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Lycia, on the southern coast of Anatolia, was first recorded in the Late Bronze Age records of ancient Egypt and the Hittite Empire. In 546 B.C. when Lycia was involuntary incorporated into the Persian Empire, the local population was decimated, and the area received an influx of Persians. Lycia fought for Persia in the Persian Wars. Intermittently free after the Greeks defeated the Achaemenid Empire, it briefly joined the Athenian Empire, it seceded and became independent, was under the Persians again, revolted again, was conquered by Mausolus of Caria, returned to the Persians, and went under Macedonian hegemony at the defeat of the Persians by Alexander the Great. Lycia was totally Hellenized under the Macedonians. The Lycian language disappeared from inscriptions and coinage. On defeating Antiochus III in 188 the Romans gave Lycia to Rhodes for 20 years, taking it back in 168 B.C. The Romans allowed home rule under the Lycian League, a federation with republican principles, which later influenced the framers of the United States Constitution. In 43 A.D. Claudius dissolved the league and made Lycia a Roman province. It was an eparchy of Byzantine Empire. A substantial Christian Greek community lived in Lycia until the 1920s when they were forced to migrate to Greece following the Greco-Turkish War.
Lycian Dynasts, Mithrapata, c. 380 - 375 B.C
SH19453. Silver stater, Podalia Hoard 110, aEF, weight 9.747 g, maximum diameter 29.3 mm, die axis 0o, reverse MEXPAΠA-TA, large triskeles, facing bust of Hermes lower left, all in incuse square; irregular oval shaped flan; rare; SOLD
Oinoanda, Lycia, 2nd Century B.C.
SH20828. Silver didrachm, cf. BMC Lycia 73 and SGCV II 5318 (listed as unique), near Mint State, with luster, weight 7.643 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 0o, obverse laureate head of Zeus right, B and lotus scepter behind; reverse OINOAN/∆EΩN, eagle standing right on thunderbolt, Γ and grape cluster right; very rare; SOLD
Persian Empire, Dynasts of Lycia, Kherei, c. 440 - 410 B.C.
Lycia had a single monarch, who ruled the entire country, subject to Persian policy, from a palace at Xanthos. The monarchy was hereditary, hence the term "dynast" has come into use among English-speaking scholars. Lycian inscriptions indicate the monarch was titled khntawati. The names of the dynasts are known mostly from coin inscriptions.SH83587. Silver stater, Hurter New 1-6 (same rev. die); CNG mail bid 69, lot 472 (same dies, obv. die also very worn); Mørkholm-Zahle II -; Falghera -; SNG Cop -, Fair/gVF, toned, choice reverse, struck with a very worn obverse die, weight 8.860 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 180o, Xanthos mint, c. 440 - 410 B.C.; obverse bull crouching left with head raised, attacked by lion right leaping on its back; reverse bull standing left, Lycian triskeles above, dotted border, all within incuse square; ex Roma Numismatics e-sale 21, lot 359; extremely rare; SOLD
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Hill, G. A Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum, Lycia, Pamphylia, and Pisidia. (London, 1897).
Hurter, S. "A New Lycian Coin Type: Kherêi, Not Kuperlis" in INJ 14 (2000-2).
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Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol. 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sear, D. Greek Imperial Coins and Their Values. (London, 1982). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Volume 6: Phrygia to Cilicia. (West Milford, NJ, 1982). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, |Part 6: Phrygien-Kappadokien; Römische Provinzprägungen in Kleinasien. (Berlin, 1998). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 2: Caria, Lydia, Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia. (Berlin, 1962). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Finland, The Erkki Keckman Collection in the Skopbank, Helsinki, Part II: Asia Minor except Karia. (Helsinki, 1999). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain IV, Fitzwilliam Museum, Leake and General Collections, Part 7: Asia Minor: Lycia-Cappadocia. (London, 1967). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey 1: The Muharrem Kayhan Collection. (Istanbul, 2002). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, United States, Burton Y. Berry Collection; Part 2. Megaris to Egypt. (New York, 1962).
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