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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |The Tetrarchy| ▸ |Maximinus II||View Options:  |  |  |   

Maximinus II Daia, late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

Maximinus II was made Caesar in the Tetrarchy in 305 A.D. In 311, Maximinus took advantage of the death of Galerius to invade and annex the latter's territory. In 313 A.D., he invaded Licinius' territory, and although he seized many cities his army was utterly destroyed in a battle on the 30th of April. He disguised himself as a slave and fled, falling ill and dying in the city of Tarsus.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
Mars is usually nude. This is one of the examples of Mars in military garb. Mars was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian. He was the father of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. In early Rome, he was second in importance only to Jupiter, and the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Latin Martius), and in October, which began and ended the season for military campaigning and farming.
RL98399. Billon follis, RIC VI Ticinum 123a (S), Cohen VII 131, SRCV IV 14883, Hunter V -, gVF, well centered, deposits, weight 5.02 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 0o, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, c. 312 - 313 A.D.; obverse MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse MARTI CONSERVATORI (Mars the Protector), Mars in military dress, advancing right holding transverse spear in right, resting left hand on shield, PT in exergue; scarce; $120.00 (€98.40)
 


|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
The officina number is expressed as E∆ (5 + 4 = 9) because Θ, theta, the Greek numeral nine, was considered unlucky. Theta (Θ), was used as an abbreviation for Thanatos (death) and used as a warning symbol of death, in the same way that skull and crossbones are used in modern times. It survives on potsherds used by Athenians voting for the death penalty. Also, after a funeral "Nine Days of Sorrow" were solemnly observed by the Roman family. Romans avoided the use of theta, as we avoid the use of the number 13 today.
RL94868. Billon follis, Hunter V 68 (also 9th officina), SRCV IV 14845, Cohen VII 47, RIC VI Antiochia 147c var. (no crescent), Choice VF, well centered, black patina with highlighting red earthen "desert patina", weight 6.809 g, maximum diameter 23.4 mm, die axis 0o, 9th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 310 - 311 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO EXERCITVS (to the guardian spirit of the army), Genius standing slightly left, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, flaming altar at feet on left, crescent horns up upper left, E over ∆ (5+4=9) right, ANT in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $90.00 (€73.80)
 


|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|NEW
On 11 November 308, attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, at the Congress of Carnuntum, the Tetrarchy declared Maxentius a public enemy, Licinius was proclaimed Augustus, and Constantine I was made Caesar of Britain and Gaul.
RT97958. Billon follis, Hunter V 20 (also 2nd officina), RIC VI Heraclea 36, SRCV IV 14721, Cohen VII 40, VF, well centered, traces of silvering, mild porosity, weight 5.940 g, maximum diameter 27.2 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, 308 - 309 A.D.; obverse GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; reverse GENIO CAESARIS (to the guardian spirit of the prince), Genius standing slightly left, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, •HTB• in exergue; $90.00 (€73.80)
 


|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Roman People, etc. The legend GENIO AVGVSTI dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Augusti, the Emperors. The figure depicted is the statue of the Spirit of the Roman People which was then in the Roman Forum (it is now lost). The act of pouring the libation to the emperor illustrates what the Christians were required to do in order not to be persecuted.
RT93355. Billon follis, RIC VI Alexandria 152b, SRCV IV 14841, Cohen VII 17, Hunter V -, gVF, dark brown patina, flow lines, porosity, slightly off center, reverse die wear, tiny edge crack, weight 5.116 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Alexandria mint, 312 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO AVGVSTI (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor), Genio standing facing, head left, kalathos on head, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, head of Serapis in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, crescent upper left, X in left field, B in right field, ALE in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $80.00 (€65.60)
 


|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
 
RT97955. Billon follis, RIC VI Thessalonica 61a, SRCV IV 13116, gVF, slight double strike in the reverse legend, weight 3.608 g, maximum diameter 25.6 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina. Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 312 - 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN (to Jove the protector of our two Emperors), Jupiter standing left, Victory on globe in right hand, scepter in left hand, eagle at feet left with wreath in beak, ·TS·B· in exergue; $75.00 (€61.50)
 


|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Roman People, etc. The legend GENIO AVGVSTI dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Augusti, the Emperors.
RL94872. Billon follis, RIC VI Alexandria 162b, SRCV IV 14843, Cohen VII 17, Hunter V 126 var. ( no wreath), aVF, heavy earthen deposits, weight 5.300 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Alexandria mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO AVGVSTI (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor), Genius standing slightly left, kalathos on head left, head of Serapis in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, star upper left, N over palm-branch left, Γ over wreath right, ALE in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $70.00 (€57.40)
 


|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Roman People, etc. The legend GENIO IMPERATORIS dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Imperators. Genius' image is of a man with a cloak half covering the shoulders leaving the rest of his body naked, holding a cornucopia in one hand, and a simpulum or a patera in the other.
RL94876. Billon follis, RIC VI Antiochia 133c, Cohen VII 55, SRCV IV 14851, Hunter V 58 var. (2nd officina), VF, desert patina, well centered, weight 6.956 g, maximum diameter 23.8 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 310 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO IMPERATORIS (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor as Commander in Chief), Genius standing slightly left, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, altar at feet on left, star upper left, A right, ANT in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $70.00 (€57.40)
 


|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|NEW
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the official sun god of the late Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274, Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. Scholars disagree whether the new deity was a re-foundation of the ancient Latin cult of Sol, a revival of the cult of Elagabalus, or completely new. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 A.D. and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them.
RT97848. Billon follis, Hunter V 110 (also 8th officina), RIC VI Antiochia 167b, SRCV IV 14894, Cohen VII 161, VF, well centered, porous, some pitting, weight 4.614 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 0o, 8th officina Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 312 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse SOLI INVICTO (to the invincible sun god), Sol standing facing, head left, radiate, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, head of Serapis wearing kalathos in left hand, H left, star right, ANT in exergue; from a Norwegian collection; $70.00 (€57.40)
 


|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Roman People, etc. The legend GENIO AVGVSTI dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Augusti, the Emperors. The figure depicted is the statue of the Spirit of the Roman People which was then in the Roman Forum (it is now lost). The act of pouring the libation to the emperor illustrates what the Christians were required to do in order not to be persecuted.
RL94877. Billon follis, RIC VI Alexandria 149b, SRCV IV 14841, Cohen VII 17, Hunter V 124 var. (2nd officina), aVF, well centered, dark green patina, earthen deposits, scratches, weight 5.691 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Alexandria mint, 312 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO AVGVSTI (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor), Genius standing facing, head left, kalathos on head, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, head of Serapis wearing kalathos in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, X lower left, Γ right, ALE in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $60.00 (€49.20)
 


|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
The name and the image of the sun god were frequently displayed on the coins of Rome. Apollo, in particular, was the object of homage in those dreadful times when the spread of plague depopulated the empire. But in the period when paganism was falling to the spread of Christianity, the emperors invoked the sun god Sol more than ever. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Saint Augustine found it necessary to preach against them.
RL94861. Billon follis, RIC VI Antiochia 167b, SRCV IV 14894, Cohen VII 161, Hunter V 106 var. (1st officina), aVF, desert patina, tight oval flan, weight 3.679 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 0o, 10th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 312 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse SOLI INVICTO (to the invincible sun god), Sol fully draped standing facing, head left, raising right hand, head of Serapis in left hand, I left, * right, ANT in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $50.00 (€41.00)
 




  



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|OBVERSE| LEGENDS|

GAVALMAXIMINVSNOBC
GALVALMAXIMINVSNC
GALVALMAXIMINVSNOBC
GALVALMAXIMINVSNOBCAES
GALVALMAXIMINVSNOBCAESAR
GALVALMAXIMINVSNOBILC
GALVALMAXIMINVSPFAVG
IMPCGALVALMAXIMINOPFINVAVG
IMPCGALVALMAXIMINVSPFAVG
IMPCGALVALMAXIMINVSPFINVAVG
IMPCGALVALERMAXIMINVSPFAVG
IMPCGALERVALMAXIMINVSPFAVG
IMPMAXIMINVSAVG
IMPMAXIMINVSPAVG
IMPMAXIMINVSPFAVG
MAXIMINVSAVG
MAXIMINVSCAES
MAXIMINVSCAESAR
MAXIMINVSFILAVGG
MAXIMINVSNC
MAXIMINVSNOBC
MAXIMINVSNOBCAES
MAXIMINVSNOBCAESAR
MAXIMINVSNOBCS
MAXIMINVSNOBILC
MAXIMINVSNOBILICAES
MAXIMINVSNOBILISC
MAXIMINVSNOBILISCAES
MAXIMINVSNOBILISSIMVSCAES
MAXIMINVSNOBILISSIMVSCAESAR
MAXIMINVSPFAVG


REFERENCES|

Calicó, E. Xavier. The Roman Avrei, Vol. II: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cloke, H. & L. Toone. The London Mint of Constantius & Constantine. (London, 2015).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 7: Carausius to Constantine & sons. (Paris, 1888).
Depeyrot, G. Les monnaies d'or de Diocletien à Constantin I (284-337). (Wetteren, 1995).
King, C. & Sear, D. Roman Silver Coins, Vol. V, Carausius to Romulus Augustus. (London, 1987).
McAlee, R. The Coins of Roman Antioch. (Lancaster, PA, 2007).
Paolucci, R. & A. Zub. La monetazione di Aquileia Romana. (Padova, 2000).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. V. Diocletian (Reform) to Zeno. (Oxford, 1982).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. IV: The Tetrarchies and the Rise of the House of Constantine...Diocletian To Constantine I, AD 284 - 337. (London, 211).
Sutherland, R. & C. Carson. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. VI, From Diocletian's reform to the death of Maximinus. (London, 1967).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).
Van Heesch, J. "The last civic coinages and the religious policy of Maximinus Daza (AD 312)" in NC 1993. pp. 65 - 75, pl 11.

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