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The Cantanaean brothers, Amphinomus and Anapias, saved their parents after an eruption of Mt. Etna, carrying them on their shoulders to safety. This was a favorite story among the Romans, for whom duty to family was among the most important virtues, fundamental to the Roman ideal of pietas. This moneyer had some connection to Sicily.RR88377. Silver denarius, Crawford 308/1a, RSC IHerennia 1, Sydenham 567, SRCV I 185, BMCRR I Rome 1263 var. (control), RBW Collection 1149 var. (control), Choice gVF, well centered and struck, light marks, frosty surfaces with slightest porosity, weight 3.791 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 108 - 107 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Pietas right, PIETAS (TA ligate) downward behind, (control symbol) below chin; reverse one of Cantanaean brothers running right, nude, bearing his father on his shoulders, his father looking back and raising right hand, M•HERENNI (HE ligate) downward on left; $225.00 (€191.25)
Roman Macedonia, "Thasian" Type, c. 148 - 80 B.C.
This Dionysos / Herakles type was first struck by Thasos itself on the island and in its continental territories in the South of the Balkans, c. 168 - 148 B.C. After Rome took control of the area, "Thasian" types were struck by Roman authorities, c. 148 - 80 B.C., mainly in Macedonia but also, perhaps, by mobile military mints on campaigns. Imitatives were also struck by at least several tribal groups (mainly Celtic or mixed enclaves) from as early as 120 - 100 B.C. to about 20 - 10 B.C.GS79630. Silver tetradrachm, Prokopov Thasos, group XII, monogram 6, 743 (O AC8 / R 592); SNG Cop 1040 ff. (Thasos), VF, toned, bumps and marks, die wear, weight 16.745 g, maximum diameter 32.8 mm, die axis 0o, Roman provincial or military mint, c. 148 - 80 B.C.; obversehead of Dionysos right, wearing taenia and wreathed in flowering ivy; reverse HPAKΛEOYΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ ΘAΣIΩN, Herakles standing half left, nude but for Nemean lion's skin on left arm, resting right hand on grounded club before him, left hand on hip, (MH monogram) inner left; $195.00 (€165.75)
Roman Republic, Lucius Cassius Caeicianus, c. 102 B.C.
The yoke of oxen was used by the Romans as a symbol of colonization. This coin probably refers to a colony established by an ancestor of the moneyer. The control marks on the obverse and reverse are combined in opposite alphabetical order, e.g., A with X, B with V, C with T, down to K with M. -- The Coinage of the Roman Republic by Edward A. SydenhamRR88380. Silver denarius, Crawford 321/1, Sydenham 594, RSC ICassia 4, SRCV I 199, BMCRR I Rome 1730 var. (C• / T•), RBW Collection 1176 var. (controls), aVF, toned, banker's mark, bumps, scratches, tiny test cut on edge, weight 3.913 g, maximum diameter 17.4 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 102 B.C.; obverse draped bust of Ceres left, wreathed in grain, CAEICIAN (AE and AN ligate) upward behind, C (control mark) upper right; reverse two oxen yoked left, plow and T (control mark) above, L•CASSI in exergue; ex FORVM (2002); $160.00 (€136.00)
Roman Republic, Unofficial, c. 169 - 91 B.C.
Crawford notes, "The very common quadrantes with M • and N• (as Milan 351) are clearly unofficial."RR79715. Copper quadrans, cf. Milan 351 (from Crawford appendix p. 309 unofficial issues of bronze coins), Sydenham -, VF, centered on a tight flan, light marks,, weight 4.182 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 135o, unofficial mint, c. 169 - 91 B.C.; obversehead of Hercules right, wearing Nemean Lion scalp headdress, three pellets behind; reverse prow right, ROMA below, three pellets before, M• above; ex FORVM (2006), ex Goodman collection; $125.00 (€106.25)
Roman Republic, Marcus Vargunteius, c. 130 B.C.
The Romans regarded Jupiter as the equivalent of Greek Zeus, and in Latin literature and Roman art, the myths and iconography of Zeus are adapted under the name Iuppiter. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Jupiter was the brother of Neptune and Pluto. Each presided over one of the three realms of the universe: sky, the waters, and the underworld.RR88365. Silver denarius, Crawford 257/1, Sydenham 507, RSC I Vargunteius 1, BMCRR I Rome 1068, RBW Collection 1048, SRCV I 133, aVF, light tone, light and scratches marks, minor flan wave, slightest porosity, weight 3.700 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 15o, Rome mint, c. 130 B.C.; obversehead of Roma left in winged helmet, crest with griffinhead, peaked visor in three pieces, wearing single drop earring and necklace, hair in three locks, M VARG (VAR ligate) behind, X (XVI ligature, mark of value=16 asses) below chin; reverseJupiter in a slow quadriga right, nude to the waist, upright branch in right hand, thunderbolt and reins in left hand, ROMA in exergue; $125.00 (€106.25)
Roman Republic, M. Marcius Mn.f., 134 B.C.
The First Servile War, 135 - 132 B.C., was an unsuccessful slave rebellion against the Roman Republic. The war was prompted by slave revolts in Enna on the island of Sicily. It was led by Eunus, a former slave claiming to be a prophet, and Cleon, a Cilician (from present-day Turkey) who became Eunus's military commander. After some minor battles won by the slaves, a larger Roman army arrived in Sicily and defeated the rebels.RR88355. Bronze quadrans, Crawford 245/3, Sydenham 501a, BMCRR I Rome 1017, RBW Collection 1011, SRCV I 1151, aF, dark green patina, corrosion, edge crack, weight 5.255 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 315o, Rome mint, 134 B.C.; obversehead of Hercules right, wearing Nemean Lion's scalp headdress, three pellets behind; reverse prow of galley right, M MARCI / MN F (MAR and MNF ligate) in two lines above, three pellets before, ROMA in exergue; ex Rudnik Numismatics, with an old collector tag dated 30 November 1932, with the cost noted as $.25; $120.00 (€102.00)
Roman Republic, Lucius Caesius, 112 - 111 B.C.
An Egyptian papyrus of 112 B.C. issues instructions to a local official in the Fayum for the visit of a Roman senator, Lucius Memmius. He was apparently visiting for pleasure, to see the sights, and was to receive a reception similar to that which would be given to a great dignitary of the kingdom. Everything was to be ready for his entertainment, including food for the sacred crocodiles. It is an incidental light upon the subservience to members of the Roman elite which it was now thought politic to show in the Ptolemaic Kingdom.RR88447. Silver denarius, Crawford 298/1, Sydenham 564, RSC ICaesia 1, BMCRR Italy 585, RBW Collection 1140, SRCV I 175, VF, toned, some pitting, a few scratches, weight 3.724 g, maximum diameter 20.5 mm, die axis 90o, Rome mint, 112 - 111 B.C.; obversebust of Vejovis left, viewed from behind, wearing a taenia and a cloak over his left shoulder, hurling a thunderbolt with his right hand, ROMAmonogram right; reverse the two Lares Praestites seated right, each holds long scepter in left hand, dog between them, head of Vulcan facing left and tongs above, LA (ligate) left, PRE (ligate) right, L·CÆSI in exergue; ex CNG auction 419 (25 Apr 2018), lot 340; $120.00 (€102.00)
Roman Republic, C. Coelius Caldus, c. 104 B.C.
In 104 B.C., the Republic was in a state of emergency. The Cimbri had just dealt Rome its most severe defeat since Cannae; two armies were destroyed. Italy was nearly defenseless. The consul Gaius Marius asked King Nicomedes III of Bithynia to provide troops. Nicomedes III turned down the request declaring, "All those eligible for military service in my kingdom have been robbed by the Roman tax-farmers and sold into slavery." In response, about 800 Italian slaves in Sicily were freed. Non-Italians slaves incorrectly believed they had also been freed. When ordered back to servitude, these slaves amassed an army 2,000 cavalry and 20,000 infantry. The revolt, the Second Servile War, lasted until 100 B.C., caused famine in Rome, and was defeated only after great effort. It was the second of a series of three slave revolts in the Roman Republic.RR88362. Silver denarius, BMCRR I Rome 1463 var. (control: •A), RSC ICoelia 3, Crawford 318/1b, Sydenham 582a, SRCV I 196 var. (noted), Nice F, light toning, light marks and scratches, weight 3.738 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 90o, Rome mint, c. 104 B.C.; obversehead of Roma left in winged helmet, crest with griffinhead, peaked visor in three pieces, wearing triple drop earring and necklace; reverseVictory in a biga left, holding reins in both hands, CALD below horses, •A• (control mark) in exergue; $110.00 (€93.50)
Syracuse, Sicily, Roman Rule, c. 212 - 133 B.C.
Overcoming formidable resistance and the ingenious devices of Archimedes, the Roman General MarcusClaudius Marcellus took Syracuse in the summer of 212 B.C. Archimedes was killed during the attack. The plundered artworks taken back to Rome from Syracuse lit the initial spark of Greek influence on Roman culture. GB88312. Bronze AE 24, Calciati II p. 429, 231; SNG Cop 911; SNG ANS 1090; SNG München 1496; HGC 2 1476 (R1), aVF/F, dark green patina, porous, weight 8.456 g, maximum diameter 24.1 mm, die axis 0o, Syracuse mint, c. 212 - 133 B.C.; obversehead of Kore right, wreathed with grain; reverse ΣYPAKOΣIΩN (clockwise from lower left), Demeter standing slightly left, veiled head left, wearing long chiton, torch in right hand, scepter in left hand; rare; $100.00 (€85.00)
Roman Republic, L. Antestius Gragulus, c. 136 B.C.
This was the first type to use the X value mark (ligate XVI = 16 asses).
L. Antestius Gragulus was a moneyer in 136 B.C., a magistrate, responsible for the production of the Roman coinage. Magistrates were not simple mint workers (monetarii), they were officials who controlled the process, including the design on the coins themselves. During the Roman Republic, moneyers were called tresviri aere argento auro flando feriundo, literally "three men for casting (and) striking bronze, silver (and) gold (coins)"RR88428. Silver denarius, Crawford 238/1, Sydenham 451, RSC IAntestia 9, BMCRRRome 976, RBW Collection 980, SRCV I 115, F, well centered, light tone, light marks and scratches, light deposits, weight 3.792 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 315o, Rome mint, c. 136 B.C.; obversehead of Roma left in winged helmet, crest with griffinhead, peaked visor in three pieces, wearing earring and necklace, X below chin; reverseJupiter in fast quadriga right, thunderbolt in right hand, long lotus topped scepter and reins in left hand, L•ANTES (ANTE ligate) below horses, ROMA in exergue; $80.00 (€68.00)
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