, he sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire and ordered the construction of many opulent temples in the city. He spent much of his time with the military; usually wore military attire and even dined and slept amongst the soldiers. He ordered military training and drilling to be more rigorous and made use of false reports of attack to keep the army alert. He suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming the province Syria Palaestina.
Pergamon, Mysia, c. 134 A.D.
Eurypylos was a Mysian hero of the Trojan War. His image is otherwise unknown on coinage. Like Bellerophon at Corinth and Dionysos at Tium, this image of a local hero appears modeled on Antinous. Homer (Odyssey 11.522) has Odysseus say that Eurypylus was, next to Memnon, the most beautiful man he had ever seen.
The strategos I. Pollion is named on several coin types of Pergamon during the reign of Hadrian, including one for Sabina (RPC III 1737) and another for Antinous (RPC III, 1738).
The link between Pergamon and Paphos, evidenced by this coin, is not well understood. However, the same reverse was used, from Hadrian to Philip I, on coins struck to honor an alliance between Sardes and Paphos.RP96071. Orichalcum dupondius, RPC Online III 1740 (4 spec.), SNG BnF 1897, Weber 5206, SNG Cop -, BMC Mysia -, F, porous, reverse off center, countermark obscure, weight 11.652 g, maximum diameter 26.5 mm, die axis 0o, Pergamon mint, time of Hadrian, c. 134 A.D.; obverse HPΩC EYPYΠYΛOC (Hero Eurypylos), head of hero Eurypylos (with the features of Antinous) right, flowing hair, uncertain oval countermark; reverse ΠEPΓAMHNΩN EΠI CTP ΠΩΛΛIΩNOC (Pergamon, struck under strategos Pollion), temple of Aphrodite at Paphos, in which conical xoanon, semicircular walled courtyard, ΠAΦIA (of Paphos) across the courtyard; extremely rare, the 5th known; $1200.00 SALE |PRICE| $1080.00
Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and to make provision for the future. This ability was considered essential for the emperor and providentia was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the imperial cult. Cicero said that providentia, memoria (memory) and intellegentia (understanding) are the three main components of prudentia, the knowledge what is good or bad or neither.RB95780. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC II-3 260 (S), BMCRE III 1203, Hunter II 358, SRCV II 3625, Cohen II 1207 var. (no drapery), Choice aEF, dark patina, light deposits, spots of corrosion, weight 27.215 g, maximum diameter 35.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 119 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III, laureate bust right, bare chest, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse PROVIDENTIA DEORVM (to the foresight of the gods), Hadrian standing facing, togate, lituus (or scroll?) in left hand, head left looking at eagle flying right with scepter held in talons, extending right hand to receive scepter from eagle, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; scarce; $1100.00 SALE |PRICE| $990.00
Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one snake bringing another snake healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.RB95777. Copper as, RIC II-3 2172 (R3), Cohen II 1344, BMCRE III 1622 var. (no drapery), SRCV II -, Hunter II - (p. lxv), VF, dark green and brown patina, smoothing, edge crack, weight 12.493 g, maximum diameter 26.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 134 - 138 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate and draped bust right; reverse SALVS AVG (the health of the Emperor), Salus seated left, altar before her (no snake visible on this coin), patera in right hand, left forearm rests on back of throne, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; ex CNG e-auction 421 (30 May 2018), lot 623; ex CNG e-auction 375 (1 Jun 2016) lot 687; very rare; $330.00 SALE |PRICE| $297.00
Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D., Caesarea Maritima, Samaria
Caesarea, about 30 miles north of Joppa and about 70 miles northwest of Jerusalem, was the capital of the Roman province of Judaea, the seat of the procurators, and the headquarters of the Roman troops. It was founded by Herod the Great and named after Caesar Augustus.JD93012. Bronze AE 32, Hendin 836, SNG ANS 766, Rosenberger 24, Kadman Caesarea 27, F, green patina, grainy, earthen deposits, weight 18.384 g, maximum diameter 31.6 mm, die axis 0o, Caesarea Maritima mint, obverse IMP TRA HADRIANO CAES AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse COL I FL AVG, Hadrian, as priest-founder, plowing right with oxen, Nike flying left above holding wreath, CAESAREN in exergue; from The Jimi Berlin Caesarea Collection (surface find, Caesarea, Israel, 1972); $300.00 SALE |PRICE| $190.00 ON RESERVE
Hadrian toured Greece, 124 - 125, made a detour to Sicily, and returned to Italy in 126. He left again in 128 to visit Africa. Hadrian returned to Italy in the summer of 128 but his stay was brief and he set off on another tour that would last three years. Hadrian's galley reverse types refer to his travels to the provinces and his safe return.RB92428. Copper as, BMCRE III 1342, Hunter II 422, RIC II-3 820, SRCV II 3682, Cohen II 446 var. (no drapery), aVF, nice portrait, nice galley, well centered, light deposits, scattered light corrosion, part of obv. legend weak, weight 10.699 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 125 - 128 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse COS III, galley right with rowers; ram, acrostolium, and vexillum (or furled sail) at prow; rudder and arched cabin at stern; S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $150.00 SALE |PRICE| $135.00
Fides is the Roman goddess or deification of good faith, fidelity, loyalty, and honesty.RB92425. Orichalcum dupondius, RIC II-3 867, BMCRE III 1322, Strack II 610, Cohen II 388, SRCV II 3658, Hunter II 392 var. (no drapery), F, excellent portrait, dark patina, nice portrait, legends weak, edge crack, weight 10.654 g, maximum diameter 26.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 126 - 127 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, radiate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse COS III, Fides standing half right, head right, stalks of grain downward at side in right, platter of fruit at shoulder in left, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.RB92430. Copper as, RIC II-3 676, Hunter II 376, Cohen II 1142, Strack II 575, BMCRE III 1267 var. (no cuirass), SRCV II 3688 var. (head), VF, well centered on a tight flan, nice portrait, rough corrosion, weight 9.716 g, maximum diameter 25.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 121 - 122 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed, bust right; reverse P M TR P COS III, Pax standing half left, head left, olive branch downward in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across lower half of field; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
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