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Palmyra, a city in a large oasis in the Syrian Desert, 215 km northeast of Damascus, was the vital silk road caravan stop known as "the Bride of the Desert." Atargatis was the chief goddess of northern Syria, primarily a fertility goddess, but, she was also responsible for the protection and well-being of the people. Her chief sanctuary was at Hierapolis, modern Manbij, northeast of Aleppo, Syria. The Romans called her Dea Syria.GB95894. Bronze AE 12, SNG Munchen 519; BMC Galatia p. 149, 2; Krzyzanowska Monnayage IV; SNG Cop -, gF, dark patina, earthen deposits, weight 1.663 g, maximum diameter 12.0 mm, die axis 0o, Palmyra mint, c. 150 - 225 A.D.; obverse Atargatis bust facing, head left, wearing turreted crown, thin crescent left, star right; reverse radiate bust of young Malakbel (solar deity) left; from the Michael Arslan Collection; extremely rare; $300.00 (€246.00)
Lysimacheia, Thracian Chersonese, c. 225 - 198 B.C.
NEW Lysimachia was built by Lysimachus in 309 B.C. On the isthmus, it commanded the road from Sestos and mainland Thrace. To obtain inhabitants for his new city, Lysimachus destroyed neighboring Cardia and settled the inhabitants of it and other Chersonese cities here. Lysimachus made Lysimachia the capital of his kingdom and it must have rapidly risen to great splendor and prosperity.
Almost every example of this type known to Forum has the lion head countermark on the obverse.CM97507. Bronze AE 23, SNG Cop 904 (same countermarks); BMC Thrace p. 195, 3; HGC 3.2 1495 (R1), aVF, dark patina with lighter blue highlighting, overstruck(?), weight 8.961 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 0o, Antiochia ad Maeandrum (near Basaran Turkey) mint, c. 225 - 199/8 B.C.; obverse head of young Herakles right, wearing Nemean Lion skin, scalp over head, forepaws tied at neck; countermark: lion's head facing with mane around in round punch; reverse ΛYΣIMA-XEΩN, Artemis standing right, wearing short chiton, quiver and bow over shoulder, holding long torch (two torches?) with both hands; countermark: head of grain in oval punch; from the Michael Arslan Collection; rare; $250.00 (€205.00)
Nezak Huns, c. 580 - 680 A.D.
This type has a Nezak bust on the obverse with the the Alchon tribe tamgha on the reverse. The Alchon Huns were a nomadic people who established states in Central Asia and South Asia during the 4th to 6th centuries. The Alchon were succeeded by the Nezak late in the 6th century.WA95890. Bronze hemidrachm, Vondrovec 231, Göbl Hunnen 231, aVF, dark patina, earthen deposits, die wear, weight 2.573 g, maximum diameter 23.9 mm, Kabul (Afghanistan) mint, c. 580 - 600 A.D.; obverse Pahlawi: NYCKY (Nezak), Nezak style draped bust right, wearing mustache and crown with three crescents, conch shell before, double border, four star-in-crescents in outer margin; reverse trace of Alkhan tamgha (removed from the die?), double border, four star-in-crescents in outer margin; from the Michael Arslan Collection; very rare; $110.00 (€90.20)
Karia, 5th Century B.C.
The 5th century is traditionally recognized as the classical period of the Greeks, which would continue all the way through the 4th century until the time of Alexander the Great. The life of Socrates represented a major milestone in Greek philosophy though his teachings only survive through the work of his students, most notably Plato and Xenophon. The tragedians Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, as well as the comedian Aristophanes all date from this era and many of their works are still considered classics of the western theatrical canon.GA97597. Silver trihemitartemorion, Konuk Kasolaba 15, SNG Kayhan 988, SNG Keckman 906, SNG Tübingen 3322, Troxell Carians 10, aVF, dark toning, weight 0.210 g, maximum diameter 5.5 mm, die axis 0o, uncertain Carian mint, 5th Century B.C.; obverse ram head right; reverse roaring lion forepart right, with foreleg below, within incuse square; from the Michael Arslan Collection; $100.00 (€82.00)
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior
NEW Nicopolis ad Istrum was founded by Trajan around 101-106, at the junction of the Iatrus (Yantra) and the Rositsa rivers, in memory of his victory over the Dacians. Its ruins are located at the village of Nikyup, 20 km north of Veliko Tarnovo in northern Bulgaria. The town peaked during the reigns of Trajan, Hadrian, the Antonines and the Severan dynasty. In 447, Nicopolis was destroyed by Attila's Huns. In the 6th century, it was rebuilt as a powerful fortress enclosing little more than military buildings and churches, following a very common trend for the cities of that century in the Danube area. It was finally destroyed by the Avar invasions at the end of the 6th century.RP97502. Bronze assarion, H-H-J Nikopolis 126.96.36.199 (R3), Varbanov I 2349 (R3), AMNG I 1447 var. (rev. ends / IC), Moushmov 975 var. (leg. in 3 lines), SNG Cop -, BMC Thrace -, VF, slight double strike on the obverse, minor porosity, off center on an irregularly shaped flan, weight 2.956 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 195o, Nicopolis ad Istrum (Nikyup, Bulgaria) mint, 9 Apr 193 - 4 Feb 211 A.D.; obverse AV K Λ C CEVHPOC, laureate head right; reverse NIKO/ΠOΛIT / ΠPOC / I in four lines within laurel wreath; from the Michael Arslan Collection; scarce; $100.00 (€82.00)
Indo-Greek Kingdom, Baktria, Antialkidas Nikephoros, c. 130 - 120 B.C.
Brahmi is the modern name for a writing system of ancient India. The Brahmi script appeared in South Asia in the third century B.C. Its descendants, Brahmic scripts, continue to be in use today in South Asia and also in Southeast Asia.GB95884. Bronze AE 22, HGC 12 261 (R2), SNG ANS 1106, Bopearachchi 15a, Fair/Fine, corrosion, earthen deposits, weight 4.467 g, maximum diameter 21.9 mm, die axis 0o, Baktria mint, 130 - 120 B.C.; obverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ NIKHΦOPOY ANTIAΛKI∆OY, bust of Zeus brandishing thunderbolt; reverse Brahmi: Maharajasa jayadharasa Amtialkidasa (of Great King Antialkidas the Victory-bearer), two caps of Dioskouroi with palm branches in center, monogram below left; from the Michael Arslan Collection; rare; $80.00 (€65.60)
Teos, Ionia, c. 540 - 478 B.C.
Teos was a flourishing seaport until about 540 B.C., when the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great invaded Lydia and Ionia. The town survived but most of the citizens fled to the newly founded colonies of Abdera and Phanagoria. Under the Roman Empire, the town was noted for its wine, a theater and its Temple of Dionysus. The site is now farmland. GA95885. Silver trihemitartemorion, Balcer group LXXIV, 73 ff.; SNG Tübingen 3250; Rosen 603; SNG Cop supp. 339, VF, toned, tight flan, reverse die wear, weight 0.285 g, maximum diameter 6.4 mm, die axis 0o, Teos (near Sigacik, Turkey) mint, c. 540 - 478 B.C.; obverse griffin head right; reverse quadripartite incuse square, rough; from the Michael Arslan Collection; $80.00 (€65.60)
Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.
Annona was worshiped in Rome as the goddess who prospered the year's supply of grain. She was represented on an altar in the capital. The three principal granaries of Rome were Sicily, Egypt, and the African provinces. Annona civilis was the grain which purchased each year by the Roman state, then imported and put into storage, reserved and distributed for the subsistence of the people. Annona militaris was grain appropriated to the use of an army during a campaign.RB95900. Orichalcum dupondius, RIC II-3 742; BMCRE III 1334A; Strack II 588; cf. SRCV II 3675 (similar but Annona right); Cohen II 176 (perhaps this coin); Hunter II -, aVF, well centered, rough corrosion, weight 10.531 g, maximum diameter 26.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 124 - 127 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, radiate bust right, chest bare, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse COS III, Annona seated left, attendant stands before her helping to draw out a a cloth full of bread loaves(?), stern of ship in the background on right, S - C (Senatus Consulto) across field, ANNONA AVG in exergue; from the Michael Arslan Collection; $80.00 (€65.60)
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip V or Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C.
Philip V was king of Macedonia, 221 - 179 B.C. Philip's reign was principally marked by an unsuccessful struggle with the emerging power of the Roman Republic. He would lead Macedonia against Rome in the First and Second Macedonian Wars, losing the latter but allying with Rome in the Roman-Seleucid War towards the end of his reign. Perseus was the last king of the Antigonid dynasty who ruled in Macedonia, 179 - 168 B.C. After Perseus lost the Battle of Pydna on 22 June 168 B.C., Macedonia came under Roman rule.GB97605. Copper AE 23, SNG Cop 1298, AMNG III 14, SNG Alpha Bank -, SNG Munchen -, F, dark blue-green patina, crackled rough surface, light earthen deposits, small edge splits, weight 8.393 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 0o, Amphipolis mint, 187 - 168 B.C.; obverse head of river-god, Strymon, right, with short horns and crown of reeds; reverse ornamented trident head, MAKE/∆ONΩN in two flanking upward lines, monograms flanking shaft socket; from the Michael Arslan Collection; scarce; $80.00 (€65.60)
Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D., Antiocheia, Pisidia
Paul of Tarsus gave his first sermon to the Gentiles (Acts 13:13-52) at Antiochia in Pisidia, and visited the city once on each of his missionary journeys, helping to make Antioch a center of early Christianity in Anatolia. Antioch in Pisidia is also known as Antiochia Caesareia and Antiochia in Phrygia.RP97495. Bronze AE 20, SNG BnF 1323 (same obv. die), Krzyzanowska -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, BMC Lycia -, VF, brown tone with brassy high points, well centered but tight flan cuts of parts of the obverse legend, weight 3.348 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch in Pisidia (Yalvac, Turkey) mint, Aug 253 - Sep 268 A.D.; obverse IMP CA GALLIHNVS PIVS R, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse ANTI-OCHI CL, vexillum topped with eagle, flanked by two legionary standards, · S R (Senatus Romanum) in exergue; from the Michael Arslan Collection; $80.00 (€65.60)