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Mercury was the inventor of the lyre and the protector of commerce. This may refer to the restoration of commerce to Italy after the battle of Naulochus. -- Roman Silver Coins, Vol. I, The Republic to Augustus by H.A. Seaby
In 31 B.C., Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian was Roman Consul for the third time. His partner was Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who replaced Mark Antony.SL113452. Silver denarius, RIC I 257, RSC I Augustus 61, Hunter I 251, BMCRE I 596, SRCV I 1550, ICG VF30 (1965730105), weight c. 3.7 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 315o, uncertain Italian (Rome or Brundisium?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; obverse bare head of Octavian right; reverse Mercury seated right on rock, playing lyre, petasos around neck, CAESAR - DIVI F divided across field; from a Virginia Collector, ex Eastern Numismatics Inc (Garden City, NY, 24 Feb 2011, $2000); ICG Verify; $2000.00 (€1880.00)
Roman Republic, Marcus Junius Brutus, Late Summer - Autumn 42 B.C.
Brutus is best known for his leading role in the assassination of Julius Caesar. Struck by the legate Peanius Costa at a mobile military mint in either Western Anatolia or Northern Greece.SL113451. Silver denarius, Crawford 506/2, Sydenham 1296, RSC I Brutus 4, BMCRR East 59, Sear CRI 209, RBW Collection 1778, SRCV I 1436, NGC VF, strike 4/5, surface 4/5 (2411112-004), weight 3.61 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 0o, mobile military mint, legate Peanius Costa, late summer - autumn 42 B.C.; obverse COSTA LEG, laureate head of Apollo right; reverse BRVTVS IMP, trophy of captured arms, composed of helmet, cuirass, shield, and two spears; from a Virginia collector, ex Metropolitan Rare Coin Galleries (Stony Brook, NY, 8 Dec 2010, $1950); NGC| Lookup; very scarce; $1950.00 (€1833.00)
Roman Republic, Mark Antony, April 43 B.C., Julius Caesar Reverse
In April 43 B.C., The Battle of Forum Gallorum and the Battle of Mutina were fought between the forces of Mark Antony and legions loyal to the Roman Senate under the command of the Consuls and Caesar Octavian (the future emperor Augustus). The battles ended without a clear victor, but both consuls were killed. Caesar Octavian was left alone at the helm of the Senate's legions. In October 43 B.C., Mark Antony and Caesar Octavian, together with Lepidus united to form the Second Triumvirate.SL113450. Silver denarius, Crawford 488/1, Sydenham 1165 (very scarce), BMCRR Gaul 53, Sear CRI 118, RSC I Julius Caesar and Mark Antony 2, SRCV I 1464, NGC VG, strike 3/5, surface 3/5 (2400516-005), weight 3.47 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 225o, Cisalpine Gaul mint, April 43 B.C.; obverse M ANTON IMP (NT ligate), bare head of Antony right, lituus behind; reverse CAES DIC, wreathed head of Julius Caesar right, jug behind; from a Virginia Collector, ex Eastern Numismatics Inc. (Garden City, NY, 27 Apr 2011, $1895); NGC| Lookup; very scarce; $1900.00 (€1786.00)
Kings of Galatia, Amyntas, 37 - 25 B.C.
NEW Mark Antony made Amyntas king of Galatia and several adjacent countries in 37 B.C. On this type Artemis often appears to have the features of Antony's wife, the famed Cleopatra VII of Egypt. According to Plutarch, Amyntas was among the adherents of Mark Antony at Actium in 31 B.C. but deserted to Octavian just before the battle. In 25 B.C., Amyntas was killed in an ambush by the widow of a highland prince avenging her husband's execution. Upon his death Galatia became a Roman province.GB113533. Bronze AE 19, RPC I 3503; SNG BnF 2369; SNG Cop 102; Sear Imperators 815; BMC Galatia p. 3, 14; HGC 7 784 (S), VF, nice glossy green patina, light earthen deposits, rev. a little off center, light scratches, weight 4.906 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 0o, Galatia, Pisidia or Lykaonia, uncertain mint, 37 - 31 B.C.; obverse draped bust of Artemis (with the features of Cleopatra VII) right, bow and quiver to left; reverse stag standing right, BAΣIΛE-ΩΣ above, AMYNTOΣ in exergue; scarce; $350.00 (€329.00)
Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 1: Pompey to Domitian. (Paris, 1880).
Carson, R. Principal Coins of the Romans, Vol. I: The Republic, c. 290-31 BC. (London, 1978).
Crawford, M. Roman Republican Coinage. (Cambridge, 1974).
Grueber, H.A. Coins of the Roman Republic in The British Museum. (London, 1910).
Rutter, N.K. ed. Historia Numorum. Italy. (London, 2001).
Seaby, H.A., D. Sear, & R. Loosley. Roman Silver Coins, Volume I, The Republic to Augustus. (London, 1989).
Sear, D. R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. (London, 1998).
Sear, D. R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume One, The Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000).
Sydenham, E. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. (London, 1952).
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