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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Personifications| ▸ |Peace||View Options:  |  |  | 

Peace (Pax the Goddess of Peace)

Ancient rulers often used coins to send their messages to the people. In the late Roman Empire, particularly when threats were most ominous, coins frequently boasted of the peace and security brought by Rome, the army and the emperor. From our vantage we can see these coins as propaganda and lies, and as failed promises and doomed dreams.

Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.

|Carausius|, |Romano-British| |Empire,| |Carausius,| |Mid| |286| |-| |Spring| |or| |Early| |Summer| |293| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Colchester (Camulodunum) and its wall were rebuilt by the Romans after Queen Boudica led a rebellion in A.D. 60 and destroyed the town. Balkerne Gate in Colchester is the largest Roman arch in Britain. Balkerne Gate Colchester
RA73507. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 336 (S), Webb Carausius 389, Bourne Carausius 79, Linchmere 402B, Burton Latimer 46 var. (...P F AVG), SRCV IV 13666 var. (same), F, well centered, green portrait, reverse a weak, scratches, earthen deposits, weight 3.544 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 180o, Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint, c. mid 292 - early summer 293; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG, radiate and draped bust right, late reign tetrarchic portrait; reverse PAX AVGGG (the peace of the three emperors), Pax standing left, raising olive branch in right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, S - P across field, C in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; scarce; $80.00 (€65.60)
 


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.

|Maximian|, |Maximian,| |286| |-| |305,| |306| |-| |308,| |and| |310| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA92322. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 399, bust type H (S); Bastien VII 387, pl. XXVIII (46 spec.); Cohen VI 442; Compas Collection 235, Choice aEF, much silvering, well centered, light marks, edge cracks, weight 3.606 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 7th emission, spring 290 - 291 A.D.; obverse IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, radiate consular bust left, wearing imperial mantle, eagle-tipped scepter in right hand; reverse PAX AVGG (the peace of the two emperors), Pax standing left, Victory on globe in right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, B in exergue; scarce; $80.00 (€65.60)
 


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Gallienus paid particular adoration to Mars. He raised a temple to the worship of Mars in the Circus Flaminius and called the god Propugnator (champion or defender). "Mars the Pacifier" may be seen as ironic today, but the Romans knew that victory in war (hopefully including the total destruction of your enemy) is an effective way to achieve peace.
RA94171. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 570w, RSC IV 618c, RIC V-1 S236, SRCV III 10288, Hunter IV S67 var. (no drapery), VF/F, dark brown tone, full legends, flow lines, weight 4.102 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Rome mint, c. 264 - 266 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse MARTI PACIFERO (to Mars the peacemaker), Mars standing slightly left, head left, wearing helmet and military garb, raising olive branch in right hand, left hand resting on grounded shield, spear leaning on left arm, A (with open top, appearing as H) in left field; $70.00 (€57.40)
 


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

|Gallienus|, |Gallienus,| |August| |253| |-| |September| |268| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshiped not only at Rome but also at Athens. Her altar could not be stained with blood. Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honor, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra. The attributes of Peace are the hasta pura, the olive branch, the cornucopia, and often the caduceus. Sometimes she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
RA94196. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 603a, Cunetio 1193, RSC IV 727, RIC V-1 S256, SRCV III -, Hunter IV -, gVF, much silvering, edge a bit ragged, weight 3.079 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Rome mint, 9th emission, c. 265 - 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse PAX AVG (the peace of the Emperor), Pax standing slightly left, olive branch in right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, ∆ left; $70.00 (€57.40)
 


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
In 280, Julius Saturninus, the governor of Syria, was made emperor by his troops. Probus besiege him at Apamea, where he was captured and executed.
RL94802. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 921, SRCV III 11960, Cohen VI 87, Hunter IV 341, Pink VI-1 p. 40, 2, VF, green patina, earthen deposits, closed flan crack, light marks, weight 3.192 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 180o, 5th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 280 - 281 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), emperor standing right, holding eagle tipped scepter in left hand, receiving globe from Jupiter with right hand, E lower in center, XXI in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $70.00 (€57.40)
 


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
The Roman's believed Jupiter granted protection and success to his favorites, who tended to be people in positions of authority similar to his own.
RL94817. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 928, Hunter IV 349, Cohen VI 87, SRCV III -, Choice VF, well centered, dark patina, highlighting earthen deposits, weight 3.754 g, maximum diameter 23.7 mm, die axis 0o, Tripolis (Tripoli, Lebanon) mint, c. 276 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), Probus standing right, eagle-tipped scepter in left, with right receiving globe from Jupiter, standing left, long scepter in left hand, crescent in center, KA in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarcer mint; $70.00 (€57.40)
 


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|NEW
Aurelian established the Tripolis mint, c. 274 A.D., which minted antoniniani and a few aureus types until it closed during the join reign of Diocletian and Maximian, c. 287 A.D. The Tripolis coins of Aurelian, Tacitus and Probus are not clearly mint-marked to identify Tripolis. After Probus, Tripolis coins are marked "TR" in the reverse field. There were several cities within the Roman Empire named Tripolis. The most likely city that hosted the Roman mint was the Tripolis south of Antioch, which today is Tripoli, Lebanon.
RL94816. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 928, Hunter IV 349, Cohen VI 87, SRCV III -, gF, well centered, dark patina, earthen deposits, scratches, weight 4.132 g, maximum diameter 23.8 mm, die axis 0o, Tripolis (Tripoli, Lebanon) mint, c. 276 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), Probus standing right, eagle-tipped scepter in left, with right receiving globe from Jupiter, standing left, long scepter in left hand, crescent in center, KA in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; scarcer mint; $36.00 (€29.52)
 







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