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Pamphylia, was a small region on the southern coast of Anatolia, extending about 120 km (75 miles) between Lycia and Cilicia, and north from the Mediterranean only about 50 km (30 miles) to mountainous Pisidia. The Pamphylians were a mixture of aboriginal inhabitants, immigrant Cilicians and Greeks who migrated there from Arcadia and Peloponnese in the 12th century B.C. The region first enters history in a treaty between the Hittite Great King Tudhaliya IV and his vassal, where the city "Parha" (Perge) is mentioned. Pamphylia was subdued by the Mermnad kings of Lydia and afterward passed in succession under the dominion of Persian and Hellenistic monarchs. After the defeat of Antiochus III in 190 B.C. they were annexed by the Romans to the dominions of Eumenes of Pergamum; but somewhat later they joined with the Pisidians and Cilicians in piracy, and Side became the chief center and slave mart of these freebooters. Pamphylia was for a short time included in the dominions of Amyntas, king of Galatia, but after his death was absorbed into a Roman province. The Pamphylians became largely Hellenized in Roman times, and have left magnificent memorials of their civilization at Perga, Aspendos, and Side.
|Perga was the capital of Pamphylia. Today it is a large site of ancient ruins, 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) east of Antalya on the southwestern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. During the Hellenistic period, Perga was one of the richest and most beautiful cities in the ancient world, famous for its temple of Artemis. It also is notable as the home of the renowned mathematician Apollonius of Perga.|