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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |The Severan Period| ▸ |Caracalla||View Options:  |  |  | 

Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, better known as Caracalla, was the son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, born in 188 A.D. He was named Caesar in 196 and Augustus in 198. Shortly before his death, Severus advised his sons, "Agree with each other, give money to the soldiers and scorn all other men." But the brothers hated each other and soon Caracalla had Geta murdered and massacred thousands suspected of supporting him. Although a capable military commander, the actual running of the government was left to his mother. He gradually slipped more and more into paranoia and delusions of grandeur before being murdered on his way to an Eastern campaign aimed at fulfilling his belief that he was the reincarnation of Alexander the Great.

|Caracalla|, |Caracalla,| |28| |January| |198| |-| |8| |April| |217| |A.D.||dupondius|
In 213, Caracalla left Rome to expel some German marauders from Gaul, then defended the northern Rhine frontier against the Alamanni and the Chatti. After his victory over the German tribes on the banks of the River Main, he gave himself the title "Germanicus." It is probably while campaigning in Germania that he took a liking to the caracalla, a Celtic or German tunic from which he acquired the name by which he is known today. His mother, Julia Domna, stayed behind and ruled the Empire.
RB98433. Orichalcum dupondius, RIC IV 514 (S), BMCRE V 254, Cohen IV 534, SRCV II 6973, Hunter III 81 var. (slight drapery), aVF, excellent portrait, dark green and red patina, reverse legend partially unstruck, weight 8.190 g, maximum diameter 251 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 213 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, radiate head right; reverse PROVIDENTIAE DEORVM (to the foresight of the gods), Providentia standing left, baton held over globe in right hand, long scepter in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; scarce; $200.00 SALE PRICE $180.00
 


Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D., Petra, Arabia

|Roman| |Arabia|, |Caracalla,| |28| |January| |198| |-| |8| |April| |217| |A.D.,| |Petra,| |Arabia||AE| |23|
Petra, the capital of the ancient Nabatean Kingdom, is a famous archaeological site in Jordan's southwestern desert. UNESCO describes Petra as "one of the most precious cultural properties of man's cultural heritage." The BBC selected Petra as one of "the 40 places you have to see before you die." Accessed via a narrow canyon called Al Siq, it contains tombs and temples carved into pink sandstone cliffs, earning its nickname, the "Rose City." Perhaps its most famous structure is 45m-high Al Khazneh, a temple with an ornate, Greek-style facade, and known as The Treasury. After the last Nabataean king, Rabbel II, died in 106 A.D., Trajan incorporated Nabataea into the Roman province Arabia Petraea. One of the latest known Nabataean language inscriptions, from 191 A.D., records "...This in the year 85 of the Eparchy [Roman Rule], in which Arabs destroyed the land." It seems likely that raiding Arab tribes extinguished what remained of a weakened Nabataean culture. In 747 A.D. what was left of the Nabataean cities was destroyed in a major earthquake.Treasury
RY94893. Bronze AE 23, Spijkerman pl. 51, 43a (same dies), cf. Sofaer 45 (normal style, legends), BMC Arabia -, SNG Cop -, SNG ANS -, SNG Hunterian -, Rosenberger IV -, aVF, dark patina with highlighting earthen deposits, barbaric style and epigraphy, weak incomplete legends, weight 10.894 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, 28 Jan 198 - 209 A.D.; obverse ANTEINO M AVP - AVTOKRATO (or similar), laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front, barbaric style; reverse MHTPOΠO A∆P ΠETPO (or similar), Tyche seated left on pile of rocks, extending right hand, trophy over shoulder in left, barbaric style; from the Ray Nouri Collection; very rare; $130.00 SALE PRICE $117.00
 


Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D., Petra, Arabia

|Roman| |Arabia|, |Caracalla,| |28| |January| |198| |-| |8| |April| |217| |A.D.,| |Petra,| |Arabia||AE| |24|
Petra, the capital of the ancient Nabatean Kingdom, is a famous archaeological site in Jordan's southwestern desert. UNESCO describes Petra as "one of the most precious cultural properties of man's cultural heritage." The BBC selected Petra as one of "the 40 places you have to see before you die." Accessed via a narrow canyon called Al Siq, it contains tombs and temples carved into pink sandstone cliffs, earning its nickname, the "Rose City." Perhaps its most famous structure is 45m-high Al Khazneh, a temple with an ornate, Greek-style facade, and known as The Treasury. After the last Nabataean king, Rabbel II, died in 106 A.D., Trajan incorporated Nabataea into the Roman province Arabia Petraea. One of the latest known Nabataean language inscriptions, from 191 A.D., records "...This in the year 85 of the Eparchy [Roman Rule], in which Arabs destroyed the land." It seems likely that raiding Arab tribes extinguished what remained of a weakened Nabataean culture. In 747 A.D. what was left of the Nabataean cities was destroyed in a major earthquake.Treasury
RY94944. Bronze AE 24, Sofaer 45, Spijkerman 42; Rosenberger IV -, SNG ANS -, SNG Cop -, SNG Hunterian -, BMC Arabia -, aF, near black patina, orange earthen fill, weight 7.676 g, maximum diameter 23.9 mm, die axis 0o, Petra (Jordan) mint, 28 Jan 198 - 8 Apr 217 A.D.; obverse K M AVP ANTWN CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse A∆PI ΠETPA MHT, Tyche seated left on pile of rocks, wearing turreted crown, extending right hand, trophy in left hand; from the Ray Nouri Collection; rare; $115.00 SALE PRICE $104.00
 


Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D., Kyme, Aiolis

|Aeolis|, |Caracalla,| |28| |January| |198| |-| |8| |April| |217| |A.D.,| |Kyme,| |Aiolis||AE| |38|
Hygieia was the Greek goddess of health. She was the daughter of Asklepios, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asklepios learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one snake bringing another snake healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.
RP85686. Bronze AE 38, SNGvA 1652; Kraft p. 111, 9a; McClean 7927; Rhousopoulous 3547; SNG Cop -; BMC Troas -, Choice VF, full circles strike on a broad flan, excellent portrait, porosity and some minor pitting, weight 21.937 g, maximum diameter 37.5 mm, die axis 180o, Kyme (near Nemrut Limani, Turkey) mint, c. 212 - 8 Apr 217 A.D.; obverse AV K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse EΠI CTPA ΦΛA ΠAVCEPΩTOC (prefect, strategos Phla(...) Pauserotos), Hygieia on the left, standing facing, feeding snake held in her arms, head right looking at Asklepios, Asklepios on the right, standing slightly right, head turned back left, wearing himation, leaning on snake entwined staff in his right hand, KYMAIΩN in exergue; ex Divus Numismatik; very rare; SOLD


Caracalla [and Geta], 198 - 212 A.D., Stratonicea, Caria, Damnatio Memoriae

|Geta|, |Caracalla| |[and| |Geta],| |198| |-| |212| |A.D.,| |Stratonicea,| |Caria,| |Damnatio| |Memoriae||AE| |36|
After Geta's murder, Caracalla damned his memory, Damnatio Memoriae, requiring the destruction of every reference to his younger brother. Both Geta's portrait and legend were intentionally erased from this coin. The countermark shows an older Caracalla.
SH60677. Bronze AE 36, SNGvA 2687, SNG Cop -; countermark: Howgego 84, aF, flan crack, weight 19.254 g, maximum diameter 36.4 mm, die axis 0o, Stratoniceia (Eskihisar, Mugla Province, Turkey) mint, 198 - 212 A.D.; obverse [MAP ANTΩNINON CE...], confronted laureate and draped busts of Caracalla and Geta [the bust of Geta erased]; countermark: laureate bearded bust of Caracalla right in round punch; reverse [EΠI EΠITYNXANONTOΣ TOY ΦIΛΩNOΣ ΣTPATONIKEN], Hekate standing facing, head left, patera in right hand, torch in left hand, altar at feet left; rare; SOLD


Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D., Sidon, Phoenicia

|Roman| |Phoenicia|, |Caracalla,| |28| |January| |198| |-| |8| |April| |217| |A.D.,| |Sidon,| |Phoenicia||tetradrachm|
Zeus was enamored of Europa and decided to seduce or ravish her. He transformed himself into a tame white bull and mixed in with her father's herds. While Europa and her female attendants were gathering flowers, she saw the bull, caressed his flanks, and eventually got onto his back. Zeus took that opportunity and ran to the sea and swam, with her on his back, to the island of Crete. He then revealed his true identity, and Europa became the first queen of Crete. Zeus gave her a necklace made by Hephaestus and three additional gifts: Talos, Laelaps and a javelin that never missed. Zeus later re-created the shape of the white bull in the stars, which is now known as the constellation Taurus.
RP42404. Silver tetradrachm, Prieur 1356 var. (reverse legend break), aVF, weight 13.894 g, maximum diameter 26.4 mm, die axis 180o, Sidon (Saida, Lebanon) mint, 215 - 217 A.D.; obverse AYT KAI ANTΩNEINOC CE, laureate bust right, from behind; reverse ∆HMAPX EX YΠATO-C ∆, eagle standing facing on club, wings open, head left, wreath in beak, Europa riding a bull between legs; SOLD


Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D., Hadrianopolis, Thrace

|Hadrianopolis|, |Caracalla,| |28| |January| |198| |-| |8| |April| || |217| |A.D.,| |Hadrianopolis,| |Thrace||AE| |20|
The figure on the reverse is sometimes identified as Eros (Cupid) or a generic winged Genius. The inverted torch represents a life extinguished, indicating the figure is Thanatos (death). By the Severan Era, there was increased hope for an afterlife in pleasant Elysium rather than in dismal Hades. Thanatos was associated more with a gentle passing than a woeful demise. Thanatos as a winged boy, very much akin to Cupid, with crossed legs and an inverted torch, became the most common symbol for death, depicted on many Roman sarcophagi.
RP89895. Bronze AE 20, Jurukova Hadrianopolis 390 (V199/R379), Varbanov II 3526 (R4), SNG Cop 571, BMC Thrace -, VF, brown tone, attractive style, slightly ragged flan with small edge splits, weight 3.986 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 30o, Hadrianopolis (Edirne, Turkey) mint, obverse AVT K M AVP C EV - ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right; reverse A∆PIANOΠOΛEITΩN, Thanatos standing right, winged, legs crossed, leaning on inverted extinguished torch; SOLD







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OBVERSE| LEGENDS|

ANTONINVSAVGVSTV
ANTONINVSAVGVSTVS
ANTONINVSPIVSAVG
ANTONINVSPIVSAVGBRIT
ANTONINVSPIVSAVGGERM
ANTONINVSPIVSFELAVG (ALSO USED BY ELAGABALUS)
DIVOANTONINOMAGNO
IMPCAEMAVRANTAVGPTRP
IMPCAESMAVRELANTONINVSAVG
IMPANTONINETGETACAESAVGFIL
IMPCMAVRANTONAVGPTRP
IMPCMAVRANTONINVSAVG
IMPCMAVRANTONAVGPTRP
IMPCMAVRANTONINVSAVG
IMPCMAVRANTONINVSPONTAVG
IMPMAVRANTONINVSPIVSAVGPMTRPXIII
MAVRANTCAESPONTIF
MAVRANTONCAESPONTIF
MAVRANTONINVSCAES
MAVRELANTONINVSPIVSAVG
MAVRELANTONINVSPIVSAVGBRIT
MAVRELANTONINVSPIVSAVGGERM


REFERENCES|

Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
The Barry P. Murphy Collection of Severan Denarii - http://bpmurphy.ancients.info/severan/severanhome.htm
Bickford-Smith, R. "The imperial mints in the east for Septimius Severus: it is time to begin a thorough reconsideration" in RIN XCVI (1994/1995), pp. 53-71.
Calicó, E. The Roman Avrei, Vol. II: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cayón, J. Los Sestercios del Imperio Romano, Vol. III: De Marco Aurelio a Caracalla (Del 161 d.C. al 217 d.C.). (Madrid, 1984).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 4: Septimius Severus to Maximinus Thrax. (Paris, 1884).
Mattingly, H., E. Sydenham & C. Sutherland. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. IV: From Pertinax to Uranius Antoninus. (London, 1986).
Mattingly, H. & R. Carson. Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum, Vol. 5: Pertinax to Elagabalus. (London, 1950).
Online Coins of the Roman Empire (OCRE) - http://numismatics.org/ocre/
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. III. Pertinax to Aemilian. (Oxford, 1977).
Seaby, H. & Sear, D. Roman Silver Coins, Vol. III, Pertinax to Balbinus and Pupienus. (London, 1982).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. II: The Accession of Nerva to the Overthrow of the Severan Dynasty AD 96 - AD 235. (London, 2002).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

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