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Severus Alexander and Julia Mamaea, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D., Edessa, Mesopotamia
Edessa is the historical name of an Assyrian town in northern Mesopotamia, refounded on an ancient site by Seleucus I Nicator. Caracalla was assassinated in Edessa in 217 and Valerian was captured by Shapur I at Edessa in 260.
In 230, the Persian King Ardashir I invaded Mesopotamia. Alexander attempted to make peace but was rebuffed. He and his mother Julia Mamaea made their headquarters at Antioch and accompanied the legions. The Roman counterattack was defeated in 232 but both sides suffered heavy losses and agreed to a truce. In 233, Severus Alexander celebrated a triumph in Rome to observe his "victory." RP88152. Bronze tetrassarion, Lindgren-Kovacs A2584A (same dies); BMC Arabia p. 109, 115; SNG Cop 219; Babelon Edessa 79 ff. var. (obv. leg.), F, tight flan, a little rough and porous, weight 16.145 g, maximum diameter 27.7 mm, die axis 0o, Mesopotamia, Edessa (Urfa, Sanliurfa, Turkey) mint, c. 241 - 244 A.D.; obverse AYT K M A C AΛEΞAN∆POC CEB IOYΛ MAMEAC, Confronted draped busts of Severus Alexander on left, facing right, laureate and Julia Mamaea, on right, facing left, wearing stephane; reverse MHT KOΛ E∆ECCHNΩN, Tyche seated left on low seat set on rocks, turreted, holding small temple in extended right hand, flaming altar before her on left, small figure of Aquarius standing left above her head, river-god swimming left below, four stars around in field; $70.00 (Ä59.50)
Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D., Carrhae, Mesopotamia
Caracalla was assassinated near Carrhae on 8 April 217, while urinating on a roadside. When his escort gave him privacy to relieve himself, Julius Martialis, an officer of his personal bodyguard, ran forward and killed Caracalla with a single sword stroke. Martialis fled on horseback, but was killed by a bodyguard archer. Herodian says Caracalla had executed Martialis' brother a few days earlier on an unproven charge. Cassius Dio says that Martialis was resentful at not being promoted to the rank of centurion. Macrinus, the Praetorian Guard Prefect, who succeeded him as emperor, may have arranged the assassination.RP78055. Bronze AE 15, SNG Hunterian 2490 - 2491; BMC Arabia p. 86, 37; SNG Cop -, SNG Righetti -, VF, near black patina with red earthen highlighting, tight flan, light corrosion, weight 1.643 g, maximum diameter 14.5 mm, die axis 180o, Carrhae (Altinbasak, Turkey) mint, 28 Jan 198 - 8 Apr 217 A.D.; obverseM AVR ANTONINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse COL AVR METROPOLI ANTONINIANA, veiled and turreted bust of Tyche right; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $50.00 (Ä42.50)
Tranquillina, Augusta, May 241 - 25 February 244 A.D., Singara, Mesopotamia
SH11786. Bronze AE 26, SGICV 3867, BMC Arabia 14, VF, weight 11.651 g, maximum diameter 25.8 mm, die axis 0o, Singara mint, May 241 - 25 Feb 244 A.D.; obverse CAB TPANKVΛΛINA CEB, diademed and draped bust right; reverse CVP CEΠ KOΛ CINΓAPA, veiled and turreted bust of Tyche right, centaur Sagittarius above, discharging bow; rare; SOLD
Babelon, E. La collection Waddington au cabinet des mťdailles. (1897-1898).
Babelon, E. Numismatique d'Edessa. (Paris, 1904).
Bellinger, A. The Syrian Tetradrachms of Caracalla and Macrinus. ANSNS 3. (New York, 1940).
Castelin, K.O. The Coinage of Rhesaena in Mesopotamia. ANSNNM 108. (New York, 1946).
Hill, G.F. Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum: Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia. (London, 1922).
Lindgren, H. & F. Kovacs. Ancient Bronze Coins of Asia Minor and the Levant. (San Mateo, 1985).
Lindgren, H. Lindgren III: Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
Prieur, M. & K. Prieur. The Syro-Phoenician Tetradrachms and their fractions from 57 BC to AD 258. (Lancaster, PA, 2000). RPC Online - http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/
Sear, D. Greek Imperial Coins and Their Values. (London, 1982). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 7: Cyprus to India. (West Milford, NJ, 1982). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain XII, The Hunterian Museum, Univ. of Glasgow, Part 2: Roman Provincial Coins: Cyprus-Egypt. (Oxford, 2008). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Italy, Milano, Civiche Raccolte Numismatiche, XII. Syria-Bactria et India. (Milan, 1991-1992). Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Schweiz II, Katalog der Sammlung Jean-Pierre Righetti im Bernischen Historischen Museum. (Bern, 1993).
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