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A decursio was a military exercise, by which Roman soldiers were taught to make long marches in a given time, under arms and without quitting their ranks. They sometimes consisted of a mock fight between two divisions. Augustus and subsequently Hadrian ordered that the infantry and cavalry were to march out three times a month ten miles from the camp and ten miles back, fully armed and equipped. Decursio on this coin probably refers Nero's participation in mock military maneuvers in the circus.SH96390. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 508, Mac Dowall WCN 448, BMCRE I 316, BnF II 135, Cohen I 88, SRCV I -, Choice aEF/VF, superb portrait, well centered and struck, scratches, marks, porosity more on the reverse, weight 23.971 g, maximum diameter 35.4 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 66 A.D.; obverse IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT P P, laureate head left, small globe at point; reverse DECVRSIO (in exergue), Nero and a companion on horseback prancing right, Nero holds spear in right hand, companion holds vexillum in right over shoulder, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; $2070.00 (€1697.40)
Kyme, Aeolis, 165 - 140 B.C.
In Greek mythology, the Amazons were a nation of all-female warriors Herodotus placed them in a region bordering Scythia in Sarmatia (modern territory of Ukraine). Other historiographers place them in Asia Minor or Libya. SH96005. Silver stephanophoric tetradrachm, SNGvA 1636; SNG Cop 103; BMC Troas p. 111, 73; Weber 5502, VF, attractive style, centered on a broad flan, toned, porous slightly rough surfaces, weight 16.286 g, maximum diameter 32.1 mm, die axis 0o, Kyme (near Nemrut Limani, Turkey) mint, 165 - 140 B.C.; obverse head of Amazon Kyme right, wearing taenia; reverse horse walking right, oinochoe below raised left foreleg, KYMAIΩN downward on right, KAΛΛIAΣ (magistrate) in exergue, all in laurel wreath tied at the bottom; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $900.00 (€738.00)
Carthage, Zeugitana, N. Africa, c. 410 - 310 B.C.
At the height of its prominence, Carthage's influence extended over most of the western Mediterranean. Rivalry with Rome led to a series of conflicts, the Punic Wars. The Third Punic War ended in the complete destruction of the city, annexation by Rome of all Carthaginian territory, and the death or enslavement of the entire Carthaginian population.GS95983. Silver litra, Viola CNP 653; SNG Cop 8 74; SNG Mün 6 1612; SNG Lloyd II 1611; SNG Lockett 1033; SNG Ash 2153; Pozzi 3294; Müller Africa p. 92, 130; HGC 2 -, Choice VF, well centered, toned, porosity, weight 0.732 g, maximum diameter 9.1 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain Sicilian mint, c. 410 - 310 B.C.; obverse palm tree with two hanging bunches of dates; reverse horse head right; from the Errett Bishop Collection; rare; $450.00 (€369.00)
Germanicus, b. 24 May 15 B.C. - d. 10 Oct 19 A.D., Issued by Caligula
This type was issued by Caligula in honor of his deceased father. Germanicus Caesar was the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus Sr. and Antonia the daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. He distinguished himself on the battlefield many times, most notably in Germania where he inflicted serious defeats on the barbarian tribes and recovered the legionary standards lost in the catastrophic Varus disaster. He was chosen Tiberius' successor, but died of an unknown cause. His tremendous popularity helped his son Caius (Caligula) obtain the throne after Tiberius died.RB97745. Orichalcum dupondius, RIC I Gaius 57, BMCRE I Gaius 93, BnF II Caligula 140, Hunter I Gaius 37, Cohen I 7, SRCV I 1820, gF, scattered mild pitting, weight 12.208 g, maximum diameter 29.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 37 - 41 A.D.; obverse Germanicus in slow quadriga right, bare-headed, wearing paludamentum, eagle-tipped scepter in left hand, chariot ornamented with Victory and wreath, GERMANICVS / CAESAR in two lines above horses; reverse Germanicus standing left, bare-headed, wearing cuirass and short tunic, cloak over left arm, right leg bent, raising right hand, aquila (legionary eagle) in left hand, SIGNIS - RECEPT / DEVICTIS - GERM (standards recovered from the defeated Germans) in two divided lines across the field at center, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking low; ex Roma Numismatics e-sale 78 (17 Dec 2020), lot 1296, ex Lucernae prima auction (2 Jun 2020), lot 212; $450.00 (€369.00) ON RESERVE
Eastern Celts, Imitative of Philip II of Macedonia, "Dachreiter" Type, 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
Although the body and head of the horseman on the prototype drachm of Philip III of Macedonia have been replaced by an S-shaped line over three pellets, the horseman's leg can still be found on the side of the horse!SH89462. Silver tetradrachm, Göbl OTA tf. 15, 170/4; Lanz 448, aVF, light toning, reverse slightly off center, light marks, weight 11.953 g, maximum diameter 21.7 mm, die axis 0o, tribal mint, 2nd - 1st century B.C.; obverse laureate and bearded head of Zeus right; reverse stylized horseman prancing left, rider's head and body reduced to an S-shaped line over three pellets, leg of horseman on side of the horse; $400.00 (€328.00)
Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso L.f. Frugi, 90 B.C.
NEW This issue was minted to support the war with the Marsic Confederation.RR97637. Silver denarius, Sydenham 665m, RSC I Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, aEF, toned, flow lines, die wear/cracks, weight 3.989 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, 90 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right, hair in long ringlets, A below chin, two pellets behind; reverse L PISO FRVGI, naked horseman galloping right, holding palm frond, F above; $240.00 (€196.80)
Gallic Celts, Uncertain (Lemovices?), c. 100 - 50 B.C.
The tribe and mint that issued this obol type are unknown, but the Lemovices struck quinarii with similar types, including a human head above the horse on the reverse. It is possible the Lemovices also issued this rare type.CE89067. Silver obol, Delestrée-Tache 3699; cf. CCBM II S404 ff., De la Tour 4561 (Lemovices, severed head series quinarii), F, well centered, toned, etched surfaces, weight 0.633 g, maximum diameter 10.8 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain mint, c. 100 - 50 B.C.; obverse female head right in classic style; reverse horse galloping right, small human head right above; ex CGB Numismatique Paris; rare; $175.00 (€143.50)
Philomelion, Phrygia, Late 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
NEW This is only the second specimen of this type known to FORVM. The other specimen, Leu Numismatik web-auction 7 (23 Feb 2019), lot 393, was described as, "Apparently unpublished and unique" and sold for $240 plus fees.GB97748. Bronze AE 16, Unpublished in primary references; BMC Phrygia -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, SNG München -, SNG Tübingen -, HGC 7 -, aF, scratches, earthen deposits, weight 3.820 g, maximum diameter 15.9 mm, die axis 90o, Philomelion (Aksehir, Turkey) mint, late 2nd - 1st century B.C.; obverse horse springing right, dot border; reverse crescent horns upward, ΦIΛO/MH in two lines above and below, all within Dionysiac wreath of ivy and fruit; extremely rare; $150.00 (€123.00)
Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.
NEW This coin refers to the departure (profectio) of Caracalla, Septimius, and Geta on their British expedition. Historian's dating of this departure to the year 208 depends on these coins dated TR P XI for Caracalla and TR P XVI for Septimius.RS97836. Silver denarius, RIC IV 108 (S); RSC III 510; BMCRE V 574; Hunter III p. 56, 52; SRCV II -, VF, excellent portrait, choice obverse, well centered, flow lines, reverse die wear, edge cracks, weight 3.341 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 208 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF TR P XI COS III (high priest, holder of Tribunitian power for 11 years, consul for the 3rd time), Emperor on horseback right, wearing military garb, paludamentum flying behind, transverse lance in right hand, enemy kneeling right with right hand raised below horse's raised right foreleg, PROF (departure) in exergue; from a Norwegian collection; scarce; $110.00 (€90.20)
Trebonianus Gallus, June or July 251 - July or August 253 A.D., Alexandreia Troas, Troas
Alexandria Troas (modern Eski Stambul) is on the Aegean Sea near the northern tip of the west coast of Anatolia, a little south of Tenedos (modern Bozcaada). The city was founded by Antigonus around 310 B.C. with the name Antigoneia and was populated with the inhabitants of Cebren, Colone, Hamaxitus, Neandria, and Scepsis. About 301 B.C., Lysimachus improved the city and re-named it Alexandreia. Among the few structure ruins remaining today are a bath, an odeon, a theater and gymnasium complex and a stadium. The circuit of the old walls can still be traced.RP93130. Bronze AE 21, BMC Troas p. 27, 143; Bellinger Troas A405; SNGvA 1480 var. (rev. legend); RPC Online IX 424 ff. (obv. legend variations); SNG Cop -, F/VF, scratches, obverse legend weakly struck/worn, scratches, edge cracks, weight 5.817 g, maximum diameter 21.3 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria Troas (Eski Stambul, Turkey) mint, Jun/Jul 251 - Jul/Aug 253 A.D.; obverse IMP C VIBI TRIB GALLVS AVG (or similar), laureate, draped bust right, from behind; reverse COL AVG O, TROA (clockwise above, ending in exergue), horse grazing right; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $70.00 (€57.40)