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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |The Tetrarchy||View Options:  |  |  |   

Roman Coins of the Tetrarchy
Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
Mars is usually nude. This is one of the examples of Mars in military garb. Mars was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian. He was the father of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. In early Rome, he was second in importance only to Jupiter, and the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Latin Martius), and in October, which began and ended the season for military campaigning and farming.
RL98399. Billon follis, RIC VI Ticinum 123a (S), Cohen VII 131, SRCV IV 14883, Hunter V -, gVF, well centered, deposits, weight 5.02 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 0o, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, c. 312 - 313 A.D.; obverse MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse MARTI CONSERVATORI (Mars the Protector), Mars in military dress, advancing right holding transverse spear in right, resting left hand on shield, PT in exergue; scarce; $120.00 SALE PRICE $108.00


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
The officina number is expressed as E∆ (5 + 4 = 9) because Θ, theta, the Greek numeral nine, was considered unlucky. Theta (Θ), was used as an abbreviation for Thanatos (death) and used as a warning symbol of death, in the same way that skull and crossbones are used in modern times. It survives on potsherds used by Athenians voting for the death penalty. Also, after a funeral "Nine Days of Sorrow" were solemnly observed by the Roman family. Romans avoided the use of theta, as we avoid the use of the number 13 today.
RL94868. Billon follis, Hunter V 68 (also 9th officina), SRCV IV 14845, Cohen VII 47, RIC VI Antiochia 147c var. (no crescent), Choice VF, well centered, black patina with highlighting red earthen "desert patina", weight 6.809 g, maximum diameter 23.4 mm, die axis 0o, 9th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 310 - 311 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO EXERCITVS (to the guardian spirit of the army), Genius standing slightly left, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, flaming altar at feet on left, crescent horns up upper left, E over ∆ (5+4=9) right, ANT in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $90.00 SALE PRICE $81.00


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
On 11 November 308, attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, at the Congress of Carnuntum, the Tetrarchy declared Maxentius a public enemy, Licinius was proclaimed Augustus, and Constantine I was made Caesar of Britain and Gaul.
RT97958. Billon follis, Hunter V 20 (also 2nd officina), RIC VI Heraclea 36, SRCV IV 14721, Cohen VII 40, VF, well centered, traces of silvering, mild porosity, weight 5.940 g, maximum diameter 27.2 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, 308 - 309 A.D.; obverse GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; reverse GENIO CAESARIS (to the guardian spirit of the prince), Genius standing slightly left, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, •HTB• in exergue; $90.00 SALE PRICE $81.00


Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.

|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||antoninianus|
In 295, Galerius, caesar in the Balkans, was dispatched to Egypt to fight against the rebellious cities Busiris and Coptos.
RL98417. Billon antoninianus, Bastien 642 (17 spec.), SRCV IV 14300, RIC V-II Lugdunum 684 var. (no cuirass), Cohen VII 155 var. (same), Hunter V - (p. cxcv), gVF, well centered, much silvering, green encrustations, areas of light corrosion, weight 4.84 g, maximum diameter 23.2 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, as caesar, 294 A.D.; obverse MAXIMIANVS NOB C, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse ORIENS AVGG, Sol standing slightly left, radiate head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding sunrise, whip in left hand, B in exergue; scarce; $90.00 SALE PRICE $81.00


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis|
In Roman religion, every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins, we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Roman People, etc. The legend GENIO AVGVSTI dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Augusti, the Emperors. The figure depicted is the statue of the Spirit of the Roman People which was then in the Roman Forum (it is now lost). The act of pouring the libation to the emperor illustrates what the Christians were required to do in order not to be persecuted.
RT93355. Billon follis, RIC VI Alexandria 152b, SRCV IV 14841, Cohen VII 17, Hunter V -, gVF, dark brown patina, flow lines, porosity, slightly off center, reverse die wear, tiny edge crack, weight 5.116 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Alexandria mint, 312 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO AVGVSTI (to the guardian spirit of the Emperor), Genio standing facing, head left, kalathos on head, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, head of Serapis in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, crescent upper left, X in left field, B in right field, ALE in exergue; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $80.00 SALE PRICE $72.00


Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 May 305 A.D.

|Diocletian|, |Diocletian,| |20| |November| |284| |-| |1| |May| |305| |A.D.||post-reform| |radiate|
In 296, Diocletian dispatched his son-in-law Galerius with a large army to Armenia. Galerius then invaded Mesopotamia, but outside Ctesiphon he suffered a complete defeat against the Persian king Narseh. He was forced to retreat across the Euphrates into Syria where he joined Diocletian at Antioch. In 297, Galerius prepared to attack again by recruiting veterans from Illyria and Moesia, and he also strengths his bodyguard with Gothic auxiliaries. In 298, with an army of 25,000 men, Galerius invaded again. At the Battle of Satala, Galerius decisively defeated King Narseh and captured the Persian camp, including Narseh's family, harem and treasure.
RL94839. Copper post-reform radiate, RIC VI Alexandria 47, SRCV IV 12836, Cohen VI 34, Hunter V 116 var, (1st officina), VF, well centered on a tight flan, attractive dark patina with highlighting earthen deposits (desert patina), slight porosity, weight 3.999 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Alexandria mint, 296 - 297 A.D.; obverse IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from front; reverse CONCORDIA MILITVM (harmony with the soldiers), Diocletian on left, standing right, wearing military garb, baton (or parazonium) in left hand, receiving from Victory from Jupiter with right hand, Victory standing on globe and offering wreath, Jupiter on right, standing left, nude but for paludamentum over shoulders, long scepter vertical in left hand, ∆ low in center, ALE in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $80.00 SALE PRICE $72.00


Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 May 305 A.D.

|Diocletian|, |Diocletian,| |20| |November| |284| |-| |1| |May| |305| |A.D.||post-reform| |radiate|
In theory, the Roman Empire was not divided by the dual imperium of Diocletian and Maximian. Each emperor had his own court, army, and official residences, but these were matters of practicality, not substance. Imperial propaganda insisted on a singular and indivisible Rome, a patrimonium indivisum. Legal rulings were given and imperial celebrations took place in both emperors' names, and the same coins were issued in both parts of the empire. Diocletian sometimes issued commands to Maximian's province of Africa; Maximian could presumably have done the same for Diocletian's territory.
RL94844. Copper post-reform radiate, RIC VI Antiochia 62a, SRCV IV 12835, Cohen VI 34, Hunter V -, VF, well centered, heavy earthen deposits, weight 3.169 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, c. 297 A.D.; obverse IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front; reverse CONCORDIA MILITVM (harmony with the soldiers), Diocletian holding scepter, standing left, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter holding spear, crescent over S in center, ANT in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $80.00 SALE PRICE $72.00


Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.

|Galerius|, |Galerius,| |1| |March| |305| |-| |5| |May| |311| |A.D.||follis|
Virtus was a specific virtue in ancient Rome. It carried connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). Virtus applied exclusively to a man's behavior in the public sphere, that is to the application of duty to the res publica in the cursus honorum. Private business was no place to earn virtus, even when it involved courage or feats of arms or other good qualities. There could be no virtue in exploiting one's manliness in the pursuit of personal wealth, for example. It was thus a frequently stated virtue of Roman emperors and was personified as the deity Virtus.
RT96899. Billon follis, RIC VI Cyzicus 59, SRCV IV 14578, Cohen VII 231, Hunter V -, gVF, well centered, sharp portrait detail, flow lines, porosity, pin-prick pitting on reverse, reverse die wear, edge slightly ragged, weight 5.856 g, maximum diameter 26.6 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint mint, Group IV, Class II, 309-10 A.D.; obverse GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse VIRTVTI EXERCITVS (courage of the army), Virtus advancing right in military dress, spear in right hand, trophy over shoulder and shield in left, A - * across fields, MKV in exergue; scarce; $80.00 SALE PRICE $72.00


Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D.

|Maximinus| |II|, |Maximinus| |II| |Daia,| |Late| |309| |-| |30| |April| |313| |A.D.||follis| |(large)|
The mint of Serdica operated for a short period c. 303 - 308 A.D. and although some issues were minted in large quantities, most types from this mint are scarce. The early types are derived from those of the closed mint of Thessalonica as Serdica probably inherited most of the staff. The present coin belongs to the final group of the mint prior to its closing and reopening of Thessalonica.
RT97950. Billon follis (large), Hunter V 16 (also 4th officina), RIC VI Serdica 37 (S), Cohen VII 38, SRCV IV 14719, VF, well centered, porosity, rough areas, weight 6.542 g, maximum diameter 26.5 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Serdica (Sofia, Bulgaria) mint, as caesar, late 307 - 308 A.D.; obverse GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB C, laureate head right; reverse GENIO CAESARIS (to the guardian spirit of the prince), Genius standing slightly left, head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, kalathos on head, pouring libations from patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, star in left field, ∆ in right field, •SM•SD• in exergue; scarce; $80.00 SALE PRICE $72.00


Licinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D.

|Licinius| |I|, |Licinius| |I,| |11| |November| |308| |-| |18| |September| |324| |A.D.||follis|
A comrade of Galerius, Licinius was made Augustus after abdication by Diocletian and Maximianus. After Maximinus II invaded his territories, Licinius defeated him. Over the years, relations with Constantine deteriorated, ending with Licinius' defeat. Intervention by Licinius' wife, Constantine's sister, spared his life for a short time, however, he was soon executed.
RT97964. Billon follis, Hunter V 103 (also 4th officina), RIC VI Heraclea 73, SRCV IV 15240, Cohen VII 108, Choice aEF, wonderfully sharp detailed portrait, centered, traces of silvering, flow lines, scattered small pits on reverse, light marks, weight 3.614 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, early 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG (to Jupiter the protector of the two emperors), Jupiter standing left, nude but for cloak over shoulder, Victory on globe in right hand, long scepter in left hand, eagle left with wreath in beak at feet on left, ∆ right, SMHT in exergue; $80.00 SALE PRICE $72.00




  







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