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Julia Domna and her children as Terra and the Four Seasons! "The flatterers of Julia Domna pretended that all things were owing to her. The star-besprinkled globe represents the Roman world, which with her husband Septimius Severus she governed; and to the empire of which she destines her two sons, Caracalla and Geta, who, together with as many daughters, are the proof of her fecundity." -- Rasche, T. ii pl l p 932.RS85789. Silver denarius, RIC IV S549 (R), RSC III 35, BMCRE V S21, Hunter III S22, SRCV II 6579, F, well centered, slightly rough with light even corrosion, edge cracks, weight 2.369 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 207 A.D.; obverse IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair in horizontal ridges, bun at back of head; reverseFECVNDITAS (fertility), Terra reclining left under a vine, nude to the waist, right hand set on globe spangled with stars, leaning on left arm on basket of fruits, in background four children representing the four seasons; rare; $200.00 (€170.00)
Kaunos, Caria, c. 197 - 191 B.C. (or Later 2nd Century)
On the Rosetta Stone, "The Memphis Decree" announces Ptolemy V's rule and ascension to godhood, and describes him as "like Horus." In "A Statue of a Hellenistic King," Journal of Hellenistic Studies, 33 (1913), C. Edgar attributes a statue very similar to the reverse figure to Ptolemy V: "[The statue] stands with right foot drawn back, the toes alone resting on the ground...His head is held erect and his gaze is turned slightly to his right. His shoulders are drawn up a little...[the upper part] unnaturally short in proportion to the lower part of the trunk...[The missing right] forearm was clear of the body. The [missing] left hand was raised and probably rested on a spear." We believe this type is from the among the last issues of Kaunos under Ptolemaic rule, struck after the 13 year old Ptolemy V came of age in 197/6 B.C., perhaps to commemorate his accession, and before he sold the city to the Rhodians for 200 talents of silver in 191 B.C.GB87087. Bronze AE 16, SNGvA 8103; Lindgren III 425; Imhoof-Blumer KM I, p. 138, 1; BMC Caria -; SNG Cop -; SNG Keckman -; SNG München -, VF, green patina, well centered on a tight flan, a little porous/rough, tiny edge crack, weight 2.166 g, maximum diameter 15.6 mm, die axis 0o, Kaunos (Dalyan, Turkey) mint, c. 197 - 191 B.C. (or later 2nd century); obverse diademed and horned head of Alexander the Great right; reverse youth (Ptolemy V as Horus?) advancing right, nude, long lotus-tipped sceptertransverse in left hand, right arm and index finger extended, snake before him coiled around scepter, K-AY (Kaunos) divided high across field, ΣΩ-TAΣ (magistrate) divided across center; very rare; $160.00 (€136.00)
Kushan Empire, Kanishka I the Great, c. 127 – 150 A.D.
According to the Rabatak inscription, Kanishka I the Great was the son of Vima Kadphises, the grandson of Sadashkana, and the great-grandson of Kujula Kadphises. Kanishka ruled a huge territory, nearly all of northern India, south to Ujjain and Kundina and east beyond Pataliputra. His territory was administered from two capitals: Purushapura (now Peshawar in northwestern Pakistan) and Mathura, in northern India. The Kushans also had a summer capital in Bagram (then known as Kapisa), where the "Begram Treasure," comprising works of art from Greece to China, was found. He is also credited (along with Raja Dab) for building the massive fort, Qila Mubarak, in the modern city of Bathinda in Indian Punjab. Kanishka's conquests and patronage of Buddhism played an important role in the development of the Silk Road, and in the transmission of Mahayana Buddhism from Gandhara across the Karakoram range to China. Kanishka's reign began a calendar era used by the Kushans for about a century, until the decline of the realm. WA87811. Bronze tetradrachm, ANS Kushan 520, Mitchiner ACW 3079, Göbl Kushan 774, VF, well centered, dark brown tone, some porosity, weight 17.143 g, maximum diameter 27.0 mm, die axis 0o, Kapisha main mint, probably Begram mint, c. 127 – 150 A.D.; obverse Bactrian inscription: þAO KANHþKI (King Kanishka), king standing facing, with a long beard, nimbate, diademed, wearing a pointed brimmed cap, knee length tunic, trousers and boots, sword in sheath on belt, sacrificing over altar left from right hand, vertical spear in left hand; reverse lunar god Mao standing half left, head left, wearing diadem with two long ties, crescent emerging from shoulders forming halo, wearing long cloak over shoulders clasped at chest over ankle length tunic, raising right hand in blessing, left hand resting on hilt of sword in sheath on belt, tamgha left, Bactrian legend right MAO downward on right; $125.00 (€106.25)
Roman Republic, Lucius Caesius, 112 - 111 B.C.
An Egyptian papyrus of 112 B.C. issues instructions to a local official in the Fayum for the visit of a Roman senator, Lucius Memmius. He was apparently visiting for pleasure, to see the sights, and was to receive a reception similar to that which would be given to a great dignitary of the kingdom. Everything was to be ready for his entertainment, including food for the sacred crocodiles. It is an incidental light upon the subservience to members of the Roman elite which it was now thought politic to show in the Ptolemaic Kingdom.RR88447. Silver denarius, Crawford 298/1, Sydenham 564, RSC ICaesia 1, BMCRR Italy 585, RBW Collection 1140, SRCV I 175, VF, toned, some pitting, a few scratches, weight 3.724 g, maximum diameter 20.5 mm, die axis 90o, Rome mint, 112 - 111 B.C.; obversebust of Vejovis left, viewed from behind, wearing a taenia and a cloak over his left shoulder, hurling a thunderbolt with his right hand, ROMAmonogram right; reverse the two Lares Praestites seated right, each holds long scepter in left hand, dog between them, head of Vulcan facing left and tongs above, LA (ligate) left, PRE (ligate) right, L·CÆSI in exergue; ex CNG auction 419 (25 Apr 2018), lot 340; $120.00 (€102.00)
Kios, Bithynia, c. 325 - 203 B.C.
According to myth, Kios (Cius) was founded on the Propontis (Sea of Marmara) by Herakles when he accompanied the Argonauts. According to historians, it was founded in 626 - 625 B.C. by colonists from Miletos. Kios was often subject to greater powers, predominantly the Persian Empire until Alexander the Great invaded and took the city in 334 B.C. After disputes with Alexander's successors, Kios joined the Aetolian League, in opposition to Macedonia. In 202 B.C., Philip V of Macedonia and Prusias I of Bythinia destroyed the city and massacred, banished, or enslaved its citizens. Prusias built a new city on the site and named it for himself (Prusias ad Mare). After this atrocity, the Rodians asked the Roman Senate for help. The Romans seized this opportunity to invade Greece and defeat Philip V. In 74 B.C., after the death of King Nikomides III, the Romans occupied Kios and the whole of Bythinia. Under Rome, the name Kios was revived. An important link in the ancient Silk Road, Kios became a wealthy town.GB89135. Bronze AE 11, SNG Cop 382; BMC Pontus, p. 131, 20; var. (KIA); SNGvA 7004 var. (same); Rec Gén I.2 7 var. (same), VF, nice dark green patina, weight 1.020 g, maximum diameter 10.5 mm, die axis 0o, Kios (Bursa, Turkey) mint, c. 325 - 203 B.C.; obverse young beardless male head (Mithras?) right, wearing a Phrygian cap and laurel wreath; reverseKantharos between two bunches of grapes hanging on vines which emerge from the cup, K-I divided by stem, all within wreath of two stalks of grain; rare; $100.00 (€85.00)
Kushan Empire, Kanishka I the Great, c. 127 - 150 A.D.
The Kushan territories encompassed the Iranian-language speaking regions of Sogdiana, Ferghana, Bactria, Arachosia, Gandhara, and Taxila, and the conquered Indian territory of Mathura. These provinces lie in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and northwestern Pakistan. WA87808. Bronze tetradrachm, ANS Kushan 553 - 560, Göbl Kushan 781, Mitchiner ACW 3095, aVF, brown tone, well centered, scattered porosity, scratches, weight 16.931 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 0o, Kapisha main mint, probably Begram mint, c. 128 - 150 A.D.; obverse Bactrian inscription: þAO KANHþKI (King Kanishka), king standing facing, long beard, nimbate, diademed, wearing a round brimmed cap, knee length tunic, trousers and boots, sword in sheath on belt, sacrificing over altar left from right hand, vertical spear in left hand; reverse god Oesho (resembles Shiva) standing facing, four-arms, nimbatehead left, hair in a topknot; holding attributes: diadem, thunderbolt, trident and water pot; tamgha left, Bactrian legend OHþO on right; ex Tyche Numismatics; $90.00 (€76.50)
Kushan Empire, Kanishka I the Great, c. 127 - 150 A.D.
Nana was a female Kushan divinity from Bactria, a variation of pan-Asiatic Nana, a conflation of Sumero-Babylonian Inanna-Ishtar with a local divinity. Nana is first attested by name on a coin of Sapadbizes, a 1st century B.C. king of Bactria who preceded the Kushans. In this case, Nana is depicted as a lion. Nana reappears two centuries later on coins and seals of the Kushan kings, in particular of Kanishka I. She was typically depicted as a seated martial goddess, escorted by a lion. She was also associated with fertility, wisdom and as a goddess of the waters (in particular of the Indus River). Depictions of Nana are known from Afghanistan as late as the 5th - 6th century. In Afghanistan and Pakistan the name appears as "Nawi," the Pashto word for bride. WA87810. Bronze tetradrachm, ANS Kushan 440 ff., Göbl Kushan 776, Mitchiner ACW 3091, VF, dark brown tone, edge crack, weight 15.625 g, maximum diameter 26.9 mm, die axis 0o, Kapisha main mint, probably Begram mint, c. 128 - 150 A.D.; obverse Bactrian inscription: þAO KANHþKI (King Kanishka), king standing facing, nimbate, diademed, wearing a round brimmed cap, knee length tunic, trousers and boots, sword in sheath on belt, sacrificing over altar left from right hand, vertical spear in left hand; reverse goddess Nana standing half right, nimbate, wearing diadem with long ties, and sleeved ankle length robe, hair with bun in the back, scepter topped with lionprotome in right hand, bowl in left hand, Bactrian inscription NANA upward behind, tamga right; ex Moneta (Missouri Numismatic Society Bourse, July 2015); $90.00 (€76.50)
Kushan Empire, Kanishka I the Great, c. 127 - 150 A.D.
Oesho was a deity represented on the coins of several Kushan kings, one of the titular deities of the dynasty. Nearly all of the images of Oesho are on coins, suggesting his worship was a royal cult, not widely followed by the kings' subjects. Oesho was the only deity depicted on coins of Wima Kadphises, where he is portrayed with an erect lingam and is accompanied by a bull. Under Vasudeva I the iconography varied, with the god depicted with either two or four arms (holding a diadem, thunderbolt, trident and water pot), and one or three heads. The bull, water-pot, and trident became key attributes of Shiva in later Hindu art. WA87812. Bronze tetradrachm, ANS Kushan 553, Göbl Kushan 781, Mitchiner ACW 3093, VF, excellent reverse detail, dark brown toning, earthen encrustations, obverse off center, edge crack, weight 16.644 g, maximum diameter 26.9 mm, die axis 0o, Kapisha main mint, probably Begram mint, c. 128 - 150 A.D.; obverse Bactrian inscription: þAO KANHþKI (King Kanishka), king standing facing, with a long beard, nimbate, diademed, wearing a round brimmed cap, knee length tunic, trousers and boots, sword in sheath on belt, sacrificing over altar left from right hand, vertical spear in left hand; reverse god Oesho (resembles Shiva) standing facing, four-arms, nimbatehead left, hair in a topknot; wears bracelets, armlets and amulet string across chest; holding attributes: diadem, thunderbolt, trident and water pot; tamgha left, Bactrian legend OHþO on right; ex ECIN; $70.00 (€59.50)
Lix, Mauretania, NorthAfrica, c. 50 - 1 B.C.
Ancient Lixus is located within modern Larache, on the right bank of Loukkos River the about three km inland from the Atlantic ocean. Lixus was first settled by the Phoenicians in the 7th century B.C. and was later annexed by Carthage. When Carthage fell to Rome, Lixus became an imperial outpost of the Roman province Mauretania Tingitana. Among the ruins, there are Roman baths, temples, 4th-century walls, a mosaic floor, a Christian church and the intricate remains of the Capitol Hill.GB84541. Bronze AE 18, Alexandropoulos MAA 168, Mazard 633, SNG Cop 694, SGCV II 6643, Fair, rough, scratches, weight 5.653 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 180o, Lixus (Larache, Morocco) mint, c. 50 - 1 B.C.; obversehead of Chusor-Phtah right, wearing pointed cap with long tassel; reverse bunch of grapes, neo-Punic inscription: MPM - LKS divided across field; ex RBW collection; rare; $45.00 (€38.25)