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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Personifications| ▸ |Peace||View Options:  |  |  |   

Peace (Pax the Goddess of Peace)

Ancient rulers often used coins to send their messages to the people. In the late Roman Empire, particularly when threats were most ominous, coins frequently boasted of the peace and security brought by Rome, the army and the emperor. From our vantage we can see these coins as propaganda and lies, and as failed promises and doomed dreams.

Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

|Nero|, |Nero,| |13| |October| |54| |-| |9| |June| |68| |A.D.||sestertius|
The reverse legend translates, "The gates of Janus' temple are closed because peace of the Roman people is set on both land and sea." On the rare occasions when Rome was not at war the doors of the 'Twin Janus' were ceremonially closed, an event Nero commemorated extensively on the coinage of 65 - 67 A.D. -- Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. 1 by David R. Sear
SL96449. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 583, Mac Dowall WCN 475, BMCRE I -, Cohen I -, Hunter I -, SRCV I -, NGC AU, strike 5/5, surface 2/5, scuff (5745271-004), weight 30.31 g, maximum diameter 35.0 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 66 - 67 A.D.; obverse IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head right, globe at the point of the bust; reverse PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, view of the Temple of Janus from the front left corner, temple front on the right with garland over closed doors within arch, the left side of the temple to the left with long latticed window, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; ex Heritage NYINC Sale 3081 (12 Jan 2020), lot 30178; ex Roma e-auction 4 (29 Nov 2018), lot 733; ex Private European Collection; NGC| Lookup; $2600.00 SALE |PRICE| $2340.00
 


Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.

|Galba|, |Galba,| |3| |April| |68| |-| |15| |January| |69| |A.D.||dupondius|
A nearly identical type was struck with Pax holding an olive branch in her right hand and a caduceus in her left hand. Another similar type was struck with Pax holding a caduceus and cornucopia, as on this coin, but she leans on a cippus (short column).
RB93753. Orichalcum dupondius, BMCRE I 123 var. (no IMP, notes this legend var. in Hall Coll.), SRCV I 2119 var. (no IMP), RIC I 277 var. (no drapery), Cohen I 155 (same), Choice gVF, superb portrait, attractive image of Pax, well centered, dark patina, scratch, areas of minor corrosion, light deposits, weight 14.113 g, maximum diameter 28.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, late summer - Nov 68 A.D.; obverse IMP SER GALBA - AVG TR P, laureate and draped bust right; reverse PA-X - AVGVST, Pax standing left, olive branch (caduceus-like shape) pointed diagonally downward in right hand, cornucopia overflowing with grain and fruit in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field below center; from the Errett Bishop Collection, zero sales of this type recorded on Coin Archives in the last two decades; extremely rare; $1500.00 SALE |PRICE| $1350.00
 


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.

|Vespasian|, |Vespasian,| |1| |July| |69| |-| |24| |June| |79| |A.D.||denarius|NEW
This coin may have been struck to appeal to Pax to deliver peace at the time the First Jewish Revolt was coming to its end. On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.
SH95274. Silver denarius, RIC II-1 29; RSC II 94h; BMCRE II 26; BnF III 17; Hunter I 14; SRCV I 2285, EF, tone on mint luster, excellent portrait, light deposits, tight flan, weight 3.560 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Jan - Jun(?) 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse COS ITER TR POT (consul again, holder of tribunitian power), Pax seated left on chair without back, olive branch in right hand, caduceus in left hand; $240.00 SALE |PRICE| $216.00 ON RESERVE


Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.

|Septimius| |Severus|, |Septimius| |Severus,| |9| |April| |193| |-| |4| |February| |211| |A.D.||denarius|NEW
This reverse type announces achievement of Peace. Hence the Emperor is wearing civilian clothes and holding the olive branch which is usually held by the goddess Pax.
RS96974. Silver denarius, RIC IV 265; RSC III 205; BMCRE V p. 217, 330; Hunter III 87; SRCV II 6282, Choice aEF, well centered and struck, attractive portrait, flow lines, toned, small edge cracks, weight 3.322 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 201 A.D.; obverse SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse FVNDATOR PACIS, Severus standing half left, head left, veiled and togate, olive branch in right hand, scroll in left hand; ex FORVM (2010); $150.00 SALE |PRICE| $135.00 ON RESERVE


Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.

|Hadrian|, |Hadrian,| |11| |August| |117| |-| |10| |July| |138| |A.D.||denarius|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RS94568. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 124, RSC II 1015a, BMCRE III 78, Strack II 38, Hunter II 28, SRCV II 3511, gF, light marks, die wear, edge crack, obverse slightly off center on an oval flan, weight 3.133 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 240o, Rome mint, 118 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse P M TR P COS II, Pax standing slightly left, head left, olive branch downward in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, PAX in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $120.00 SALE |PRICE| $108.00
 


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.

|Maximian|, |Maximian,| |286| |-| |305,| |306| |-| |308,| |and| |310| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA92322. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 399, bust type H (S); Bastien VII 387, pl. XXVIII (46 spec.); Cohen VI 442; Compas Collection 235, Choice aEF, much silvering, well centered, light marks, edge cracks, weight 3.606 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 7th emission, spring 290 - 291 A.D.; obverse IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, radiate consular bust left, wearing imperial mantle, eagle-tipped scepter in right hand; reverse PAX AVGG (the peace of the two emperors), Pax standing left, Victory on globe in right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, B in exergue; scarce; $110.00 SALE |PRICE| $99.00
 


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA92850. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 706; Pink VI/1, p. 50; Cohen VI 401; SRCV III 1200 var. (officina in field); Hunter IV 247 var. (3rd officina), Choice VF, full border centering, green patina, traces of silvering, light marks, scattered porosity, weight 3.647 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 4th emission, 277 A.D.; obverse IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVG (the peace of the Emperor), Pax standing left slightly left, head left, raising olive branch in right hand, transverse long scepter in left hand, XXIS in exergue; $110.00 SALE |PRICE| $99.00
 


Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.

|Antoninus| |Pius|, |Antoninus| |Pius,| |August| |138| |-| |7| |March| |161| |A.D.||denarius|
Not in RIC. The normal obverse legend for combined with this reverse type and legend is IMP CAES T AEL HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P. This coin is missing HADR. For this variety, only four sales in the last two decades are recorded on Coin Archives.
RS94123. Silver denarius, RSC II 825c, BMCRE IV 736 note, Strack III 228, RIC III 202b (S) var. (obv. legend), SRCV II 4108 var. (obv. legend), Choice F, nice portrait, well centered, toned, die wear, edge a bit ragged with small cracks, weight 2.996 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 151 - 152 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES T AEL ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right; reverse TR POT XIIII COS IIII, Tranquillitas standing right, rudder in right hand, stalks of grain downward in left, TRANQ in exergue; very rare; $130.00 SALE |PRICE| $90.00
 


Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.

|Hadrian|, |Hadrian,| |11| |August| |117| |-| |10| |July| |138| |A.D.||denarius|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RS94569. Silver denarius, RIC II-3 225 (S), Strack II 117, RSC II 1140a, BMCRE III 1924, SRCV II 3523, gF, attractive portrait, toned, flow lines, light marks, edge cracks, weight 2.639 g, maximum diameter 18.76 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 119 - 120 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bare-chest bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse P M TR P COS III, Pax standing left, branch downward in right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarce; $100.00 SALE |PRICE| $90.00
 


Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

|Carausius|, |Romano-British| |Empire,| |Carausius,| |Mid| |286| |-| |Spring| |or| |Early| |Summer| |293| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Colchester (Camulodunum) and its wall were rebuilt by the Romans after Queen Boudica led a rebellion in A.D. 60 and destroyed the town. Balkerne Gate in Colchester is the largest Roman arch in Britain. Balkerne Gate Colchester
RA73507. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 336 (S), Webb Carausius 389, Bourne Carausius 79, Linchmere 402B, Burton Latimer 46 var. (...P F AVG), SRCV IV 13666 var. (same), F, well centered, green portrait, reverse a weak, scratches, earthen deposits, weight 3.544 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 180o, Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint, c. mid 292 - early summer 293; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG, radiate and draped bust right, late reign tetrarchic portrait; reverse PAX AVGGG (the peace of the three emperors), Pax standing left, raising olive branch in right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, S - P across field, C in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; scarce; $90.00 SALE |PRICE| $81.00
 




  



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