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Magnus Magnentius was proclaimed emperor on 18 January 350 at Autun (Gaul) with support of the army on the Rhine frontier. Constans fled to Spain, where he was assassinated at Castrum Helenae. In the spring 351, Constans' brother Constantius marched West with 60,000 men to remove Magnus Magnentius but it would take more than two years to defeat him. In 352, Constantius II invaded northern Italy in pursuit of the usurper Magnus Magnentius, who withdrew with his army to Gaul. Constantius declared an amnesty for Magnentius' soldiers, many of whom deserted to him. By the end of the year Constantius entered Milan.RL87846. Billon heavy maiorina, RIC VIII Lyons 7 (R), LRBC II 7, Bastien MM 107, SRCV V 18815, Cohen VII 70, VF, brown tone, small crowded flan, edge cracks, uneven strike with weak areas, weight 4.310 g, maximum diameter 24.7 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Ambianum (Amiens, France) mint, 351 - 352 A.D.; obverse D N MAGNENTIVS P F AVG, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, A behind; reverse VICTORIAE DD NN AVG ET CAE (victories of our lords, Emperor and Caesar), two Victories flanking and holding wreath resting on column, containing VOT V MVLT X, AMB followed by a branch exergue; rare; $135.00 (€118.80)
Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
In 320, Crispus, eldest son of Constantine I, led a victorious campaign against the Franks, assuring twenty years of peace along the Rhine frontier. He established his residence in Augusta Treverorum (modern Trier), capital of Germania.RL20963. Billon centenionalis, Paolucci-Zub 255a, RIC VII Aquileia 48, SRCV IV 16323, Cohen VII 690, Choice gVF, well centered, nice portrait, some silvering, weight 3.122 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 330o, 1st officina, Aquileia mint, 320 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS EXERCIT (courage of the army), vexillum inscribed VOT / XX, two captives seated at base facing outward, the one on the left with hands bound behind, the one on the right looking back left, S left, F right, AQP in exergue; from the Scott Collection, ex Beast Coins (2007); $120.00 (€105.60)
Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.
The reverse announces that Antoninus Pius has completed vows (prayers and sacrifices) to ask the gods for 30 years of rule. In a religious context, votum, plural vota, is a vow or promise made to a deity. The word comes from the past participle of voveo, vovere; as the result of the verbal action, a vow, or promise. The votum is an aspect of the contractual nature of Roman religion and sacrifice, a bargaining expressed by "do ut des" (I give that you might give).RS89452. Silver denarius, RIC III 294b(a), RSC II 1126a, BMCRE IV 956, Strack 342, Hunter II -, SRCV II -, Choice VF, nice portrait, excellent centering, flow lines, some mild porosity, edge cracks, weight 2.985 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 158 - 159 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII (Antoninus Augustus, father of the county, holder of tribune power 22 years), laureate head right; reverse VOTA SVSCEPTA DEC III (vows (prayers) made for the 30th anniversary of rule), Antoninus standing left, togate and veiled, sacrificing from right hand over tripod on left, COS IIII (consul 4 times) in exergue; $120.00 (€105.60)
Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.
Constantine II was about eight years old when this coin was minted. Here he is draped and cuirassed as a powerful child Caesar with the world in his hands!SH63721. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII Trier 382 (R3) corr. (no cuirass), SRCV V 17155, Cohen VII 23, gVF, well centered on a tight flan, nice green patina, weight 2.868 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 322 - 323 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust left, Victory on globe offering wreath in right hand, mappa in left, head of Medusa on cuirass; reverse BEATA TRANQVILLITAS (blessed tranquility), altar inscribed VO/TIS / XX, surmounted by globe, three stars above, •STR• in exergue; rare; $100.00 (€88.00)
Crispus, Caesar, 1 March 317 - 326 A.D.
RIC VII Siscia 169 (R4) lists the symbol following the mintmark as a double crescent but we have seen a number of coins like this one, on which the symbol appears to be pellet within a crescent.RL12085. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII Siscia 169 (R4) var. (double crescent), SRCV IV 16773, Cohen VII 44, Hunter V -, Choice EF, nice portrait, attractive green patina, weight 3.075 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 320 - 321 A.D.; obverse IVL CRISPVS NOB C, laureate head right; reverse CAESARVM NOSTRORVM (our prince), VOT / X in two lines within wreath, wreath tied at the bottom and decorated with a jewel at the top, BSIS and pellet within crescent in exergue; rare; $100.00 (€88.00)
Crispus, Caesar, 1 March 317 - 326 A.D.
On 19 Dec 324, Licinius abdicated his position as Emperor. He was pardoned by Constantine I as a result of the supplication of his wife Constantia (who was Constantine's half-sister) and banished to Thessalonica as a private citizen. The next year Licinius was executed on the charge of conspiring, and raising troops against the emperor.RL87875. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII London 250, Cohen VII 27, SRCV IV 16725, Hunter V 4 var. (bust), EF, some luster, attractive portrait, tight flan, some reverse die wear, weight 3.385 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Londinium (London, England) mint, 322 - 323 A.D.; obverse CRISPVS NOBIL C, laureate and cuirassed bust left, holding shield and spear with point forward; reverse BEAT TRANQLITAS, globe on altar inscribed VOT/IS / XX in three lines, F-B across fields, three stars above, PLON in exergue; ex Pegasi Numismatics, ex Beast Coins; $100.00 (€88.00)
Jovian, 27 June 363 - 17 February 364 A.D.
Aquileia was founded by the Romans as a Latin colony in 181 B.C. in the north-eastern corner of the plain of the Po at the northern end of the Adriatic. It grew to become one of the largest and wealthiest cities of the Roman Empire. After the city was destroyed by Attila the Hun in A.D. 453, the survivors clustered in a drastically reduced settlement around the Basilica, which is the origin of the small present-day town. Most of the ancient city lies unexcavated beneath the surrounding fields.RL88055. Bronze centenionalis, RIC VIII Aquileia 247, LRBC II 960, SRCV V 19227, Cohen VIII 35, VF, well centered, green patina, scratches, light deposits, weight 3.242 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Aquileia mint, obverse D N IOVIANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, VOT V MVLT X in four lines within wreath, AQVILS in exergue; $100.00 (€88.00)
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
The reverse announces that Septimius has completed vows (prayers and sacrifices) to ask the gods for 20 years of rule. In a religious context, votum, plural vota, is a vow or promise made to a deity. The word comes from the past participle of voveo, vovere; as the result of the verbal action, a vow, or promise. The votum is an aspect of the contractual nature of Roman religion and sacrifice, a bargaining expressed by "do ut des" (I give that you might give).RS87222. Silver denarius, RIC IV 308, RSC III 791, BMCRE V 375, Hunter III 103, SRCV II 6393, VF, well centered, toned, tiny edge cracks, weight 3.624 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 201 - 210 A.D.; obverse SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse VOTA SVSCEPTA XX, Severus (his pointy beard well visible) sacrificing left over a lit tripod altar; $90.00 (€79.20)
Crispus, Caesar, 1 March 317 - 326 A.D.
On 7 March 321, Constantine issued an edict proclaiming Dies Solis Invicti (Sunday) as the day of rest; trade was forbidden but agriculture was allowed.RL84258. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII Lyons 133, Hunter V 25, SRCV IV 16734, Bastien XIII 102, Cohen VII 6, Choice EF, traces of silvering, attractive nice surfaces, nearly as struck, weight 3.186 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 0o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 321 A.D.; obverse CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse BEATA TRANQVILLITAS (blessed tranquility), altar inscribed VO/TIS / XX in three lines, surmounted by globe, three stars above, C left, R right, PLG crescent in exergue; $80.00 (€70.40)
Julian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.
The celebration for a reign anniversary typically began a year before the actual anniversary and lasted the entire year. The actual celebratory events were likely at the beginning and end of this year-long period. This means that coins celebrating an anniversary were often struck from up to a year before that anniversary. Julian was named Caesar by Constantius II in 355 and used this as the date of the beginning of his reign, not 360 when he was named Emperor by his troops in Gaul, nor 361 when Constantius died and he was acknowledged Emperor throughout the Empire. Thus the celebration of Julian's decannalia, or tenth anniversary of reign, was to begin in 364. In late 362, when Julian needed extra coinage to prepare for his Persian War, what better type to strike than a vota coinage? He really should not have used X for the Soluta, or vows completed, for two more years but it served as great propaganda. He was informing the populace that he will still be around in two years when the war is over.RL88054. Bronze centenionalis, RIC VIII Sirmium 108, LRBC II 1619, SRCV V 19172, Cohen VIII 151, Choice VF, well centered, green patina, ragged with small edge splits, weight 3.151 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) mint, summer 361 - 26 Jun 363 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted, and cuirassed bust left, spear in right, shield in left; reverse VOT / X / MVLT / XX in four lines within wreath, BSIRM in exergue; $80.00 (€70.40)