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Honorius was the son of Theodosius I and upon the latter's death was given the Western provinces to rule as emperor, while his brother Arcadius was given the East. Honorius was a weak incompetent ruler dominated at first by the famed general Stilicho, then by various court favorites. In August 410 A.D. he sat helpless at Ravenna while Rome was sacked by the Goths. He was succeeded by Valentinian III.
The three emperors are Arcadius, Honorius and Theodosius II. Theodosius II, Arcadius' son, is the smaller junior emperor in the center.RL92090. Bronze centenionalis, RIC X Arcadius 153, DOCLR 774, LRBC II 2802, SRCV V 21011, Cohen VIII 28, Hunter V 44 var. (4th officina), Nice VF, attractive near black patina with red earthen highlighting, well centered on a tight irregularly shaped flan, weight 2.325 g, maximum diameter 16.4 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 406 - 1 May 408 A.D.; obverse D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, star left; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM (glory of the Romans), three emperors stand facing, two outer taller with heads toward center, holding spear and resting hand on shield, center holds spear in right and globe in left hand, ANTΓ in exergue; ex Dmitry Markov Coins and Medals; $110.00 (€99.00)
In 406, with the aid of the chieftain of the Huns, Uldin, Stilicho crushed an army of 20,000 barbarians led by Radagaisus at Fiesole. Stilicho executed Radagaisus, and the surviving barbarians were either incorporated into the Roman army or sold as slaves.RL88047. Bronze centenionalis, RIC IX Constantinopolis 89c (R), LRBC II 2192, SRCV V 20996, Cohen VIII 23, DOCLR -, VF, dark patina with earthen highlighting, tight flan, weight 2.143 g, maximum diameter 15.2 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 15 May 292 - 17 Jan 395 A.D.; obverse D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, star left; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM (glory of the Romans), Honorius on horseback right, raising right hand, reins in left hand, CONS∆ in exergue; $45.00 (€40.50)
The Notitia Dignitatum shows the development of forces in the Roman Empire. When this coin was struck 200,000 soldiers guarded the borders, and a reserve force of 50,000 was available for deployment. Many of the soldiers were from Germanic tribes: Alamanni, Franks, Goths, Saxons and Vandals. In the winter of 394 the Huns cross the frozen Danube and destroyed the villages built by resettled Goths. Regardless of the force size available, Theodosius I, six hundred miles away in Italy, did not send reinforcements to defend the northern frontier.RL91666. Bronze centenionalis, RIC IX Cyzicus 29(c), DOCLR 703 - 705, LRBC II 2576, SRCV V 20998, Cohen VIII 23, F, centered on a tight flan, scratches, porous, weight 1.784 g, maximum diameter 16.1 mm, die axis 0o, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 23 Jan 393 - 17 Jan 395 A.D.; obverse D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM (glory of the Romans), Honorius on horseback right, raising right hand, reins in left hand, SMK[...] in exergue; from the Maxwell Hunt Collection; $40.00 (€36.00)
In 395, Alaric the Visigoth, renounced Roman fealty and was declared king. The Visigoths, ending a 16-year period of peace with the Romans, devastated Thrace and Macedonia, imposed a tribute on Athens, and then turned their sights on the West. At the same time, the Huns invaded Armenia, Cappadocia and Syria.RL92679. Bronze centenionalis, RIC X Arcadius 61, LRBC II 2206, SRCV V 21028, DOCLR 755 (no officina indicated), Cohen VIII 56, VF, dark patina with earthen highlighting, tight flan cutting off most of legends, reverse die wear, weight 3.185 g, maximum diameter 19.68 mm, die axis 30o, 3rd officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 395 - 401 A.D.; obverse D N HONORIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS EXERCITI (courage of the army), Emperor on left standing facing, head right, spear vertical in his right hand, left hand resting on grounded shield, Victory beside him on right, standing left and crowning him with wreath, palm frond in her left hand, CONSΓ in exergue; $28.00 (€25.20)
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