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Duchy of Savoy, Italy, Carlo Emanuele I, 1580 - 1630
The House of Savoy (Italian: Casa Savoia) is a royal dynasty that was established in 1003 in the Savoy region. The family grew in power from ruling a small Alpine county north-west of Italy to absolute rule of the Kingdom of Sicily from 1713 to 1720, when they were handed the island of Sardinia, over which they would exercise direct rule from then onward. The House of Savoy led the unification of Italy in 1860 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy until 1946; they also briefly ruled the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch reigned for a few weeks before being deposed following the institutional referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.ME98096. Silver testone, CNI I p. 254, 65; Biaggi Piemontesi 536e (R6) Cudazzo 632b; Simonetti 50/7, aF, toned, tight flan, scratches, porosity, weight 7.626 g, maximum diameter 27.4 mm, die axis 270o, Turin mint, 1583; obverse CAR • EM • D • G • DVX • SAB • P • PED (Carlos Emanuele Dei Gratia Dux Sabaudie et Princeps Piedmont), young bust, draped, cuirassed, with ruffled collar right; reverse AVXILIVM • MEVM • A DOMINO (The Lord is my helper), crowned shield arms of Savoy, 15T83 in exergue; only three sales of this type recorded on Coin Archives in the last two decades - one specimen sold for over $21,434 plus fees; very rare; $3000.00 (€2460.00)
Islamic, Ottoman Empire, Mustafa IV, 29 May 1807 - 28 July 1808
Mustafa ascended to the throne after his cousin Selim was deposed for introducing the manners of the infidels and intending to suppress the Janissaries. Selim swore fealty to his cousin as the new sultan, and attempted to commit suicide. Mustafa spared his life by smashing the cup of poison that his cousin attempted to drink. A year later, however, facing rebellion, to secure his position as the only possible ruler, Mustafa ordered both Selim and his younger brother Mahmud murdered. Selim's was killed but Mahmud hid in the furnace of a bath and survived. Mustafa was deposed by the rebels and his brother ascended to the throne. Three months later, Mustafa was killed on Mahmud's orders.IS97943. Billon Kurush (Piastre), Jem Sultan 2666, Artuk 1929, Nuri Pere 733, SCWC KM 539 (notes 0.465 silver), VF, brassy tone with darker fields, centers a little weak, weight 12.126 g, maximum diameter 33.2 mm, die axis 0o, Qustantiniyah (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, regnal year 1, AH 1222; obverse Tugra, curve based: Mustafa, Lord, son of Abdul Hamid, the Ever Victorious; Arabic inscription below: struck in Constantinople / 1222; reverse Arabic inscription: Sultan of the two lands, and Lord of the two seas, the Sultan son of the sultan, 1 (regnal year) 3rd line on left; very rare; $990.00 (€811.80)
Islamic, Ottoman Empire, Tripolitania, Mahmud II, 1808 - 1839
Tripoli fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1551 and remained in their hands until it was occupied by the Italians in 1911. Under Ottoman rule, Barbary pirates from North Africa demanded tribute, and if refused, captured ships and cargo, enslaved and ransomed crew members, and even raided cities across the Mediterranean Sea. In the first Barbary War, Thomas Jefferson sent a US Naval fleet which bombarded numerous fortified cities in present-day Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria, ultimately extracting concessions of safe conduct from the Barbary states. Encouraged by Great Britain, piracy resumed during the War of 1812. In 1815, James Madison dispatched military forces against the Barbary states. Lasting only 3 days, the Second Barbary War ended further tributes by the US and significantly reduced piracy in the region. This coin was struck under the local Pasha Yusuf Pasha Qaramanli (ruled Tripolitania, 1796 - 1833).IS97944. Billon 20 para, SCWC Libya KM168 (type B, with flower, without stars), Jem Sultan -, aMS, near full silvering, some weakness in center, weight 5.133 g, maximum diameter 29.2 mm, die axis 0o, Tarabulus Gharb (Tripoli, Libya) mint, third standard, 1822 A.D.; obverse Arabic tungra, straight based: Mahmud, Lord, son of Abdul Hamid, the Ever Victorious; flower upper right; Arabic inscription in three lines below: struck in / Tripoli of the West / 1223 (accession year), boarder of beads outside of a linear circle; reverse Arabic inscription in four lines: Sultan of the two lands and Lord of the two seas, the Sultan son of the sultan, 15 (regnal year) in the 3rd line on left; boarder of beads outside of a linear circle; very rare; $540.00 (€442.80)
Second Bulgarian Empire, Vidin Kingdom, Ivan Stratsimir, 1356 - 1397 A.D.
Ivan Alexander divided his kingdom between his two sons. Ivan Stratsimir received Vidin. In 1365, the Hungarian King Louis I of Anjou captured Vidin. Sratsimir and his family were held captive in Croatia for four years but in 1369 Sratsimir was restored to his throne under Hungarian overlordship. After the Ottoman invasion in 1388, he was forced to acknowledge Ottoman overlordship and garrisons. In 1396 Sratsimir and his subjects aligned themselves with the anti-Ottoman Crusade led by the Hungarian king Sigismund of Luxemburg. The crusade ended in disaster at the battle of Nikopol on 25 Sep 1396. By the end of 1397 Sultan Bayezid I approached Vidin and, assured by the promise of his safety, Ivan Stratsimir came out to meet him. On the order of Bayezid I, Ivan Stratsimir was arrested and conveyed to Bursa, while the Sultan confiscated the contents of the Vidin treasury. Sratsimir's fate is unknown. Vidin was likely annexed by the Ottoman Empire in 1397, but at least part of the realm remained under the control of Sratsimir's son and heir Constantine II.
This type is described as a half grosch in older references. ME47140. Silver grosch, reduced weight; Radushev-Zhekov 1.14.4; Moushmov 7542, c. 0.50g, c. 16mm diameter, Vidin mint, 1371 - 1376 A.D.; obverse nimbate half length figure of Christ, right hand raised in benediction, book of gospels in left, IC - XC (Greek abbreviation: Iισους Xριστος - Jesus Christ) flanking Christ's head, legend around; reverse Stratsimir enthroned facing, nimbate, scepter in right, mappa in left, lis left and right, rosette between legs, legend around; VF, typical crude examples with uneven strikes and wavy flans; Forum's random selection from the same group as the coins in the photograph; one coin; rare; $55.00 (€45.10)