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Coins of Greece
Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Louis of Burgundy, 31 Jul 1313 - 2 Aug 1316

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Principality| |of| |Achaea,| |Louis| |of| |Burgundy,| |31| |Jul| |1313| |-| |2| |Aug| |1316|, |denier| |tournois|
Louis of Burgundy was a younger son of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy and Agnes of France. On 31 Jul 1313, he married Matilda of Hainaut to whom Philip I of Taranto gave the Principality of Achaea. Louis ceded his family lands in Burgundy to his elder brother in exchange for the title of "King of Thessalonica." Matilda and Louis arrived separately in Achaea, she sailing directly from Marseille to Navarino with 1,000 troops. Matilda's army was defeated on 22 Feb 1316 by Ferdinand of Majorca, who also claimed the principality. Louis came by way of Venice to solicit aid from the Republic. He defeated Ferdinand, who was killed in the battle, on 5 July 1316. Four weeks later, Louis died. The Chronicle of the Morea attributes his death to a fever, while the Catalan Declaratio summa states that he was poisoned by John, count of Cephalonia. His death left Achaea in an unsettled state, with his brother Eudes, his wife, and the Angevins all attempting to gain it.Arms_of_Achaea
CR88490. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 29; Metcalf Crusades pl. 40, 993; Schlumberger XII 23, aVF, excellent centering, coppery spots, strike a little soft, tiny edge chip, weight 0.640 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 135o, Clarentza mint, 5 Jul - 2 Aug 1316; obverse + LODOVIC'•D'•B'•P•AChE, cross pattée; reverse (annulet) DE CLARENCIA (annulet), castle tournois, surmounted by cross, annulet left of castle; from the Louis G Estate; very rare; $400.00 SALE |PRICE| $360.00
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Ferdinand of Majorca, Pretender, Jun 1315 - 5 July 1316

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Principality| |of| |Achaea,| |Ferdinand| |of| |Majorca,| |Pretender,| |Jun| |1315| |-| |5| |July| |1316|, |denier| |tournois|
Ferdinand of Majorca, as the third son of King James II, was an infante (prince) of the Kingdom of Majorca. It is this title on the obverse of this coin. He was also Viscount of Aumelas and Lord of Frontignan. Ferdinand married Isabella, daughter of Margaret of Villehardouin and they had a son who held the claim on the Principality of Achaea. Margaret and then his wife died in 1315, and soon after he set out with a small company for the Morea to uphold the claim now held by his son. He seized Clarenza in June 1315 and briefly took control of the Morea. In the autumn of 1315 he took a second wife, Isabella of Ibelin. However, his rival claimant Matilda of Hainaut, and her husband Louis of Burgundy returned to the Morea in the spring of 1316 with Venetian aid. Ferdinand's expected aid from Majorca and Sicily was tardy, as was the Catalan Company from Athens. Facing superior numbers, he was killed at the Battle of Manolada on 5 July 1316.Frankokratia_Map
CR88491. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 31a, Metcalf Crusades 987 - 992, VF, well centered, clashed dies, weak strike, part of edge ragged, weight 0.684 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 270o, Clarentza mint, pretender, Jun 1315 - 5 July 1316; obverse +IFANSFD'MAIORK, cross pattée; reverse (annulet) DE CLARENCIA (annulet), castle tournois, surmounted by cross, surmounted by cross, annulet left and right of the castle; from the Louis G Estate; extremely rare; $400.00 SALE |PRICE| $360.00
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Florent of Hainaut, 1289 - 1297

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Principality| |of| |Achaea,| |Florent| |of| |Hainaut,| |1289| |-| |1297|, |denier| |tournois|
Florent of Hainaut was Prince of Achaea in right of his wife, Isabella of Villehardouin. He was the son of John I of Avesnes and Adelaide of Holland. From his father he received the stadholdership of Zeeland. After he left Zeeland, he took up service with Charles II of Naples, who made him constable of the Kingdom of Naples. Florent settled with his wife in Morea. He negotiated the Treaty of Glarentsa with the Byzantine Empire in 1290; however, the situation for the Franks in Greece was hopeless by this time. The fall of the Angevins in Sicily meant that they were preoccupied with recouping territory there and few Western governments would send troops to defend Morea. Florent thus made peace and maintained it until 1293, when the Greeks retook Kalamata. Florent did not despair and did not reopen the war which had been ongoing until his succession: he instead sent an embassy in protest to Andronikos II Palaiologos, and the emperor returned Kalamata. In 1296, the Greeks retook the castle of Saint George in Arcadia. Florent besieged the castle, but died before it could be taken.Arms_of_Achaea
CR88457. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 13c; Metcalf Crusades type F4, pl. 39, 961, VF, well centered, toned, weight 0.785 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 0o, Clarentza mint, 1289 - 1297; obverse + ⚜FLORENS P AchB, cross pattée; reverse DE CLARENCIA', castle tournois surmounted by a cross; from the Louis G Estate; $140.00 SALE |PRICE| $126.00
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Duchy of Athens, William or Minority of Guy I de La Roche, 1280 - 1294

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Duchy| |of| |Athens,| |William| |or| |Minority| |of| |Guy| |I| |de| |La| |Roche,| |1280| |-| |1294|, |denier| |tournois|
This type was minted either under William de La Roche, 1280 - 1287, or during the minority of Guy I de La Roche, 1287 - 1294. William I de la Roche succeeded his brother, John I, as Duke of Athens in 1280. William reversed the territorial losses of his brother's reign, extending his control over Lamia and Gardiki. He married Helena Angelina Komnene, daughter of John I Doukas, ruler of Thessaly, securing a military alliance with him.Arms_of_Athens
CR88468. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 83 (R), Metcalf Crusades GR101, pl. 41, 1025 var. (stops), VF, tight flan, uneven strike, weight 0.097 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 195o, Thebes mint, perhaps minority of Guy I de La Roch, 1280 - 1294; obverse +;G:DVX:DATENES: (; = double trefoil stop, : = double pellet stop), cross pattée; reverse ;ThEBE:CIVIS: (; = double trefoil stop, : = double pellet stop), castle tournois, 2 arches, open circles on corners, surmounted by cross; from the Louis G Estate; rare; $140.00 SALE |PRICE| $126.00
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, William of Villehardouin, 1246 - 1278

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Principality| |of| |Achaea,| |William| |of| |Villehardouin,| |1246| |-| |1278|, |denier| |tournois|
William of Villehardouin became Prince of Achaea when his brother Geoffrey II died in 1246. He conquered the remaining Peloponnese territory and built the fortress of Mistra near Sparta. In 1249 he accompanied Louis IX of France on the Seventh Crusade, joining him in Cyprus with 400 knights and 28 ships. Louis gave him a license to mint coins in the style of royal French money. William defeated Venice in the War of the Euboeote Succession and defeated the Duke of Athens in 1258, reaffirming his power over the duchy. In 1259 he formed an alliance with the Byzantine Despotate of Epirus against Nicaea. He led the Achaean forces against the Nicaeans, but the Epirote army deserted and William was defeated. He fled and hid under a haystack, but was captured. He remained captive until 1262 and permanently lost all his power.Arms_of_Achaea
CR88480. Billon denier tournois, Tzamalis Frankish GV222; Metcalf Crusaders pl. 39, 938; Malloy Crusaders 10b, VF, centered, toned, uneven strike, encrustations, weight 0.755 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 270o, Corinth mint, obverse +•G•PRINCEPS, cross pattée; reverse :CLARENCIA▼ (R with a wedge foot = Corinth), castle tournois, spire in the form of Λ, surmounted by cross; from the Louis G Estate; $140.00 SALE |PRICE| $126.00
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Isabella of Villehardouin, 1297 - 1301

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Principality| |of| |Achaea,| |Isabella| |of| |Villehardouin,| |1297| |-| |1301|, |denier| |tournois|
This was one of very few medieval coin types minted under female authority. Isabella of Villehardouin was the elder daughter of William II of Villehardouin, Prince of Achaea. On 28 May 1271 Isabella married Philip of Sicily, son of Charles I of Sicily. This had been pre-determined by the Treaty. In accordance with the marriage treaty, after Isabella's father, husband, and father-in-law died, Isabella's brother-in-law Charles II was the heir to Achaea. In 1289, however, on Isabella's marriage to Florent of Hainaut and on Charles II's accession as King of Sicily, he conferred on the couple the titles of Prince and Princess of Achaea, on condition that, if she survived her husband, she would not remarry without Charles II's consent. Florent and Isabella had one daughter, Matilda. Frankokratia_Map
CR88471. Billon denier tournois, Metcalf Crusades type Y1, pl. 39, 692; Malloy Crusaders 15a; Schlumberger XII 19, VF, toned, clashed dies, weight 0.738 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 315o, Clarentza mint, 1299 - 1301; obverse +⚜YSABELL•P•AChB (E, cross pattée; reverse DE CLARENCIAI, castle tournois; from the Louis G Estate; $130.00 SALE |PRICE| $117.00
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Mahaut (Maud) of Hainaut, 1316 - 1318

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Principality| |of| |Achaea,| |Mahaut| |(Maud)| |of| |Hainaut,| |1316| |-| |1318|, |denier| |tournois|
This was one of very few medieval coin types minted under female authority. In 1313, Philip I of Taranto, in compensation for breaking their engagement, granted Achaea to Maud and gave her hand to Louis of Burgundy. The principality was, however, possessed by another claimant, Ferdinand of Majorca. At the Battle of Manolada on 5 July 1316, Ferdinand was killed and Louis took control. He was poisoned soon after, leaving 23-year-old Maud in charge. Rule was soon disputed by varying claimants and Maud was dispossessed of her fief by 1318, in which year John, Duke of Durazzo, abducted the princess and forced her to marry him. She did not give him children, however, and he repudiated her in 1321. Maud married again to Hugh de La Palice and retired to Aversa, where she died in 1331.Arms_of_Achaea
CR88473. Billon denier tournois, Metcalf Crusades MA1c; Malloy Crusaders 36, VF, toned, tight flan, edge cracks, light deposits, weight 0.876 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Clarentza(?) mint, 1316 - 1318; obverse + MAhAVTA•P•Ach, cross pattée; reverse DE CLARENCIA (R with a small thin foot = Clarentza?), castle tournois, surmounted by cross, annulet left, three branched plant between two small pellets below; from the Louis G Estate; $130.00 SALE |PRICE| $117.00
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Mahaut (Maud) of Hainaut, 1316 - 1318

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Principality| |of| |Achaea,| |Mahaut| |(Maud)| |of| |Hainaut,| |1316| |-| |1318|, |denier| |tournois|
This was one of very few medieval coin types minted under female authority. In 1313, Philip I of Taranto, in compensation for breaking their engagement, granted Achaea to Maud and gave her hand to Louis of Burgundy. The principality was, however, possessed by another claimant, Ferdinand of Majorca. At the Battle of Manolada on 5 July 1316, Ferdinand was killed and Louis took control. He was poisoned soon after, leaving 23-year-old Maud in charge. Rule was soon disputed by varying claimants and Maud was dispossessed of her fief by 1318, in which year John, Duke of Durazzo, abducted the princess and forced her to marry him. She did not give him children, however, and he repudiated her in 1321. Maud married again to Hugh de La Palice and retired to Aversa, where she died in 1331.Frankokratia_Map
CR88477. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 40; Metcalf Crusades type MA2 var. (lis beginning of reverse legend, no annulet right, Corinth), VF, toned, centered, clashed dies, weight 0.739 g, maximum diameter 20.5 mm, die axis 30o, Clarentza(?) mint, 1316 - 1318; obverse + MAhAVTA•P•Ach, cross pattée; reverse DE CLARENCIA (R with small foot = Clarentza?), castle tournois, surmounted by cross, C left, annulet right, no cross below; from the Louis G Estate; scarce; $130.00 SALE |PRICE| $117.00
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Mahaut (Maud) of Hainaut, 1316 - 1318

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Principality| |of| |Achaea,| |Mahaut| |(Maud)| |of| |Hainaut,| |1316| |-| |1318|, |denier| |tournois|
This was one of very few medieval coin types minted under female authority. In 1313, Philip I of Taranto, in compensation for breaking their engagement, granted Achaea to Maud and gave her hand to Louis of Burgundy. The principality was, however, possessed by another claimant, Ferdinand of Majorca. At the Battle of Manolada on 5 July 1316, Ferdinand was killed and Louis took control. He was poisoned soon after, leaving 23-year-old Maud in charge. Rule was soon disputed by varying claimants and Maud was dispossessed of her fief by 1318, in which year John, Duke of Durazzo, abducted the princess and forced her to marry him. She did not give him children, however, and he repudiated her in 1321. Maud married again to Hugh de La Palice and retired to Aversa, where she died in 1331.Arms_of_Achaea
CR88478. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 39; Metcalf Crusades type MA3a, aVF, toned, light deposits, tight flan, weight 0.722 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 270o, Corinth(?) mint, 1316 - 1318; obverse + MAhAVTA P Ach', cross pattée; reverse DE CLARENCIA (R with a large wedge foot = Corinth?), castle tournois, surmounted by cross, small cross below castle; from the Louis G Estate; $130.00 SALE |PRICE| $117.00
 


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Duchy of Athens, Guy II de La Roche, 1287 - 1308

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Duchy| |of| |Athens,| |Guy| |II| |de| |La| |Roche,| |1287| |-| |1308|, |denier|
Guy II de la Roche was the Duke of Athens from 1287, the last duke of his family. He succeeded as a minor on the death of his father, William I, at a time when the duchy of Athens had exceeded the Principality of Achaea in wealth, power, and importance. Guy was originally under the tutorship and regency of his mother, Helena Angelina Komnene, who was forced to make submission to Isabella of Villehardouin. In 1299, Guy was engaged to Matilda, daughter of Isabella and and her husband, Florent of Hainaut. Charles objected, as his permission had not been sought, but Pope Boniface VIII intervened on the young couple's behalf. In 1307, Guy was made bailli of Achaea by its new prince, Philip I of Taranto. He governed well, but for barely a year. He died, 5 October 1308, at the age of twenty-eight, but was respected and renowned for his chivalry and manners.Frankokratia_Map
CR88462. Billon denier, Metcalf Crusades 1b & pl. 42, 1064; Malloy Crusaders 94, aVF, toned, clashed dies, a little off center, uneven shifted strike, tiny edge split, weight 0.698 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 165o, Thebes mint, majority, 1294 - 1308; obverse +:GVIDVX:ATENES:, cross pattée; reverse :ThEBAHI:CIVIS:, castle tournois, surmounted by cross; from the Louis G Estate; $125.00 SALE |PRICE| $113.00
 




  



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REFERENCES|

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