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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ Gods, Non-Olympian ▸ SolView Options:  |  |  |   

Sol

Sol sometimes called Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the solar deity in Ancient Roman religion. Worship of Sol began early but seems to have become more significant from the reign of Aurelian until the abolition of paganism under Theodosius I.


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. The date 25 December was selected for Christmas to replace the popular Roman festival Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, the "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun."
RL86760. Billon follis, RIC VI Treveri 890, Cohen VII 511, SRCV IV16125, Hunter V 45 var. (obv. leg., misdescribed), Choice aEF, excellent centering, brown surfaces, traces of silvering, small closed flan crack, weight 3.649 g, maximum diameter 23.5 mm, die axis 180o, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 310 - 313 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, radiate and draped bust of Sol, from behind; from the Davis Collection (purchased privately from CNG (866261, $245, Aug 2010); $250.00 (212.50)


Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.

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RS86634. Silver denarius, RIC IV 123, RSC III 448, BMCRE VI 950, Hunter III 68, SRCV II 7916, Choice EF, excellent portrait, attractive Sol, well centered and stuck, attractive toning, some very light marks and scratches, weight 2.377 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 234 A.D.; obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse P M TR P XIII COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm and flying behind, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left hand; $160.00 (136.00)


Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.

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By the time Alexander and his mother arrived to face his German enemies, the situation had settled, and so his mother convinced him that to bribe the Germans and avoid violence was the more sensible course. Though they were not yet expected to personally fight in battle during Alexander's time, emperors were increasingly expected to display general competence in military affairs. Alexander's taking of his mother's advice, his dishonorable method of dealing with the Germanic threat, and the relative failure of his earlier military campaign against the Persians were all deemed highly unacceptable by the soldiers. Alexander was assassinated on 19 March 235, together with his mother, in a mutiny of the Legio XXII Primigenia at Moguntiacum (Mainz) while at a meeting with his generals. The assassinations secured the throne for Maximinus.
RS87278. Silver denarius, RSC III 453a, BMCRE VI 962, SRCV II 7917, RIC IV 125 var. (no cuirass), Hunter III -, Choice VF, excellent portrait, full circle centering on a broad flan, light toning, light marks, reverse center slightly flat, tiny edge cracks, weight 2.262 g, maximum diameter 21.6 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, Jan - Mar 235 A.D.; obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse P M TR P XIIII COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, left arm and flying behind, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left hand; scarce last issue of reign; $110.00 (93.50)


Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.

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Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. The date 25 December was selected for Christmas to replace the popular Roman festival Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, the "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun."
RB73721. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 538d, BMCRE VI 593, Hunter III 154, SRCV II 8004, Cohen IV 449 var. (bust), Choice aVF, nice portrait, well centered, nice green patina with some smoothed red areas on the reverse, light corrosion, weight 21.746 g, maximum diameter 31.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 234 A.D.; obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from the front; reverse P M TR P XIII COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip in left hand, S - C across field below center; $100.00 (85.00)


Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D.

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The star in the field, a symbol of the sun-god, stands for the mint of Rome.
RS77436. Silver denarius, RIC IV 40a; RSC III 184; BMCRE V p. 567, 242; Hunter III 49 var. draped; cf. SRCV II 7533 (TR P III), VF, well centered, nice portrait, toned, some die wear, porous, weight 3.150 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, Rome mint, 221 A.D.; obverse IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right, shoulders seen from behind; reverse P M TR P IIII COS III P P, Sol advancing left, radiate, nude but for cloak over shoulders and left arm and flying behind, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, whip vertical in left hand, star in left field; $100.00 (85.00)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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The Latin word comiti, during imperial times, indicated a minister of the emperor. Even the two consuls where called "comites." The reverse legend therefore reads: "to the unconquered Sun, minister [of Constantine]."
RL86831. Billon follis, RIC VII Rome 136 (R2), SRCV IV 16103, Cohen VII 536, VF, well centered, dark patina, double struck, weight 2.838 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Rome mint, 318 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing half-left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, T in wreath left, RT in exergue; ex Beast Coins, ex FORVM (2010); very rare; $85.00 (72.25)


Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.

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Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. The date 25 December was selected for Christmas to replace the popular Roman festival Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, the "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun."
RS76202. Silver denarius, RIC IV 111, RSC IV 39, Choice VF, excellent portrait, well centered, toned, porous, light marks, weight 3.115 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 1 Jan 241 - Jul 243 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse AETERNITATI AVG, Sol standing slightly right, radiate head left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand; $80.00 (68.00)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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On May 21 the Orthodox Christian Church celebrates the "Feast of the Holy Great Sovereigns Constantine and Helen, Equal to the Apostles."
RT77400. Billon follis, Hunter V 182 (also 1st officina), RIC VII Rome 27, SRCV IV 16097, Cohen VII 536, Choice VF, silvering, clashed dies, weight 3.046 g, maximum diameter 21.3 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Rome mint, 314 - 315 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left hand, R over X on left, F on right, R P in exergue; $80.00 (68.00)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

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In 312 A.D., on the march from Gaul to Rome, Constantine claimed to see the sign of a cross of light in the sky and the words "By this sign, conquer." But this was not yet the time of Constantine's Christian conversion. He thought the cross was a sign from Sol. Only years later did he learn, through a dream, that cross was a sign from Christ.
RL87234. Billon follis, RIC VI Londinium 169 (S), Cohen VII 43, Hunter V 7 var. (...P F AVG), SRCV IV 15873 var. (same), Choice VF, well centered and struck, brown tone, small edge cracks, slight porosity, weight 4.318 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Londinium (London, England) mint, mid 310 - late 312 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS P AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse COMITI AVGG NN ([Dedicate to Sol] the companion of our two emperors), Sol standing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulder, globe in right hand, whip in left, star in left field, PLN in exergue; scarce; $80.00 (68.00)


Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
The Latin word comiti, during imperial times, indicated a minister of the emperor. Even the two consuls where called "comites." The reverse legend therefore reads: "to the unconquered Sun, minister [of Constantine]."
RL71417. Billon follis, Hunter V 186 (also 4th officina), RIC VII Rome 27, SRCV IV 16097, Cohen VII 536, Choice VF, perfect centering, Sol's head struck a bit flat, weight 3.181 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Rome mint, 314 - 315 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI (to the unconquered Sun, minister [of the Emperor]), Sol standing half left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders and left arm, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, extending globe in left hand, R over X left, F right, R Q in ANT in exergue; $75.00 (63.75)




  



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Catalog current as of Friday, September 21, 2018.
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