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Ancient Coins of Halicarnassus, Caria
Halicarnassus was in southwest Caria on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf. It was famous for the tomb of Mausolus, built about 350 B.C., the origin of the word mausoleum, and one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. During Alexander the Great's siege of Halicarnassus in 334 B.C., the retreating Persians burned the city. Alexander failed to immediately take the citadel, but left it blockaded when he departed. Halicarnassus never fully recovered from the destruction of the siege. In the first century B.C., Cicero described it as almost deserted. The site is now occupied in part by the town of Bodrum; but the ancient walls can still be traced round nearly all their circuit, and the position of several of the temples, the theater, and other public buildings can be fixed with certainty.