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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |Recovery of the Empire| ▸ |Probus||View Options:  |  |  |   

Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

Marcus Aurelius Probus was the son of a soldier and was himself a simple soldier at the beginning of his career. By the reign of Aurelian, he was one of the Empire's foremost generals. After the death of Tacitus, he was declared emperor and after the murder of Florian, he was left undisputed master of the Roman world. He embarked on a series of economic revival programs bringing great peace and prosperity to the empire. He was murdered by mutinous soldiers, enraged at being employed on public building projects.

|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.;| |AEQVI<u>T</u>I| |Series| |I| |of| |Rome,| |R| |<u>T</u>| |S||antoninianus|
Rome mint AEQVITI series I - click "AEQVITI" to read the NumisWiki article, "Coins of Probus with Coded Markings of AEQVITI Embedded in the mint mark." The first letter "R" indicates the Rome mint. The letter "T" in the middle of the mint mark is the sixth letter of the codeword AEQVITI. The last letter "S" indicates this coin was struck by the sixth officina (mint workshop). The letters of the word AEQVITI are coded in the mint marks of coins from all the officinae of the mint, with the specific letters of the codeword assigned to each officina in order corresponding with their officina numbers.
SL95848. Silvered antoninianus, RIC V-2 181 (S); Cohen VI 493; SRCV III 12015; Pink p. 59, series 7; Hunter IV - (p. cxxxvii), Ch XF, strike 4/5, surface 2/5, silvering, high silver content flan (5771373-002), weight 3.807 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 180o, 6th officina, Rome mint, 282 A.D.; obverse PROBVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse PROVIDENTIA AVG (the foresight of the Emperor), Providentia standing left, globe in right hand, scepter in left, RTS in exergue; NGC| Lookup; scarce; $160.00 (€147.20)
 


|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Serdica struck many similar types with the reverse legends RESITVT ORBIS and RESTITVTOR ORBIS, combined with various busts, obverse legends, officina, and control marks. This coin differs from all the varieties listed in RIC. KA in the exergue, is the Greek numeral 21, a mark of value, indicating 21 parts bronze to one part silver (approximately 4.5% silver). B is the Greek numeral 2, indicating the coin was struck by the 2nd officina (mint workshop).
RA93248. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 856 var. (...PROBVS AVG), Cohen VI 516 var. (same, bust draped), SRCV III -, Hunter IV -, Choice VF, much silvering, excellent centering, slightest porosity, weight 4.272 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Serdica (Sofia, Bulgaria) mint, 5th emission, 280 - 281 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse RESTITVTOR ORBIS (to the restorer of the world), Emperor standing right, holding short scepter, receiving globe from Jupiter standing left, holding long scepter, MS in center, KAB in exergue; scarce; $120.00 (€110.40)
 


|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Serdica struck many similar types with the reverse legends RESITVT ORBIS and RESTITVTOR ORBIS, combined with various busts, obverse legends, officina, and control marks. This coin differs from all the varieties listed in RIC.

KA in the exergue, is the Greek numeral 21, a mark of value, indicating 21 parts bronze to one part silver (approximately 4.5% silver). Γ, is the Greek numeral 3, indicating the coin was struck by the third officina (mint workshop).
RA92325. Silvered antoninianus, Pink VI-1, p. 44-45/1; RIC V-2 856 var. (RESTITVTOR ORBIS); Cohen VI 508 var. (also draped); Hunter IV -; SRCV III -, aEF, much silvering, well centered, scratches, corrosion, some pitting, edge split, weight 3.251 g, maximum diameter 23.4 mm, die axis 0o, 3nd officina, Serdica (Sofia, Bulgaria) mint, c. 276 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse RESTITVT ORBIS (to the restorer of the world), female (on left) standing right, presenting wreath to emperor, emperor (on right) standing left, extending right hand, spear in left hand, star low center, KA•Γ in exergue; not in RIC; $110.00 (€101.20)
 


|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
In 278, Probus defeated the Alamanni, expelled the Franks from Gaul, reorganized the Roman defenses on the Rhine and resettled the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces. He adopted the titles Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus.
RA85002. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 435 corr. (also cuirassed), Hunter IV 112 corr. (same), Cohen VI 819, Pink VI-1 p. 61, Choice VF, nice portrait, much silvering on reverse, some light corrosion, weight 3.724 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 278 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse VIRTVS AVG (the valor of the Emperor), Virtus standing facing, helmeted head left, Victory in right hand, resting left hand on grounded spear and shield, QXXT in exergue; $70.00 (€64.40) ON RESERVE


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
Securitas leans on the column at ease, clearly relaxed, having nothing to fear. Probus did much to increase security. He marched against the enemies of Rome in Gaul and Germany and left 400,000 barbarians dead in the field. The remaining barbarian tribes of the north were terrified to peace. Probus then attacked the Blemmyes near Egypt defeating them with tremendous slaughter. Knowing he was next, the king of Persia sued for peace and attempted to buy Probus' favor with splendid presents. Probus was feasting upon the most common food when the ambassadors were introduced. Without even casting his eyes upon them, he said that if their master did not give proper satisfaction to Rome, he would lay Persia as desolate and as naked as the crown of his head. As he spoke the Emperor took off his cap and showed the baldness of his head to the ambassadors. His conditions were gladly accepted by the Persian monarch.
RA87253. Billon antoninianus, Hunter IV 179 (also 6th officina), RIC V-2 573, Pink VI/1 p. 65, Cohen VI 611, cf. SRCV III 12033 (bust and VIXXI), Choice VF, well centered, some silvering, small areas of light corrosion, weight 4.983 g, maximum diameter 23.6 mm, die axis 180o, 6th officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 6th emission, 279 A.D.; obverse IMP C PROBVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRIT PERP (everlasting security), Securitas standing slightly left, head left, legs crossed, right hand on head, resting left arm on short column, SXXI in exergue; $70.00 (€64.40)
 


|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
In 280, Julius Saturninus, the governor of Syria, was made emperor by his troops. Probus besiege him at Apamea, where he was captured and executed.
RL94802. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 921, SRCV III 11960, Cohen VI 87, Hunter IV 341, Pink VI-1 p. 40, 2, VF, green patina, earthen deposits, closed flan crack, light marks, weight 3.192 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 180o, 5th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 280 - 281 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), emperor standing right, holding eagle tipped scepter in left hand, receiving globe from Jupiter with right hand, E lower in center, XXI in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $70.00 (€64.40)
 


|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
In 279, Probus defeated the Burgundians and Vandals in Raetia and Pannonia (modern Switzerland and Hungary).
RA87907. Billon antoninianus, Cohen VI 337, RIC V-2 83 corr. (neither this bust nor 1st officina listed), Hunter IV -, SRCV III -, Choice VF, full circles centering, much silvering, some porosity, weight 3.783 g, maximum diameter 24.3 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 278 - 279 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse MARS VICTOR (Mars the Victor), Mars advancing right, nude but for helmet and chlamys tied on belt at waist and flying behind, transverse spear in right hand, trophy over shoulder in left hand; ex Beast Coins; rare variety; $60.00 (€55.20)
 


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt

|Roman| |Egypt|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.,| |Roman| |Provincial| |Egypt||tetradrachm|
Dikaiosyne is the Greek personification of justice and fair dealing. One of the most common reverse types of Alexandria, she always holds scales and a cornucopia.
RX93103. Billon tetradrachm, Geissen 3127; Dattari 5527; Milne 4521; SNG Cop 913; SNG Milan 2044; BMC Alexandria p. 313, 2412; Kampmann 112.7; Emmett 3979/2 (R1), VF, nice portrait and reverse style, well centered, flow lines, dark tone, porosity, die wear, weight 6.770 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 276 - 28 Aug 277 A.D.; obverse A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CEB, laureate bust right; reverse Dikaiosyne (Aequitas) standing left, scales in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, date LB (year 2) left; from the Errett Bishop Collection; $60.00 (€55.20)
 


|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
In 274, Rome greeted Aurelian as Restitutor Orbis ("Restorer of the World") and accorded him a magnificent triumph (victory procession), which was graced by his captives Tetricus I and his son Tetricus II. Aurelian's conquests of the Palmyran Empire and the Gallic Empire reunited the Roman Empire.
RL94803. Billon antoninianus, Hunter IV 337 (also 7th officina); RIC V-2 925; Cohen VI 509; Pink VI, 2nd emission, p. 40; SRCV III 12021, aVF, near black patina highlighting reddish earthen deposits, uneven strike with parts of legends weak, weight 3.488 g, maximum diameter 22.7 mm, die axis 0o, 7th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 280 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse RESTITVT ORBIS (to the restorer of the world), woman on left, standing right, presenting wreath to Emperor, Emperor standing left, globe in right hand, long scepter vertical in left hand, Z in center, XXI in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $60.00 (€55.20)
 


|Probus|, |Probus,| |Summer| |276| |-| |September| |282| |A.D.||antoninianus|
The officina number is expressed as E∆ (5 + 4 = 9) because Θ, theta, the Greek numeral nine, was considered unlucky. Theta (Θ), was used as an abbreviation for Thanatos (death) and used as a warning symbol of death, in the same way that skull and crossbones are used in modern times. It survives on potsherds used by Athenians voting for the death penalty. Also, after a funeral "Nine Days of Sorrow" were solemnly observed by the Roman family. Romans avoided the use of theta, as we avoid the use of the number 13 today.
RL94801. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 922; Hunter V 331 var. (8th officina); Cohen VI 99; Pink p. 40, emission 2; SRCV III 11961, F, well centered, earthen encrusted, porous, weight 3.498 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 0o, 9th officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 280 - 281 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse CLEMENTIA TEMP (time of peace and calm), Probus on left, standing right, in military garb, scepter in left hand, receiving Victory on globe presenting wreath from Jupiter with right hand, Jupiter on right, standing left, nude but for cloak, long scepter vertical in left hand, E∆ in center, XXI in exergue; from the Ray Nouri Collection; $50.00 (€46.00)
 




  



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OBVERSE| LEGENDS|

BONOIMPCPROBOAVG
BONOIMPCPROBOINVICTAVG
BONOIMPCPROBOINVICTOAVG
BONOIMPCPROBOPAVG
BONOIMPCPROBOPFAVG
BONOIMPCMAVRPROBVSAVG
BONOIMPCMAVRPROBOINVICTAVG
BONOIMPMAVRPROBOINVICAVG
BONOIMPCPROBOPFINVICTAVG
BONOIMPPROBOAVG
BONOIMPPROBOINVICTAVG
BONOETINVICTOPROBOPAVG
BONOETINVICTOPROBOPFAVG
DEOETDOMINOPROBOINVICTOAVG
IMPCMARPROBVSAVG
IMPCMAVRELPROBVSPFAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBOAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSAVGCONSIII
IMPCMAVRPROBVSAVGCONSIIII
IMPCMAVRPROBVSAVGCONSV
IMPCMAVRPROBVSAVGCOSII
IMPCMAVRPROBVSAVGCOSIII
IMPCMAVRPROBVSINVAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSINVICTAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSPAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSPIVSAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSPIVSFAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSPFAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSPIFEAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSPFINVICTAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSPFINVICTVSAVG
IMPCMAVRPROBVSPFINVICTOAVG
IMPCMPROBVSINVICTAVG
IMPCMPROBVSINVICTPAVG
IMPCPROBVSAVG
IMPCPROBVSAVGCONSII
IMPCPROBVSAVGCONSIII
IMPCPROBVSAVGCONSIIII
IMPCPROBVSAVGCONSV
IMPCPROBVSAVGCOS
IMPCPROBVSAVGCOSII
IMPCPROBVSAVGCOSIII
IMPCPROBVSCONSII
IMPCPROBVSCONSIII
IMPCPROBVSINVAVG
IMPCPROBVSINVICTVSAVG
IMPCPROBVSINVICTVSPAVG
IMPCPROBVSPAVG
IMPCPROBVSPFAVG
IMPCPROBVSPFAVGCONSIII
IMPCPROBVSPFAVGCONSIIII
IMPCPROBVSPIVSFAVG
IMPDEOETDOMINOPROBOAVG
IMPDEOETDOMINOPROBOINVICTOAVG
IMPDEOETDOMINOPROBOPFAVG
IMPMAVRPROBOPFINVICTAVG
IMPMAVRPROBVSAVG
IMPMAVRPROBVSPAVG
IMPMAVRPROBVSPFAVG
IMPPROBOINVICTOAVG
IMPPROBVSAVG
IMPPROBVSAVGCONSIII
IMPPROBVSINVAVG
IMPPROBVSINVICTVSAVG
IMPPROBVSPAVG
IMPPROBVSPFAVG
IMPPROBVSPIVSFAVG
PERPETVOIMPCMAVRPROBOAVG
PERPETVOIMPCPROBOAVG
PERPETVOIMPCPROBOINVICTAVG
PERPETVOIMPCPROBOPAVG
PERPETVOIMPCPROBOPFAVG
PERPETVOIMPPROBOAVG
PERPETVOIMPPROBOPAVG
PERPETVOIMPPROBOINVICTPAVG
PROBVSAVG
PROBVSPAVG
PROBVSPFAVG
SOLCOMESPROBIAVG
SOLCOMISPROBIAVG
VIRTVSPROBIAVG
VIRTVSPROBIINVICTIAVG


REFERENCES|

Alföldi, A. Siscia. Heft V: Verzeichnis der Antoniniane des Kaisers Probus. (Budapest, 1939).
Bastien, P. Le monnayage de l'atelier de Lyon. De la réouverture de l'atelier par Aurélien à la mort de Carin (fin 274 - mi-285). (Wetteren, 1976).
Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Calicó, E. The Roman Avrei, Vol. II: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 6: Macrianus to Diocletian & Maximianus. (Paris, 1886).
Gnecchi, F. I Medaglioni Romani. (Milan, 1912).
Guillemain, J. Ripostiglio della Venèra, Nuovo Catalogo Illustrato, Vol. III/1: La monetazione di Probo a Roma (276-282 d.C.). (Verona, 2009).
Gysen, P. "Nouvelles données concernant l'atelier de Serdica sous le règne de Probus" in RBN CXLVI (2000).
King, C. Roman Quinarii from the Republic to Diocletian and the Tetrarchy. (Oxford, 2007).
Mattingly, H., E. Sydenham & P. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, |Part| II, Probus to Amandus. (London, 1933).
Pink, K. "Der Aufbau der Römischen münzprägung in der Kaiserzeit: VI/1. Probus" in Numismatische Zeitschrift 73 (1949).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. Three, The Accession of Maximinus I to the Death of Carinus AD 235 - AD 285. (London, 2005).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

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