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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |The Tetrarchy| ▸ |Galerius||View Options:  |  |  |   

Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.

Galerius was caesar and a tetrarch under Maximianus. His capital was Sirmium (modern Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia). Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. When he was severely ill, he stopped the persecution under the condition that Christians pray for his return to health. Soon after, Galerius died horribly.

Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.

|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||follis| |(large)|
These legends and types were struck in two issues RIC VI 198a, c. 309 - 310, and RIC 207a, c. 310 - 5 May 311. The earlier issue was struck with only officiae A, B and Γ, therefore, without even considering other variations we can be certain this coin is from the second issue.
RT99299. Billon follis (large), RIC VI Siscia p. 480, 207a; SRCV IV 14505; Hunter V p. 62, 7 var. (2nd officina); Cohen VI 133 (Maximian), gVF, amusing style and sharp detail on the reverse, slight porosity, reverse slightly off center, weight 7.444 g, maximum diameter 27.0 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, c. 310 - 5 May 311 A.D.; obverse IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO AVGVSTI (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor), Genius standing slightly left, head left, kalathos on head, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, crescent with horns upward lower left, ∆ right, SIS in exergue; from a private collector in New Jersey; $80.00 SALE PRICE $72.00


Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.

|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||follis| |(large)|
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Roman People, etc. The legend GENIO IMPERATORIS dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Imperators, the Commanders-in-Chief of the Army. Genius' image is of a man with a cloak half covering the shoulders leaving the rest of his body naked, holding a cornucopia in one hand, and a simpulum or a patera in the other.
RT99302. Billon follis (large), RIC VI Heraclea 37a; SRCV IV 14513; Cohen VII 48; Hunter V p. 63, 16 var. (1st officina), aVF/VF, nearly centered, flow lines, obv. die wear, marks, porosity, weight 6.136 g, maximum diameter 25.3 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, c. 308 - 309 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO IMPERATORIS (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor as Commander in Chief), Genius standing slightly left, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, HTΓ in exergue; from a private collector in New Jersey; $60.00 SALE PRICE $54.00


|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||follis| |(large)|
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Roman People, etc. The legend GENIO IMPERATORIS dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Imperators. Genius' image is of a man with a cloak half covering the shoulders leaving the rest of his body naked, holding a cornucopia in one hand, and a simpulum or a patera in the other.
RT97953. Billon follis (large), RIC VI Cyzicus p. 588, 56; SRCV IV 14517; Cohen VII 49; Hunter V p. 65, 35 var. (2nd officina), VF, well centered, marks, scratches, porosity, officina letter weakly struck, weight 6.562 g, maximum diameter 27.3 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, c. 309 - 310 A.D.; obverse GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO IMPERATORIS (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor as Commander in Chief), Genius standing left, nude but for chlamys over left shoulder and kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera with right, cornucopia in left hand, A lower left, star right, MKV in exergue; $60.00 SALE PRICE $48.00


|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||follis| |(large)|
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Roman People, etc. The legend GENIO AVGVSTI dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Augusti, the Emperors. Genius' image is of a man with a cloak half covering the shoulders leaving the rest of his body naked, holding a cornucopia in one hand, and a simpulum or a patera in the other.
RT90834. Billon follis (large), Hunter V 10 (also 1st officina), RIC VI Thessalonica 30a or 40a (type continued through two issues), SRCV IV 14507, Cohen VII 40, gVF, brown tone, areas of light corrosion on obverse, weight 5.831 g, maximum diameter 24.1 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, c. Dec 308 - May 311 A.D.; obverse GALMAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO AVGVSTI (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor), Genius standing slightly left, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, star lower left, A right, SMTS in exergue; $40.00 SALE PRICE $36.00


|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||follis| |(large)|
Galerius is remembered for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under the condition that Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after on 5 May 311. "This reverse is modeled after the famous statue of the Spirit of the Roman People in the Roman Forum. It is unclear when this statue was last seen as it is now lost. Although the coins celebrate a wide range of spirits (e.g., Rome, Augustus, the Army, etc.), the basic design comes from the same statue...The act of pouring the libation to the emperor illustrates what the Christians were required to do in order not to be persecuted." -- Roman Bronze Coins From Paganism to Christianity 294-364 A.D. by Victor Failmezger
RT90635. Billon follis (large), RIC VI Thessalonica 26b, SRCV IV 14371, Cohen VII 78, Hunter V 44 var. (3rd officina), VF, encrustations, parts of legends weak, weight 8.940 g, maximum diameter 26.8 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, as caesar, 302 - 303 A.D.; obverse GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (to the guardian spirit of the Roman People), Genius standing left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, ∆ right, TS in exergue; $35.00 SALE PRICE $31.50


|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||follis| |(large)|
Galerius was caesar and a tetrarch under Maximianus. His capital was Sirmium (modern Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia). Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under the condition that Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after at Serdica on 5 May 311. Maximinus and Licinius split his realm between them.
RT90636. Billon follis (large), RIC VI Cyzicus 65, SRCV IV 14510, Cohen VII 40, Hunter V -, VF, green patina, well centered, light encrustations, part of edge ragged, weight 6.613 g, maximum diameter 23.4 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, Jan - 5 May 311 A.D.; obverse GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO AVGVSTI (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor), Genius standing left, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, kalathos on head, cornucopia in left hand, patera in right, A left, three pellets right, MKV in exergue; $35.00 SALE PRICE $31.50


|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||follis| |(large)|
On 11 November 308, attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, at the Congress of Carnuntum, the Tetrarchy declared Maxentius a public enemy, Licinius was proclaimed Augustus, and Constantine I was made Caesar of Britain and Gaul.
RT90639. Billon follis (large), RIC VI Cyzicus 68; SRCV IV 14518; Cohen VII 49; Hunter V p. 66, 40 var. (4th officina), VF, green patina, light encrustations, some legend weak, weight 5.924 g, maximum diameter 25.6 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, c. 1 Jan - 5 May 311 A.D.; obverse GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO IMPERATORIS (to the guardian spirit of the Commander in Chief), Genius standing slightly left, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, A lower left, three pellets arranged in a vertical line in right field, MKV in exergue; $35.00 SALE PRICE $31.50


|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||follis| |(large)|
The officina number is expressed as ∆E (4 + 5 = 9) because Θ, theta, the Greek numeral nine, was considered unlucky. Theta (Θ), was used as an abbreviation for Thanatos (death) and used as a warning symbol of death, in the same way that skull and crossbones are used in modern times. It survives on potsherds used by Athenians voting for the death penalty. Also, after a funeral "Nine Days of Sorrow" were solemnly observed by the Roman family. Romans avoided the use of theta, as we avoid the use of the number 13 today.
RT90835. Billon follis (large), RIC VI Antiochia 88, SRCV IV 14519, Cohen VII 48, Hunter V 45 var. (5th officina), VF, well centered, brown tone, areas of light corrosion, weight 6.929 g, maximum diameter 24.3 mm, die axis 0o, 9th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, mid 308 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO IMPERATORIS (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor as Commander in Chief), Genius standing slightly left, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, ∆ - E across fields, ANT in exergue; $35.00 SALE PRICE $31.50


|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||follis| |(large)|
The meaning of the CMH ligature, used at Nicomedia and Cyzicus, is uncertain but it may be a mark of value indicating 48 coins per pound of bronze. This type and mintmark spanned two issues at Nicomedia. The first issue, RIC VI Nicomedia 54a, was struck c. December 308 - May 310, only by the 1st and 4th officinae, and weighed 6.0-7.5 grams. The second issue, RIC VI Nicomedia 66a, was struck c. May 310 - May 311, by the 1st through 6th officinae, and weighed 5.0-7.5 grams, initially with wider thinner flans but getting progressively smaller and thicker.
RT90839. Billon follis (large), Hunter V 25 (also the 4th officina, RIC 54a), RIC VI Nicomedia 54a or 66a (this type spanned both issues), SRCV IV 14508, Cohen VII 42, VF, dark near black tone, turquoise encrustations, reverse center weak, weight 6.004 g, maximum diameter 26.5 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey) mint, Dec 308 - May 311 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO AVGVSTI CMH (CMH ligate), Genius standing slightly left, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, SMN∆ in exergue; $35.00 SALE PRICE $31.50


|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||follis| |(large)|
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Emperor, etc. The legend GENIO POPVLI ROMANI dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Roman People. Genius' image is of a man with a cloak half covering the shoulders leaving the rest of his body naked, holding a cornucopia in one hand, and a simpulum or a patera in the other.
RT90624. Billon follis (large), RIC VI Antiochia 59b, SRCV IV 14381, Cohen VII 78, Hunter V 66 var. (6th officina), F, well centered, weak center, a little rough, weight 11.530 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 0o, 8th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, as caesar, c. 304 - 1 Mar 305 A.D.; obverse GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, head laureate right, large head; reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (to the guardian spirit of the Roman People), Genius standing slightly left, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand H right, ANT in exergue; $30.00 SALE PRICE $27.00 ON RESERVE




  



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OBVERSE LEGENDS

DIVOGALVALMAXIMIANO
DIVOMAXIMIANOMAXIMINVSAVGFIL
GALMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
GALVALMAXIMIANVSNOBC
GALVALMAXIMIANVSNOBCAES
IMPCGALVALMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPCGALVMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPCMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPMAXENTIVSDIVOMAXIMIANOSOCERO
IMPMAXIMIANVSPFAVGMAXIMIANVSCAESAR
MAXIMIANVSAVG
MAXIMIANVSCAES
MAXIMIANVSNC
MAXIMIANVSNOBC
MAXIMIANVSNOBCAES
MAXIMIANVSPFAVG


REFERENCES

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Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappes sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 7: Carausius to Constantine & sons. (Paris, 1888).
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Gnecchi, F. I Medaglioni Romani. (Milan, 1912).
Jelocnik, A. The Sisak Hoard of Argentei of the Early Tetrarchy. (Ljubljana, 1961).
King, C. & D. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Volume V, Carausius to Romulus Augustus. (London, 1987).
Mattingly, H., E. Sydenham & P. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol V, |Part| II, Probus to Amandus. (London, 1933).
Paolucci, R. & A. Zub. La monetazione di Aquileia Romana. (Padova, 2000).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. V. Diocletian (Reform) to Zeno. (Oxford, 1982).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. IV: The Tetrarchies and the Rise of the House of Constantine...Diocletian To Constantine I, AD 284 - 337. (London, 211).
Sutherland, R. & C. Carson. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol VI, From Diocletian's reform to the death of Maximinus. (London, 1967).

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