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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |The Tetrarchy| ▸ |Galerius||View Options:  |  |  | 

Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.

Galerius was caesar and a tetrarch under Maximianus. His capital was Sirmium (modern Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia). Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after.

|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||follis|
Virtus was a specific virtue in ancient Rome. It carried connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). Virtus applied exclusively to a man's behavior in the public sphere, that is to the application of duty to the res publica in the cursus honorum. Private business was no place to earn virtus, even when it involved courage or feats of arms or other good qualities. There could be no virtue in exploiting one's manliness in the pursuit of personal wealth, for example. It was thus a frequently stated virtue of Roman emperors and was personified as the deity Virtus.
RT96899. Billon follis, RIC VI Cyzicus 59, SRCV IV 14578, Cohen VII 231, Hunter V -, gVF, well centered, sharp portrait detail, flow lines, porosity, pin-prick pitting on reverse, reverse die wear, edge slightly ragged, weight 5.856 g, maximum diameter 26.6 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint mint, Group IV, Class II, 309-10 A.D.; obverse GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse VIRTVTI EXERCITVS (courage of the army), Virtus advancing right in military dress, spear in right hand, trophy over shoulder and shield in left, A - * across fields, MKV in exergue; scarce; $80.00 (€65.60)
 


|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||post-reform| |radiate|
In 296, Diocletian dispatched his son-in-law Galerius with a large army to Armenia. Galerius invaded Mesopotamia, but was defeated outside Ctesiphon by the Persian Sassanid king Narseh. He was forced to retreat across the Euphrates into Syria, where he joined Diocletian at Antioch. In 297, Galerius remained in Syria and prepared for another campaign against the Sassanids. He recruited veterans from Illyria and Moesia. In 298, Galerius invaded with an army of 25,000 men and decisively defeated king Narseh. He captured the Persian camp, including Narseh's family, harem and treasure. Narseh signed a treaty that would last for 40 years. The Persians accepted Roman dominion over Armenia and northern Mesopotamia. The Tigris became the boundary between Rome and the Sassanid Empire.
RL94864. Copper post-reform radiate, RIC VI Alexandria p. 667, 48b; Cohen VII 22; SRCV IV 14417; Hunter V 74 var. (2nd officina), F, black patina with highlighting earthen "desert patina" deposits, porous, edge crack, weight 2.338 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Alexandria mint, as caesar, 296 - 297 A.D.; obverse GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CONCORDIA MILITVM (harmony with the soldiers), Emperor on left, standing right, wearing military dress, baton in right hand, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter, Jupiter nude but for cloak on shoulders, standing left leaning on long scepter in left hand, Victory holding wreath in right hand and palm frond in left hand, A lower center, ALE in exergue; RIC VI lists this type as common but this is the first specimen handled by FORVM, from the Ray Nouri Collection; $60.00 (€49.20)
 


|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||follis|NEW
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Roman People, etc. The legend GENIO IMPERATORIS dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Imperators. Genius' image is of a man with a cloak half covering the shoulders leaving the rest of his body naked, holding a cornucopia in one hand, and a simpulum or a patera in the other.
RL94871. Billon follis, RIC VI Alexandria 79, SRCV IV 14523, Cohen VII 48, Hunter V -, aVF, dark patina, light corrosion, weight 7.648 g, maximum diameter 24.3 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Alexandria mint, late 308 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO IMPERATORIS (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor as Commander in Chief), Genius standing left, cornucopia in left hand, pouring libations from patera in right, X left, A over K right, ALE in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $50.00 (€41.00)
 


|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||post-reform| |radiate|
Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and god of the sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is, therefore, the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. Emperors frequently made vows to Jupiter for protection. The Roman's believed as the king of the gods, Jupiter favored emperors and kings, those in positions of authority similar to his own.
RL94863. Copper post-reform radiate, SRCV IV 14414, RIC VI Cyzicus 16 corr. (mint mark), Cohen VII 22, Hunter V 47 var. (5th officina), F, rough green patina, scratches, earthen deposits, weight 3.288 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 180o, Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, as caesar, 295 - 296 A.D.; obverse GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse CONCORDIA MILITVM (harmony with the soldiers), Emperor on left, standing right, wearing military dress, baton in left hand, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter, Jupiter nude but for cloak on shoulders, standing left leaning on long scepter in left hand, Victory holding wreath in right hand and palm frond in left hand, H∆ low center, nothing in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $30.00 (€24.60)
 







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OBVERSE| LEGENDS|

DIVOGALVALMAXIMIANO
DIVOMAXIMIANOMAXIMINVSAVGFIL
GALMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
GALVALMAXIMIANVSNOBC
GALVALMAXIMIANVSNOBCAES
IMPCGALVALMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPCGALVMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPCMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPMAXENTIVSDIVOMAXIMIANOSOCERO
IMPMAXIMIANVSPFAVGMAXIMIANVSCAESAR
MAXIMIANVSAVG
MAXIMIANVSCAES
MAXIMIANVSNC
MAXIMIANVSNOBC
MAXIMIANVSNOBCAES
MAXIMIANVSPFAVG


REFERENCES|

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Cloke, H. & L. Toone. The London Mint of Constantius & Constantine. (London, 2015).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 7: Carausius to Constantine & sons. (Paris, 1888).
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Jelocnik, A. The Sisak Hoard of Argentei of the Early Tetrarchy. (Ljubljana, 1961).
King, C. & D. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Volume V, Carausius to Romulus Augustus. (London, 1987).
Mattingly, H., E. Sydenham & P. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol V, |Part| II, Probus to Amandus. (London, 1933).
Paolucci, R. & A. Zub. La monetazione di Aquileia Romana. (Padova, 2000).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. V. Diocletian (Reform) to Zeno. (Oxford, 1982).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. IV: The Tetrarchies and the Rise of the House of Constantine...Diocletian To Constantine I, AD 284 - 337. (London, 211).
Sutherland, R. & C. Carson. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol VI, From Diocletian's reform to the death of Maximinus. (London, 1967).

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