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Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
In 194, Septimius Severus Augustus and Clodius Albinus Caesar were the two Roman Consuls. Septimius Severus marched with his army of 12 legions to Cilicia and defeated Pescennius Niger, the governor of Syria, at Battle of Issus. Pescennius retreated to Antioch but was executed by Severus' troops. For siding with Niger, Septimius Severus besieged Byzantium from 194 until 196; the city walls suffered extensive damage.RS67078. Silver denarius, RIC IV 345, BMCRE V 320, RSC III 42a, VF, weight 3.420 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 180o, Alexandria mint, Feb 194 - 195 A.D.; obverse IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, laureate head right; reverse APOLLINI AVGVSTO, Apollo standing left, patera in right hand, kithara in left hand; rare; $165.00 (€151.80)
Pescennius Niger, April to 1 June 193 - March, April or May 194 A.D.
Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea Roma was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful alliance against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the Koinon of Asia and Bithynia requested permission to honor Augustus as a living god. "Republican" Rome despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for divus Augustus jointly with dea Roma. In the city of Rome itself, the earliest known state cult to dea Roma was combined with Venus at the Hadrianic Temple of Venus and Roma. This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's honor. The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea Roma with a Palladium in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.SH35846. Silver denarius, Unpublished; cf. RIC IV 72 aureus from Num. Chron., 1908, pp. 90 ff. (R5); RSC -, VF, weight 4.724 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, obverse [IMP CA]ES C PESC NIGER IVST AVG, laureate head right; reverse ROMAE AETER (eternal Rome)NA-E, Roma seated left, cornucopia in right, left rests on a rudder on globe; unique?; SOLD
Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D.
Rare type (with an unlisted obverse legend) commemorating the departure of Elagabalus from Antioch to Rome together with the sacred stone of his cult (probably a meteorite).RS33437. Silver denarius, RSC III 266 var. (Rome mint, draped bust), RIC IV 144 var. (same), VF, weight 3.097 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 219 A.D.; obverse IMP ANTONINVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse SANCT DEO SOLI ELAGABAL, slow triumphal quadriga right carrying the Emesa stone decorated with eagle and surrounded by four parasols; very rare; SOLD