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Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Roman armies invaded the Iberian peninsula in 218 B.C. and used it as a training ground for officers and as a proving ground for tactics during campaigns against the Carthaginians, the Iberians, the Lusitanians, the Gallaecians and other Celts. It was not until 19 B.C. that Augustus was able to complete the conquest. Under the Roman Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Baetica and Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova, later renamed "Callaecia" (or Gallaecia, whence modern Galicia). From Diocletian's Tetrarchy (A.D. 284) onwards, the south of remaining Tarraconensis was again split off as Carthaginensis, and probably then too the Balearic Islands and all the resulting provinces formed one civil diocese under the vicarius for the Hispaniae (that is, the Celtic provinces).
Iberia / Hispania, c. 200 - 1 B.C., Lot of 11 Bronze Coins
The following list was provided by the consignor and has not been verified by FORVM: 1) Carteia, Spain, AE20, Neptune standing left, RPC I 122, F, ex RBW 2) p2338) Carteia, Spain, AE17, dolphin / rudder, RPC I 119, aVF, ex RBW 3) Obulco, Spain, AE35, SNG BM Spain 1405, F/Fair, punch on rev. 4) Turiaso, Spain, c. 150 BC, head right / horseman right, F-VF 5) Castulo, Spain, AE26 (12.69g), bare male head right / sphinx right, SNG Cop 211, VF, deep split or cut 6) Carteia, Spain, AE17, turreted head of Tyche right / D D winged figure on dolphin right, RPC I 116, F, ex RBW 7) Another, also ex RBW 8) Castulo, AE29, sphinx right, F, porous 9) Ulia, Spain, AE29, female head right, crescent below, palm before / VLIA framed by branches, Burgos 1977, F, edge chip 10) Gades, AE16, head of Melqart left / dolphin right, F 11) Spain, AE34, male head right / helmeted griffin or sphinx, Fair LT96155. Bronze Lot, Lot of 11 Bronze Coins from Iberia / Hispania, c. 200 - 1 B.C., unattributed to type, no tags or flips, the actual coins in the photograph, as-is, no returns; $220.00 SALE |PRICE| $198.00
Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.
Hadrian was born in Hispania. The origin of the name Hispania is much disputed and the evidence for the various speculations is very weak. Two theories hold it to be of Punic derivation, from the Phoenician language of colonizing Carthage. In Hebrew, "i-shfania" means "island of the rabbit." Punic-Phoenician and Hebrew are both Canaanite languages and therefore closely related to each other. The name Hispania may be derived from an ancient Punic name identifying the place as a land of rabbits. Another theory holds the name is derived the word from the Phoenician word "span," meaning hidden, indicating a hidden, that is, a remote, or far-distant land. Although missing on this specimen, the rabbit in this series has been used as evidence to support the first theory.RB97212. Orichalcum sestertius, BMCRE III 1748 (no rabbit), RIC II-3 1664 (S), Cohen II 832 (no rabbit), Cohen II 840 (rabbit right), Hunter II -, SRCV II -, aF, dark brown patina, edge crack, light scratches and deposits, tooling on reverse legend, weight 23.335 g, maximum diameter 31.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 134 - 138 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate and draped bust right; reverse HISPANIA, Hispania reclining left, olive branch in extended right hand, left arm on rocks, rabbit (if any, worn) right on near side of rocks, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue; scarce; $140.00 SALE |PRICE| $126.00
Carmo, Hispania Ulterior, Early 1st Century B.C.
Hispania is the Latin term given to the Iberian peninsula. Hispania Ulterior (Further Hispania) was a region of Hispania during the Roman Republic, roughly located in Baetica and in the Guadalquivir valley of modern Spain and extending to all of Lusitania (modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of Salamanca province) and Gallaecia (modern Northern Portugal and Galicia). Its capital was Corduba.GB93424. Bronze as, Villaronga-Benages 2405 (R2), Villaronga 24, SNG BM Spain 1588 ff., Burgos 459, Choice VF, well centered, brown tone with buff earthen highlighting, die wear, porosity, weight 12.534 g, maximum diameter 23.5 mm, Carmo (Carmona, Seville) mint, early 1st century B.C.; obverse male head right; reverse CARMO, horizontal line above and below, between two heads of grain laying right one above and one below; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $125.00 SALE |PRICE| $113.00
Lastigi, Hispania Ulterior, 150 - 100 B.C.
After its defeat in 201 B.C., Carthage ceded Iberia to Rome. In 197 B.C., the peninsula was divided into Hispania Citerior (Nearer Hispania) and Hispania Ulterior (Further Hispania). Hispania Ulterior consisted of what are now Andalusia, Portugal, Extremadura, Castilla y León, Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, and the Basque Country. There was peace in the region until 155 B.C. when the Lusitanians attacked. The area was largely conquered by 138 B.C., but war continued until 19 B.C. when Agrippa defeated the Cantabrians in Hispania Citerior and Hispania finally was completely conquered. That same year, Augustus divided Hispania Ulterior into Baetica (modern Andalusia) and Lusitania (modern Portugal, Extremadura, and part of Castilla-León). Hispania Citerior, which now included Cantabria and Basque country, was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis.GB93425. Bronze quadrans, Villaronga-Benages 2374 (R3), SNG BM Spain 1569 - 1571, Villaronga 4, SNG Cop 165, aF, dark tone, porous, weight 3.504 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 270o, Lastigi (Sancular la Mayor, Sevilla, Spain) mint, 150 - 100 B.C.; obverse helmeted male head right, laurel wreath border; reverse LAS within laurel wreath border; from the Errett Bishop Collection; rare; $80.00 SALE |PRICE| $72.00
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