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King Philip IV, deeply in debt to the Knights Templar, took advantage of rumors about the Order's secret initiation ceremony. On Friday, October 13, 1307, he had the Order's members in France arrested (the origin of the Friday the 13th superstition). Pope Clement, under threat from Philip, instructed all Christian monarchs in Europe to arrest all Templars and seize their assets. Many Templars were tortured into giving false confessions and burned at the stake. Grand Master Jacques de Molay, burned alive in Paris in 1314, called out from the flames, "Dieu sait qui a tort et a pëché. Il va bientot arriver malheur à ceux qui nous ont condamnés à mort" ("God knows who is wrong and has sinned. Soon a calamity will occur to those who have condemned us to death"). Pope Clement died only a month later, and King Philip died in a hunting accident before the end of the year.ME87718. Silver Gros Tournois, Van Hengel 432.02; Duplessy 213, Ciani 201, Roberts 2461, Lafaurie I 217, VF, well centered and stuck, part of edge a little ragged, weight 3.966 g, maximum diameter 25.8 mm, die axis 270o, 1285 - 1290; obverse outer legend: + BNDICTV: SIT: NOmE: DNI: nRI: DEI: IhV: XPI (the name of our Lord Jesus Christ be blessed, N's as H, m open, triple pellet stops), inner legend: + PHILIPPVS' REX (King Philip, no stop); cross pattée; reverse TVRONVS CIVIS (City of Tours, R with tail, round O, N reversed, pellet at top of second V, no stop), Châtel tournois topped with a cross, border of twelve lis within arches; $395.00 (€335.75)
Persian Empire, Mazaios, Satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia, c. 361 - 334 B.C.
Mazaios was the Persian satrap of Cilicia beginning about 361 BC and in about 345 B.C. he was also made satrap of Transeuphratesia (which included Syria and Judaea). In 331 BC, Mazaios was defeated by Alexander the Great at the Battle of Gaugamela, after which he fled to Babylon. Later that year Mazaios surrendered Babylon, the capital of the Persian Empire, to Alexander. For surrendering without a fight, Alexander appointed Mazaios governor of Babylon. He died in 328 B.C. GS87944. Silver stater, Casabonne Series 4, Group B; SNG BnF 359; SNG Levante 113; SNGvA 5961; SNG Cop 314; BMC Lycaonia p. 170, 48;, aVF, toned, bumps, marks, slight flan bend, reverse off center, weight 10.865 g, maximum diameter 24.4 mm, die axis 90o, Cilicia, Tarsos (Tarsus, Mersin, Turkey) mint, 361 - 334 B.C.; obverseBaaltars seated left on throne, nude to waist, eagle on lotus tipped scepter in right hand, himation over left arm and around hips and legs; grain ear and grape bunch above Aramaic N left, Aramaic inscription on right: B'LTRZ, Aramaic M below throne; reverse Aramaic legend: MZDI ZI 'L 'BRNH RAWHLK' (Mazaios governor of Transeuphrates and Cilicia), lion left with head facing, attacking bull which kneels right; two lines of crenelated city walls below each with four towers one above the other; $375.00 (€318.75)
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Augusta Traiana, Thrace
Augusta Traiana (Stara Zagora, Bulgaria today) was founded by Trajan, c. 106 A.D. During 2nd - 3rd century A.D., it was the second largest city in Roman Thrace, after Philippopolis, and was fortified by strong walls. The city struck bronze coins from the time of Marcus Aurelius to Gallienus.RP83509. Brass AE 31, Schönert-GeissAugusta Traiana 163, Varbanov II 1009 (R7), SNG Cop -, BMC Thrace -, F, well centered, centration dimples, weight 15.997 g, maximum diameter 30.8 mm, die axis 0o, Augusta Traiana (Stara Zagora, Bulgaria) mint, 9 Apr 193 - 4 Feb 211 A.D.; obverse AV K Λ CEΠTI - CEVHPOC Π, laureate head right; reverse AVΓOVCT-HC TRAIAN-HC, tetrastyle temple on raised platform, flanked on each side by a tree and a stag leaping outward, Artemis standing right within the temple, holding bow in left hand and drawing arrow from quiver on shoulder with right hand; big 31 mm bronze!; very rare; $195.00 (€165.75)
Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
The reverse depicts the double temple of Venus and Roma, designed by Hadrian, the largest and most splendid temple in Rome, finished by Antoninus Pius. Damaged by fire in 307, the temple was restored "in magnificent manner" by Maxentius. When Constantius visited Rome fifty years later, the "Temple of the City" was one of the sights he most admired. In 625, Pope Honorius received a special dispensation from Heraclius to strip the gilded bronze roof tiles for the repair of St. Peter's. During a twelve-day visit to Rome in 663, Constans II stripped it of its remaining bronze ornaments. It was damaged by an earthquake in 847. Later a church was built in the ruins.RA76944. Silveredantoninianus, Hunter IV 32 (also 3rd officina); RIC V-2 185; Cohen VI 530; Pink VI-1, p. 56-57/4; SRCV III -, Choice EF, near full silvering, superb portrait, light marks, weight 4.097 g, maximum diameter 24.1 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Rome mint, emission 4, 279 A.D.; obverse IMP PROBVS AVG, radiate and cuirassedbust right; reverse ROMAE AETER (eternal Rome), statue of Roma seated facing inside a hexastyle temple, head left, Victory in right, long scepter in left hand, R pellet in crescent with horns up Γ in exergue; $140.00 (€119.00)
Constantius II as Caesar, 324-337 A.D.
In 328 Arelatum was renamed Constantia in honor of Constantine II. After Constantine II was killed in 340, the name reverted to Arelate, only to be changed again in 354 to Constantia by Constantius II. It retained that name, although the mintmark 'AR' appeared on some of its coins even in the fifth century.RL86836. Billonfollis, RIC VIIArles 323, LRBC I 333, SRCV V 17665, Cohen VIII 314, Hunter V -, Choice gVF, brown patina, weight 3.213 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Arelatum (Arles, France) mint, as caesar, 328 A.D.; obverse FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, draped, and cuirassedbust left; reverseVIRTVS CAESS (the valor of the two princes), campgate with four turrets, star above, gates open, each door with two panels, each panel ornamented with two dots, S - F flanking at sides, QCONST in exergue; Vauctions sale 250 (5 Aug 2010), lot 167; ex Zachary "Beast" Beasley Collection of Camp Gates; $120.00 (€102.00)
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Perinthus, Thrace
A neocorate was a rank or dignity granted by the Roman Senate and the Emperor to certain cities which had built temples to the Emperor or had established cults of members of the Imperial family. The city itself was referred to as neokoros (pl. neokoroi). A temple dedicated to the emperor was also called neocorate. Starting in the 2nd century CE, the title appeared on many coins. There were approximately 37 cities holding the neocorate, concentrated in the province of Asia, but also in neighboring provinces. Severus rewarded Perinthus with the title Neokoros for the first time for their support against Pescennius Niger. The city received a second neocorate under Elagabalus.RP83931. Bronze tetrassarion, CNT_2626, Schönert Perinthos 466, Varbanov III 193 (R5), Moushmov 4524, SNG Cop 741 var. (draped and cuirassed), BMC Thrace -, F, nice portrait, green patina, scratches, small edge crack, central dimples, weight 15.690 g, maximum diameter 31.4 mm, die axis 225o, Heraclea Perinthos (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, 196 - 211 A.D.; obverse AY KΛ CEΠ CEYHPOC ΠE, laureate head right; reverse facade of a octastyle temple on double crepidoma with eight Corinthian columns, shield with umbo on pediment and acroteria on roof, ΠE−PIN/ΘI−ΩN flanking across field in two divided lines, NEΩKOPΩC in exergue; $115.00 (€97.75)
Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D., Zeugma, Commagene, Syria
Zeugma was founded by Seleucus I Nicator who almost certainly named the city Seleucia after himself. In 64 B.C. the city was conquered by Rome and renamed Zeugma, meaning "bridge of boats." On the Silk Road connecting Antioch to China, Zeugma had a pontoon bridge across the Euphrates, which was the long time border with the Persian Empire. The Legio IV Scythica was camped in Zeugma. The legion and the trade station brought great wealth to Zeugma until, in 256, Zeugma was fully destroyed by the Sassanid king, Shapur I. An earthquake then buried the city beneath rubble. The city never regained its earlier prosperity and, after Arab raids in the 5th and 6th centuries, it was abandoned again.RY86830. Bronze AE 22, RPC Online IV 8532 (52 spec.); SNG Hunterian 2628 (same c/m); BMC Galatia p. 125, 8 (same); SNG Cop 28; countermark: Howgego 453 (32 pcs.), aF, c/m VF, tight flan, earthen deposits, corrosion, edge cracks , weight 10.192 g, maximum diameter 21.5 mm, die axis 0o, Zeugma mint, 138 - 161 A.D.; obverse AYTO KAI TIT AIΛ A∆P ANTWNEINOC CEB EY (or similar), laureate head right, countermark: 5-pointed star in same shaped 5 mm punch; reverse ZEYΓMTEWN, tetrastyle temple, a rectangular walled and colonnaded peribolos before the temple containing sacred grove, crescent with horns up above, obscure officina letter upper left; ex Beast Coins; $110.00 (€93.50)
Crusaders, Athens, Frankish Greece, Guy II de La Roche, 1287 - 1308
Guy II de la Roche was the Duke of Athens from 1287, the last duke of his family. He succeeded as a minor on the death of his father, William I, at a time when the duchy of Athens had exceeded the Principality of Achaea in wealth, power, and importance. Guy was originally under the tutorship and regency of his mother, Helena Angelina Komnene, who was forced to make submission to Isabella of Villehardouin. In 1299, Guy was engaged to Matilda, daughter of Isabella and and her husband, Florent of Hainaut. Charles objected, as his permission had not been sought, but Pope Boniface VIII intervened on the young couple's behalf. In 1307, Guy was made bailli of Achaea by its new prince, Philip I of Taranto. He governed well, but for barely a year. He died, 5 October 1308, at the age of twenty-eight, but was respected and renowned for his chivalry and manners, typical of the Frankish courts kept in Greece.ME85309. Billondenier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 85, Metcalf Crusades Variety 1c and pl. 42, 1067; Schlumberger XXXIX 14, VF, well centered, toned, areas of weak legend, tiny edge cracks, weight 0.783 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 45o, Athens mint, majority, 1294 - 1308 A.D.; obverse + GVI DVX ATENES (trefoils flanking cross, trefoil stops), cross pattée; reverse + ThEBANI.CIVIS (trefoils flanking cross), castle tournois, double pellet at beginning and end of legend; ex C. Subak (Chicago, Sep 1975); $100.00 (€85.00)
Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
The reverse depicts the double temple of Venus and Roma, designed by Hadrian, the largest and most splendid temple in Rome, finished by Antoninus Pius sometime between 140 and 145. Damaged by fire in 307, the temple was restored "in magnificent manner" by Maxentius (AureliusVictor, De Caesaribus, XL). When Constantius visited Rome fifty years later, the so-called Temple of the City was one of the sights that he most admired (Ammianus, History, XVI.10.14). In 625, Pope Honorius received a special dispensation from Heraclius to strip the gilded bronze roof tiles for the repair of St. Peter's. During a twelve-day visit to Rome in 663, Constans II stripped it of its remaining bronze ornaments. It was damaged by an earthquake in 847. Later a church was built in the ruins.RA87678. Billonantoninianus, RIC V-2 737; Cohen VI 556; Pink VI-1, p. 50; SRCV III -, Choice VF, dark brown patina, light corrosion, weight 3.167 g, maximum diameter 25.1 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 277 A.D.; obverseIMP CM AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiatebust left in consular robe, eagle-tipped scepter in right hand; reverseROMAE AETERNAE (to eternal Rome), hexastyle temple, statue of Roma seated facing inside, Victory in her right hand, long scepter vertical in her left hand, shield leaning against seat on left, three steps, wreath on pediment, XXIQ in exergue; $100.00 (€85.00)
Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea Philip of Taranto, 1307 - 1313
Philip of Taranto was the son of Charles II and the overlord of Philip of Savoy. Charles II deposed Philip of Savoy in June 1306, and in 1307 Philip of Taranto took the title of prince. Based on epigraphy, Metcalf identifies this type as possibly struck at Corinth. Malloy Crusaders notes the obverselegend ending variation (but for type 24, not 25), and notes, "D P, for 'Depotes,' presumably rather than D R, for 'Depotes Romanie.'"ME85305. Billondenier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 25 var. (obv. leg. ends D•R•), Metcalf Crusades PT1, 979 var. (same), VF, toned, edge cracks, weight 0.838 g, maximum diameter 20.7 mm, die axis 180o, Clarentza (or Corinth?) mint, 1307 - 1313; obverse + •Ph'S P•ACH•TAR•D•P• (Philip, Prince of Achaea and Taranto, Despot [of Romania]), cross pattée; reverse + DE CLARENCIA (fleur-de-lis on each side of cross), castle tournois, pellet on each side of castle, fleur-de-lis below; ex C. Subak (Chicago, Sep 1975); scarcer variety; $95.00 (€80.75)