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In 270 B.C., Rome's subjugation of Italy was completed by the recapture of Rhegium from the Mamertines and the defeat of the Brutians, the Lucanians, the Calabrians and the Samnites. The town of Rhegium was then restored by the Romans to its original Greek inhabitants.RR93747. Aes grave (cast) triens, Crawford 18/3, Sydenham 17, Thurlow-Vecchi 10, ICC 35, HN Italy 281, Russo RBW -, VF, dark green patina, earthen deposits, minor casting flaw on edge, weight 97.090 g, maximum diameter 47.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 270 B.C.; obverse head of horse right, (mark of value); reverse head of horse left, (mark of value) below; from the Errett Bishop Collection, 97 grams! 47 mm!; $1900.00 (1558.00)
Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.
A decursio was a military exercise, by which Roman soldiers were taught to make long marches in a given time, under arms and without quitting their ranks. They sometimes consisted of a mock fight between two divisions. Augustus and subsequently Hadrian ordered that the infantry and cavalry were to march out three times a month ten miles from the camp and ten miles back, fully armed and equipped. Decursio on this coin probably refers Nero's participation in mock military maneuvers in the circus.SH96390. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 508, Mac Dowall WCN 448, BMCRE I 316, BnF II 135, Cohen I 88, SRCV I -, Choice aEF/VF, superb portrait, well centered and struck, scratches, marks, porosity more on the reverse, weight 23.971 g, maximum diameter 35.4 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 66 A.D.; obverse IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT P P, laureate head left, small globe at point; reverse DECVRSIO (in exergue), Nero and a companion on horseback prancing right, Nero holds spear in right hand, companion holds vexillum in right over shoulder, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; $1860.00 (1525.20)
Syracuse, Sicily, Hieron I, c. 478 - 467 B.C.
NEW Hieron I, the brother of Gelon, was tyrant of Syracuse, Sicily, 478 - 467 B.C. He greatly increased the power of Syracuse. He removed the inhabitants of Naxos and Catania to Leontini, peopled Catania (which he renamed Aetna) with Dorians. He defeated the Etruscans and Carthaginians at the Battle of Cumae (474 B.C.), by which he saved the Greeks of Campania from Etruscan domination. He was a liberal patron of literature and culture. He established the first secret police in Greek history. He was an active participant in panhellenic athletic contests, winning several horse and chariot races. He died at Catania in 467 and was buried there. His grave was destroyed when the former inhabitants of Catania returned.SH98005. Silver tetradrachm, Boehringer series XI, 244 (V110/R165); HGC 2 1307, aVF, centered on a tight flan, toned, light deposits, scratches and marks, uneven strike, die wear, pre-strike casting sprues, weight 17.379 g, maximum diameter 24.5 mm, die axis 315o, Syracuse mint, c. 475 - 470 B.C.; obverse slow quadriga driven right by bearded male charioteer, kentron in right hand and reins in left hand, Nike above flying right crowning horses; reverse ΣVRAKOΣION (clockwise on right), head of Arethousa right, hair turned up in a krobylos, wearing a pearl diadem earring and necklace, four dolphins around; from the CEB Collection, ex Frank L. Kovacs; $1250.00 (1025.00)
Gallic Celts, Uncertain (Lemovices?), c. 100 - 50 B.C.
The tribe and mint that issued this obol type are unknown, but the Lemovices struck quinarii with similar types, including a human head above the horse on the reverse. It is possible the Lemovices also issued this rare type.CE89067. Silver obol, Delestrιe-Tache 3699; cf. CCBM II S404 ff., De la Tour 4561 (Lemovices, severed head series quinarii), F, well centered, toned, etched surfaces, weight 0.633 g, maximum diameter 10.8 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain mint, c. 100 - 50 B.C.; obverse female head right in classic style; reverse horse galloping right, small human head right above; ex CGB Numismatique Paris; rare; $155.00 (127.10)
"Kainon," Sicily, c. 367 - 340 B.C.
This issue, assigned to Alaisa in many references, was perhaps produced by Thracian mercenaries operating in Sicily in the 4th century B.C.GI93805. Bronze tetras, Calciati I, p. 252, 10; SNG Cop 134 (Alaesa); SNG Munchen 218 (Alaisa); SNG ANS 1178 (Alaesa); BMC Sicily p. 29, 8 (Alaesa); HGC 2 509, aVF, dark green patina with earthen highlights, flatly struck, off center on a broad flan, edge splits, weight 9.623 g, maximum diameter 24.3 mm, uncertain mint, c. 367 - 340 B.C.; obverse griffin springing left, wings open, grasshopper left below; reverse horse prancing left, loose reins flying behind, KAINON in exergue, star with eight rays around a central pellet above; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $120.00 (98.40)
Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D., Serdica, Thrace
NEW Serdica prospered under Rome. Turrets, protective walls, public baths, administrative and cult buildings, a civic basilica and a large amphitheater were built. When Diocletian divided Dacia into Dacia Ripensis (on the banks of the Danube) and Dacia Mediterranea, Serdica became the capital of Dacia Mediterranea. The city was destroyed by the Huns in 447, but was rebuilt by Justinian and surrounded with great fortress walls whose remnants can still be seen today. Although also often destroyed by the Slavs, the town remained under Byzantine dominion until 809. Serdica is today Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.RP96862. Bronze AE 30, H-J Serdica 126.96.36.199 (R6), Varbanov III 2299 (R5), Ruzicka Serdica 346, Moushmov Serdica 278, aVF, well centered, green patina, central depressions, weight 16.845 g, maximum diameter 31.6 mm, die axis 0o, Serdica (Sofia, Bulgaria) mint, 198 - 217 A.D.; obverse AVT K M AVPH CEVH ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right; reverse OVΛΠIAC CEP∆IKHC, emperor on horseback galloping right, mantle flowing behind, thrusting with javelin at enemy wearing Phrygian cap crouching to right below; ex Trusted Coins, big 31.6 mm coin; scarce; $120.00 (98.40)
"Kainon," Sicily, c. 367 - 340 B.C.
NEW This issue, assigned to Alaisa in many references, was perhaps produced by Thracian mercenaries operating in Sicily in the 4th century B.C.GI96890. Bronze tetras, Calciati I p. 249, 1; SNG Cop 133 (Alaesa); SNG Munchen 213 (Alaisa); BMC Sicily p. 29, 3 (Alaesa?); SGCV I 1048 (Alaisa); HGC 2 509, VF, green patina, rev. a little off center, cleaning marks, scattered light porosity, inscription very weak, pre-strike casting sprue remnant, weight 8.953 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain mint, c. 367 - 340 B.C.; obverse griffin springing left, wings open, rope-like exergue line (clouds?); reverse horse prancing left, loose reins flying behind, KAINON in exergue; ex Trusted Coins; $120.00 (98.40)
"Kainon," Sicily, c. 367 - 340 B.C.
NEW This issue, assigned to Alaisa in many references, was perhaps produced by Thracian mercenaries operating in Sicily in the 4th century B.C.GI96891. Bronze tetras, Calciati I, p. 252, 10; SNG Cop 134 (Alaesa); SNG Munchen 218 (Alaisa); SNG ANS 1178 (Alaesa); BMC Sicily p. 29, 8 (Alaesa); HGC 2 509, gF, green patina, rev. double struck, some porosity, pre-strike casting sprue remnants, weight 8.738 g, maximum diameter 21.4 mm, die axis 90o, uncertain mint, c. 367 - 340 B.C.; obverse griffin springing left, wings open, grasshopper left below; reverse horse prancing left, loose reins flying behind, KAINON in exergue, star with eight rays around a central pellet above; ex Trusted Coins; $120.00 (98.40)
Kamarina, Sicily, 339 - 300 B.C.
Kamarina was destroyed by Carthage in 405 B.C. In 396 B.C. the citizens who escaped returned, but only under Timoleon in 339 B.C. was the city reconstructed. A period of splendor ended with the sack by the Mamertines in 275 B.C. and destruction by the Romans in 258 B.C. The site was probably abandoned during the period of Augustus.GI96860. Bronze AE 16, Westermark-Jenkins 208.6 (A/c); BMC Sicily p. 40, 43 (same dies); Calciati III, p. 69, 42/7 (same); SNG Cop 170 (same obv. die); HGC 2 555 (R1), F, green patina, well centered, porous, scratches, weight 2.878 g, maximum diameter 15.5 mm, die axis 180o, Kamarina (near Scoglitti, Sicily, Italy) mint, 339 - 300 B.C.; obverse KAMAPINAIΩN (clockwise on left), head of Athena left, in crested Athenian helmet; reverse horse prancing left, barley ear left in exergue; rare; $100.00 (82.00)
Kingdom of Numidia, Massinissa 203 - 148 B.C., or Micipsa 148 - 118 B.C.
Numidia was an Ancient Berber kingdom in what is now Algeria and a smaller part of Tunisia, in North Africa. It was bordered by the kingdoms of Mauretania (modern-day Morocco) to the west, the Roman province of Africa (modern-day Tunisia) to the east, the Mediterranean Sea to the north, and the Sahara Desert to the south. The long-lived King Masinissa ruled c. 203 -148 B.C. He was succeeded by his son Micipsa. When Micipsa died in 118, he was succeeded by his two sons Hiempsal I and Adherbal, and by his illegitimate grandson, Jugurtha. Jugurtha had Hiempsal killed, which led to war with Adherbal. Rome declared war after Jugurtha killed some Roman businessmen aiding Adherbal. Jugurtha surrendered and received a highly favorable peace treaty, which raised suspicions of bribery. The Roman commander was summoned to Rome to face corruption charges. Jugurtha was also forced to come to Rome to testify, where he was completely discredited. War broke out again and several legions were dispatched to North Africa. The war dragged out into a seemingly endless campaign. Frustrated at the apparent lack of action, Gaius Marius returned to Rome to seek election as Consul. Marius was elected, and then returned to take control of the war. He sent his Quaestor Lucius Cornelius Sulla to neighboring Mauretania to eliminate their support for Jugurtha. With the help of Bocchus I of Mauretania, Sulla captured Jugurtha. In 104 B.C., after being paraded through the streets of Rome in Marius' Triumph, Jugurtha was executed.GB97282. Bronze AE 27, Alexandropoulos MAA 18a; Mazard III 50; Mόller Afrique III p. 18, 32; SNG Cop 505 ff.; SGCV II 6597, F, a bit rough, minor pre-strike flan casting void on edge, earthen deposits, weight 17.205 g, maximum diameter 26.9 mm, die axis 0o, Cirta (Constantine, Algeria) mint, 203 - 118 B.C.; obverse laureate head (Micipsa?) left with pointed beard, dot border; reverse horse running left, pellet below; $60.00 (49.20)