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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Personifications| ▸ |Peace||View Options:  |  |  | 

Peace (Pax the Goddess of Peace)

Ancient rulers often used coins to send their messages to the people. In the late Roman Empire, particularly when threats were most ominous, coins frequently boasted of the peace and security brought by Rome, the army and the emperor. From our vantage we can see these coins as propaganda and lies, and as failed promises and doomed dreams.

Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

|Nero|, |Nero,| |13| |October| |54| |-| |9| |June| |68| |A.D.||sestertius|
The reverse legend translates, "The gates of Janus' temple are closed because peace of the Roman people is set on both land and sea." On the rare occasions when Rome was not at war the doors of the 'Twin Janus' were ceremonially closed, an event Nero commemorated extensively on the coinage of 65 - 67 A.D. -- Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. 1 by David R. Sear
SH110266. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC I 265, BMCRE I 160, Cohen I 144, Mac Dowall WCN 153, BnF I 73 (head right), SRCV I 1958 var. (same), aVF, near centered, weight 24.989 g, maximum diameter 33.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 65 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head left; reverse PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, view of the Temple of Janus from the front left corner, temple front on the right with garland over closed doors within arch, the left side of the temple to the left with long latticed window, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field; ex Inasta auction 101 (25 Jun 2022), lot 747; $650.00 (598.00)


Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D.

|Elagabalus|, |Elagabalus,| |16| |May| |218| |-| |11| |March| |222| |A.D.
||denarius|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RS111002. Silver denarius, RIC IV.2 21, RSC III 143, BMCRE V 97, Hunter III 23, SRCV II 7530, gVF, flow lines, edge crack, scratch, weight 2.793 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 218 A.D.; obverse IMP ANTONINVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right, seen from behind; reverse P M TR P II COS II P P, Pax advancing left, raising olive branch in right hand, long scepter transverse in her left hand; ex Solidus Numismatik auction 106 (11 Oct 2022), lot 1605; $125.00 (115.00)


Carinus, First Half 283 - Spring 285 A.D.

|Carinus|, |Carinus,| |First| |Half| |283| |-| |Spring| |285| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Carinus has a reputation as one of the worst Roman emperors. This infamy was likely supported by Diocletian himself. For example, the unreliable Historia Augusta has Carinus marrying nine wives, while neglecting to mention his only real wife, Magnia Urbica, by whom he had a son, Marcus Aurelius Nigrinianus. After his death, Carinus' memory was officially condemned in the Roman proceeding known as Damnatio Memoriae. His name, along with that of his wife, was erased from inscriptions.
RA111891. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 324; Pink VI/2, p. 53/3; Cohen VI 20; SRCV III 12342, Hunter IV -, Choice F, well centered, brown patina, traces of silvering, flow lines, weight 3.663 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, series 3, c. 284 A.D.; obverse IMP M AVR CARINVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), Emperor (on left) standing right, short scepter in left hand, with right hand receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter (or Carus), Jupiter (on right) standing left, Victory on globe in extended right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, Γ bottom center, XXI in exergue; ex Glenn W. Woods; $80.00 (73.60)


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA94196. Billon antoninianus, Gbl MIR 603a, Cunetio 1193, RSC IV 727, RIC V-1 S256, SRCV III -, Hunter IV -, gVF, much silvering, edge a bit ragged, weight 3.079 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Rome mint, 9th emission, c. 265 - 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse PAX AVG (the peace of the Emperor), Pax standing slightly left, olive branch in right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, Δ left; $45.00 (41.40)


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
The ruins of Antioch on the Orontes lie near the modern city of Antakya, Turkey. Founded near the end of the 4th century B.C. by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals, Antioch's geographic, military and economic location, particularly the spice trade, the Silk Road, the Persian Royal Road, benefited its occupants, and eventually it rivaled Alexandria as the chief city of the Near East and as the main center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple period. Antioch is called "the cradle of Christianity," for the pivotal early role it played in the emergence of the faith. It was one of the four cities of the Syrian tetrapolis. Its residents are known as Antiochenes. Once a great metropolis of half a million people, it declined to insignificance during the Middle Ages because of warfare, repeated earthquakes and a change in trade routes following the Mongol conquests, which then no longer passed through Antioch from the far east.6th Century Antioch
RA110736. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 922; Cohen VI 99; Pink p. 40, emission 2; SRCV III 11961; Hunter IV 327 var. (2nd officina), gVF, well centered, dark green patina, highlighting earthen deposits, scratches, ragged edge, weight 3.272 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 280 - 281 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), emperor standing right, short scepter in left hand, receiving Victory on globe presenting wreath from Jupiter, Jupiter standing left, nude but for cloak on left shoulders, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, Γ in center, XXI in exergue; $40.00 (36.80)







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