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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Personifications| ▸ |Roma||View Options:  |  |  | 

Roma on Ancient Coins

Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.

Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D., Struck at Rome for Use in Syria

|Roman| |Syria|, |Hadrian,| |11| |August| |117| |-| |10| |July| |138| |A.D.,| |Struck| |at| |Rome| |for| |Use| |in| |Syria||semis|
In 125 A.D., the Pantheon was constructed in Rome as it stands today.
RY99386. Orichalcum semis, RIC II-3 760, McAlee 552(a), BMCRE III 1356, Strack II 626, RPC Online III 3765, SNG Hunterian 2947, gVF, earthen filled fields, slightly off center on a tight flan cutting off part of legends, weight 5.069 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 124 - 125 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate and draped bust right, seen from behind; reverse COS III, Roma seated left on cuirass, right foot drawn back (no helmet), Victory bearing wreath and palm frond in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, round shield behind cuirass, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; $160.00 SALE PRICE $144.00


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

|Nero|, |Nero,| |13| |October| |54| |-| |9| |June| |68| |A.D.||sestertius|
Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
SH34948. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 247, BMCRE I 178, Good VF, Tiber patina, weight 28.904 g, maximum diameter 34.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 66 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head left; reverse Roma seated left on cuirass and shields, right foot on helmet, holding Victory and parazonium, ROMA in exergue, S - C at sides; fine style, ex Edward J. Waddel; SOLD


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

|Nero|, |Nero,| |13| |October| |54| |-| |9| |June| |68| |A.D.||sestertius|
The Nero sestertii from the Rome mint are scarcer than those from Lugdunum. The Rome portrait style is almost uniformly better.
RB84071. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 275, BMCRE I p. 233, 180, Mac Dowall WCN 137, Cohen I 264, Giard Lyon -, BnF II -, SRCV I -, Choice gVF, nice style, attractive portrait, nice green patina, slight porosity on reverse, weight 26.200 g, maximum diameter 35.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 65 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head right, light beard, wearing aegis(?); reverse Roma seated left on cuirass and shields, wearing helmet, cuirass, short tunic and military boots, Victory in her right hand, her left hand resting on parazonium at side, her right foot drawn back and resting on helmet, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field, ROMA in exergue; ex Stack's Bowers and Ponterio ANA Auction (12 Aug 2015), lot 30072; SOLD


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.

|Vespasian|, |Vespasian,| |1| |July| |69| |-| |24| |June| |79| |A.D.||sestertius|
Vespasian could speak of Rome rising again in his reign; for he signally adorned her with new edifices and repaired old buildings, which had been damaged through neglect in prior times or from the ravages of fires under Nero and Vitellius. Vespasian estimated it would cost no less than 400 million aurei to restore the city. Even its inviolable Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus had been burned to the ground in the last days of Vitellius' regime. Tacitus remarked in his Annals (xv.41), "quamvis in tanta RESVRGENTIS VRBIS pulchitudine multa seniores meminerant, quoe reparari neguibant" (Although such a great number of works beautifully restored the city, elders remembered as much that could not be repaired).
RB63451. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC II 195 (same dies), BMCRE II 565 (same dies), Cohen I 424, gF, weight 22.81 g, maximum diameter 33.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate head right, aegis on far shoulder; reverse ROMA RESVRGES (Rome rising again), Vespasian standing left, togate, extending his hand and raising Roma (the city) who kneels right before him; armed Virtus (or Roma the goddess) stands right in the background behind, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; rare (RIC R2); SOLD


Pescennius Niger, April to 1 June 193 - March, April or May 194 A.D.

|Pescennius| |Niger|, |Pescennius| |Niger,| |April| |to| |1| |June| |193| |-| |March,| |April| |or| |May| |194| |A.D.||denarius|
Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.
SH35846. Silver denarius, Unpublished; cf. RIC IV 72 aureus from Num. Chron., 1908, pp. 90 ff. (R5); RSC -, VF, weight 4.724 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, obverse [IMP CA]ES C PESC NIGER IVST AVG, laureate head right; reverse ROMAE AETER (eternal Rome)NA-E, Roma seated left, cornucopia in right, left rests on a rudder on globe; unique?; SOLD


Roman Republic, Libral Cast Series, 225 - 217 B.C.

|before| |211| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |Libral| |Cast| |Series,| |225| |-| |217| |B.C.||uncia|
The prow right aes grave are common in the as to sextans denominations, but scarce for uncia. This issue was followed by the prow left series, which has no uncia.
RR88347. Aes grave (cast) uncia, Crawford 35/6; Sydenham 77; Haeberlin pl. 18, 22 ff.; Thurlow-Vecchi 56; Vecchi ICC 83; HN Italy 342; Russo RBW 90, SRCV I 589, VF, sculptural high relief, very nice for the type, bumps and marks, edge split (apparently where a casting sprue was snapped off), weight 19.201 g, maximum diameter 27.0 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 225 - 217 B.C.; obverse head of Roma left, wearing a crested Attic helmet, (mark of value) behind; reverse prow of galley right; (mark of value) below; from the Mark Drummond Collection; SOLD


Roman Republic, Manius Fonteius C.f., c. 85 B.C.

|99-50| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |Manius| |Fonteius| |C.f.,| |c.| |85| |B.C.||denarius|
Vejovis is a little-known Italian deity. He was worshiped in a temple on the Capitol in Rome. The reverse most likely depicts a statue that was beside the statue of Vejovis in the temple. This statue may refer to the infancy of Jupiter who was suckled by the goat Amaltheia on Mount Ida.

The thyrsus is the staff carried by Bacchus and his associates; topped by a pine cone or a bunch of ivy leaves and wreathed with tendrils of vine or ivy.
RR75243. Silver denarius, Crawford 353/1a, Sydenham 724, RSC I Fonteia 9, BMCRR I Rome 2476, Russo RBW 1350, SRCV I 271, Choice aEF, well centered and struck, nicely toned, a few light scratches, weight 3.813 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 85 B.C.; obverse MN FONTEI C F (MN and NT in monogram) downward behind, laureate head of Vejovis right, thunderbolt below neck truncation, Roma monogram below chin; reverse Cupid seated on goat right, caps of the Dioscuri above, thyrsus of Bacchus in exergue, all within laurel wreath; ex Naville auction 9, lot 175, ex Tkalec sale 2006, 106, ex NAC 46 (April 2008), lot 369; SOLD


Roman Republic, Anonymous, c. 157 - 155 B.C.

|211-100| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |Anonymous,| |c.| |157| |-| |155| |B.C.||semis|
In 157 B.C., the Carthaginians, prevented by their treaty with Rome from engaging in armed resistance, but also guaranteed against loss of territory, appealed to Rome against the aggression of King Masinissa of Numidia. The Roman censor Marcus Porcius Cato arbitrated a truce. While in Carthage, Cato was so struck by the Carthaginian prosperity that he was convinced the security of Rome depended on the annihilation of Carthage. From this time on, Cato repeated the cry "Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam" ("Moreover, I advise that Carthage must be destroyed") at the end of all his speeches, no matter what subject they concerned.
RR58571. Bronze semis, Crawford 198/2b, Sydenham 231b, BMCRR Italy -, SRCV I 847, Choice VF, weight 11.445 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 45o, Italian mint, c. 157 - 155 B.C.; obverse laureate bearded head of Saturn right, S (mark of value) behind; reverse prow of galley right, with acrostillium, rostrum tridens, apotropaic eye, oar-box, and deck structure; S (mark of value) right; ROMA below; no symbol, mint mark or monogram; ex Nilus Coins, beautiful jade-green patina; scarce; SOLD


Roman Republic, A. Spurilius (or Spurius or Spurinna?), 139 B.C.

|211-100| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |A.| |Spurilius| |(or| |Spurius| |or| |Spurinna?),| |139| |B.C.||denarius|
In Roman mythology, Luna is the goddess of the moon. She is the Roman counterpart of the Greek goddess Selene. As goddess of the moon, Luna is often identified with the Roman goddess Diana.

The Spurilius gens is known only from coins (and the name is not certain).
RR93657. Silver denarius, Crawford 230/1, Sydenham 448, RSC I Spurilia 1, Russo RBW 960, BMCRR Rome 910, SRCV I 107, Choice VF, well centered and struck, attractive toning, light marks, weight 3.865 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, 139 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right, wearing a winged helmet ornamented with griffin head and with a three-piece peaked visor, single drop spiral earring with three beads arranged largest on top to smallest on the bottom, and bead necklace, X (mark of value) behind; reverse Luna (or Diana) in a galloping biga right, nude to the hips, her head surmounted by a crescent, goad in right hand, reins in left hand, A·SPVRI (VR in monogram) below horses, ROMA in exergue within a linear frame on sides and above, linear border; from the Errett Bishop Collection; SOLD


Roman Republic, C. Scribonius, 154 B.C.

|211-100| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |C.| |Scribonius,| |154| |B.C.||denarius|
In 154, the Lusitanians harassed the inhabitants of the Roman provinces in Hispania. At the same time, the Celtiberians of Numantia on the Douro revolted against Roman occupation.
RR93658. Silver denarius, BMCRR I Rome 732, Crawford 201/1, Sydenham 380, RSC I Scribonia 1, Russo RBW 864, SRCV I 79, VF, toned with highlighting fields darker, very slightly off center, light marks, weight 3.973 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 154 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right in winged helmet ornamented with a griffin head and with a three-piece peaked visor, wearing single drop earring a long pendant and bead necklace, X (mark of value) behind; reverse Dioscuri galloping right, wearing pilei, cloaks flying behind, and holding couched spears, two stars above, C·SCR below horses, ROMA in a linear frame on top and sides in exergue, linear border; from the Errett Bishop Collection; SOLD







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