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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Medieval & Modern Coins| ▸ |Crusaders||View Options:  |  |  |   

Coins of the Crusaders

The crusades were military expeditions undertaken by the Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. The origin of the word may be traced to the cross made of cloth and worn as a badge on the outer garment of those who took part in these enterprises. The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th and 13th century feudal states created by Western European crusaders in Sicily, Greece, Asia Minor, and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area. Politics were complicated, including a Christian alliance with the Islamic Sultanate of Rm during the Fifth Crusade. The Crusaders ravaged the countries they marched through, killed 8,000 Jews in the Rhineland in the first of Europe's pogroms, devastated the Mediterranean ports, fought amongst themselves as much as the "Infidel" and fleeced their subjects to fill their coffers. Murder and massacre in the service of the Gospel was commonplace. Seventy thousand civilians were butchered in the sack of Jerusalem. The end came in 1291 with the fall of Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land. Near East 1135

Crusaders, County of Edessa, Baldwin II, Second Reign, 1108 - 1118

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |County| |of| |Edessa,| |Baldwin| |II,| |Second| |Reign,| |1108| |-| |1118||follis|
Baldwin II was Count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and King of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death. He accompanied his cousins Godfrey of Bouillon and Baldwin of Boulogne to the Holy Land during the First Crusade.
CR98527. Bronze follis, Metcalf 115; Malloy Crusaders 12; Schlumberger pl. I, 12, aVF, light deposits, slightly rough, overstruck on an Islamic fals, weight 3.646 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 0o, Edessa (Urfa, Turkey) mint, 2nd reign, 1108 - 1118; obverse Count Baldwin standing facing, wearing helmet and chain armor, sword with blade upright in right hand, long cross in left hand, B/[∆-N] (Greek abbreviation: Baldwin) in fields; reverse nimbate bust of Christ facing, pellet in each arm of nimbus cruciger, [IC - XC] (Greek abbreviation: Ihsos Xrists - Jesus Christ) flanking; ex Leu Numismatik web auction 16 (22 May 2021), lot 4212; $450.00 SALE PRICE $405.00


Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus, James II, 1460 - 1473 A.D.

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Kingdom| |of| |Cyprus,| |James| |II,| |1460| |-| |1473| |A.D.||sixains| |(sezin)|
John II was the illegitimate son of John II of Cyprus. At the age of 16, he was appointed to the archbishopric of Nicosia. After murdering Iacopo Urri, the royal chamberlain, on 1 April 1457, he was deprived of the archbishopric and fled to Rhodes. He was pardoned by his father, and the archbishopric was returned to him. In 1458, his father died, and his half-sister Charlotte became Queen of Cyprus. In 1460, with support from the Egyptian Mamluk sultan Sayf ad-Din Inal, James challenged her right to the throne, blockading her and her husband, Louis of Savoy, in the castle of Kyrenia for three years. When Charlotte fled to Rome in 1463, James was crowned king. James died a few months later in, amidst some suspicion that he might have been poisoned by agents of Venice, possibly by his wife Catherine's uncles.
CR99073. Bronze sixains (sezin), Metcalf 808 ff. var. (legends), Malloy Crusaders p. 307, 165 var. (same); Schlumberger VIII 6 var. (same), VF, dark patina, some porosity, weight 1.731 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 180o, Cyprus mint, 1186 - 1194; obverse + IACOBUS DE GRAIA X (James by the grace of God), lion rampant left; reverse + XX REX IDERUSAIm (King of Jerusalem), cross of Jerusalem; ex Zeus auction 16 (26 Feb 2021), lot 869; $110.00 SALE PRICE $99.00


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Duchy of Athens, William or Minority of Guy I de La Roche, 1280 - 1294

|Greece|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Duchy| |of| |Athens,| |William| |or| |Minority| |of| |Guy| |I| |de| |La| |Roche,| |1280| |-| |1294||denier| |tournois|NEW
This type was minted either under William de La Roche, 1280 - 1287, or during the minority of Guy I de La Roche, 1287 - 1294. William I de la Roche succeeded his brother, John I, as Duke of Athens in 1280. William reversed the territorial losses of his brother's reign, extending his control over Lamia and Gardiki. He married Helena Angelina Komnene, daughter of John I Doukas, ruler of Thessaly, securing a military alliance with him.Frankokratia_Map
CR98083. Billon denier tournois, Metcalf Crusades 1051, Malloy Crusaders p. 387, 89a, aVF, toned, porous, weight 0.931 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 90o, Thebes mint, c. 1280 - 1294; obverse +:G:DVX:ATENES:, cross patte; reverse +:ThEBE:CIVIS:, castle tournois with closed corner circles, surmounted by cross; $100.00 SALE PRICE $90.00


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Tancred, Regent, March 1101 - May 1103 and Late 1104 - December 1112

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Tancred,| |Regent,| |March| |1101| |-| |May| |1103| |and| |Late| |1104| |-| |December| |1112||follis|
Tancred, a Norman leader of the 1st Crusade, became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch when his uncle Bohemund was taken prisoner. He later took the County of Edessa when Baldwin II was captured, but Baldwin was released, defeated him and took it back. Tancred was made regent of Antioch again when Bohemund went to Europe to recruit more Crusaders. Tancred refused to honor a treaty in of fealty to the Byzantine Emperor, making Antioch independent, and ruled until his death in a typhoid epidemic.
CR98525. Bronze follis, Metcalf Crusades pl. III, 50; Malloy Crusaders p. 199, 3a; Schlumberger pl. II, 6, aVF, tight ragged flan, porosity, areas of weak strike, light scrapes, weight 3.744 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, c. 1101 - 1103; obverse nimbate bust of St. Peter (patron saint of Antioch) facing, short curly hair and curly beard, scroll in right hand, cross in left hand, O / ΠE-TP/O/C (TP ligate) divided across field; reverse + / KE BOI /ΘH TO ∆V / ΛO COV T / ANKPI (O Lord, help your servant Tancred) in five lines; ex Leu Numismatik, auction 16 (22 May 2021), lot 4202; ex J. Knudsen collection (formed from the late 1970s to the late 1990s); $100.00 SALE PRICE $90.00


Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Tancred, Regent, March 1101 - May 1103 and Late 1104 - December 1112

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Principality| |of| |Antioch,| |Tancred,| |Regent,| |March| |1101| |-| |May| |1103| |and| |Late| |1104| |-| |December| |1112||follis|
Tancred, a Norman leader of the 1st Crusade, became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch when his uncle Bohemund was taken prisoner. He later took the County of Edessa when Baldwin II was captured, but Baldwin was released, defeated him and took it back. Tancred was made regent of Antioch again when Bohemund went to Europe to recruit more Crusaders. Tancred refused to honor a treaty in of fealty to the Byzantine Emperor, making Antioch independent, and ruled until his death in a typhoid epidemic.
CR98529. Bronze follis, Metcalf Crusades pl. 3, 50; Malloy Crusaders p. 199, 3a; Schlumberger pl. II, 6, aVF, colorful patina, light deposits, weight 2.877 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, obverse nimbate bust of St. Peter (patron saint of Antioch) facing, short curly hair and curly beard, scroll in right hand, cross in left hand, O / ΠE-TP/O/C (TP ligate) divided across field; reverse + / KE BOI /ΘH TO ∆V / ΛO COV T / ANKPI (O Lord, help your servant Tancred) in five lines; ex Leu Numismatik, auction 16 (22 May 2021), lot 4200; $100.00 SALE PRICE $90.00


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Mahaut (Maud) of Hainaut, 1316 - 1318

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Principality| |of| |Achaea,| |Mahaut| |(Maud)| |of| |Hainaut,| |1316| |-| |1318||denier| |tournois|
This was one of very few medieval coin types minted under female authority. In 1313, Philip I of Taranto, in compensation for breaking their engagement, granted Achaea to Maud and gave her hand to Louis of Burgundy. The principality was, however, possessed by another claimant, Ferdinand of Majorca. At the Battle of Manolada on 5 July 1316, Ferdinand was killed and Louis took control. He was poisoned soon after, leaving 23-year-old Maud in charge. Rule was soon disputed by varying claimants and Maud was dispossessed of her fief by 1318, in which year John, Duke of Durazzo, abducted the princess and forced her to marry him. She did not give him children, however, and he repudiated her in 1321. Maud married again to Hugh de La Palice and retired to Aversa, where she died in 1331.Arms_of_Achaea
CR88478. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders p. 367, 39; Metcalf Crusades type MA3a, aVF, toned, light deposits, tight flan, weight 0.722 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 270o, Corinth(?) mint, 1316 - 1318; obverse + MAhAVTA P Ach', cross patte within inner border; reverse DE CLARENCIA (R with a large wedge foot = Corinth?), castle tournois surmounted by cross dividing legend, surmounted by cross, small cross below castle; from the Louis G Estate; $80.00 SALE PRICE $72.00


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Charles II of Anjou, 1285 - 1289

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Principality| |of| |Achaea,| |Charles| |II| |of| |Anjou,| |1285| |-| |1289||denier| |tournois|NEW
Charles II succeeded his father, Charles I, in Achaea as well as Sicily (now reduced to the Kingdom of Naples), but he was a prisoner in Aragonese hands. In the interim, the rule of Achaea devolved upon a series of baillis chosen from the Morean nobility. Not long after his release and coronation in 1289, he granted the Principality to Isabelle of Villehardouin upon her marriage with Florent of Hainaut, in part to redress the greedy application of the Treaty of Viterbo at William's death. However, he retained feudal overlordship over the Principality, and his grant provided that neither Isabelle nor any daughter who was her heir might marry without his consent.Charles_II_of_Anjou
CR96937. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders p. 360, 12 (S); Metcalf Crusades pl. 39, 942; Tzamalis Frankish KA101; Schlumberger XII 17, aF, light toning, flan flaws, weight 0.469 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 135o, Clarentza mint, 1285 -1289; obverse + KRPRINC ACh (curly foot R = Clarentza mint), cross patte within inner border; reverse :DE: CLARENCIA (colons indicate double x stops, DE probably abbreviates denarius, curly foot R = Clarentza mint), castle tournois surmounted by cross dividing legend; from the Louis G Estate; scarce; $80.00 SALE PRICE $72.00


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Charles II of Anjou, 1285 - 1289

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Principality| |of| |Achaea,| |Charles| |II| |of| |Anjou,| |1285| |-| |1289||denier| |tournois|NEW
Charles II succeeded his father, Charles I, in Achaea as well as Sicily (now reduced to the Kingdom of Naples), but he was a prisoner in Aragonese hands. In the interim, the rule of Achaea devolved upon a series of baillis chosen from the Morean nobility. Not long after his release and coronation in 1289, he granted the Principality to Isabelle of Villehardouin upon her marriage with Florent of Hainaut, in part to redress the greedy application of the Treaty of Viterbo at William's death. However, he retained feudal overlordship over the Principality, and his grant provided that neither Isabelle nor any daughter who was her heir might marry without his consent.Carlos_I
CR99074. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders p. 360, 12 (S); Metcalf Crusades pl. 39, 942; Tzamalis Frankish KA101; Schlumberger XII 17, F, tiny edge split, weight 0.761 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 0o, Clarentza mint, 1285 -1289; obverse + KRPRINC ACh, cross patte; reverse :DE: CLARENCIA: (colons indicate double x stops), castle tournois; scarce; $80.00 SALE PRICE $72.00


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Philip I of Taranto, 1307 - 1313

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Principality| |of| |Achaea,| |Philip| |I| |of| |Taranto,| |1307| |-| |1313||denier| |tournois|
In 1306 Charles II of Naples gave his son Philip I of Taranto the title "Despot of Romania." Romania referred to Frankish lands previously ruled by the Byzantine Empire (the Romans), including: Albania, Corfu, the Principality of Achaia, the Duchy of Athens, the Duchy of the Archipelago, and the Despotate of Epirus. Coins were struck for Philip with this title at Lepanto (Naupaktos), in Epirus, across the Gulf of Corinth from Patras. In 1313, Philip abandoned his claim to Epirus and claimed the defunct Latin Empire of Constantinople instead as the inheritance of his wife Catherine II of Valois, Princess of Achaea.Philip_I_of_Taranto
CR88488. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders p. 364, 26a; Metcalf Crusades type PT2, aVF, well centered, toned, struck with clashed, crude and worn dies, weight 0.716g g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 225o, Clarentza mint, 1307 - 1313; obverse + Ph'SPACh'TARDR (Philippus princeps Achaie, Taranti, despotus Romanie, rounded letters, C closed by bar),, cross patte within inner border; reverse D'.CLARENCIA:, castle tournois surmounted by cross dividing legend, spire in the form of a triangle, surmounted by cross, no marks in fields; from the Louis G Estate; $70.00 SALE PRICE $63.00


Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Despotate of Epirus, Philip I of Taranto, 1294 - 1312

|Crusaders|, |Crusaders,| |Frankish| |Greece,| |Despotate| |of| |Epirus,| |Philip| |I| |of| |Taranto,| |1294| |-| |1312||denier| |tournois|NEW
Philip received Lepanto in 1294 as a dowry from his wife Thamar. In 1306 Charles II of Naples gave his son Philip I of Taranto the title "Despot of Romania." Romania referred to Frankish lands previously ruled by the Byzantine Empire (the Romans), including: Albania, Corfu, the Principality of Achaia, the Duchy of Athens, the Duchy of the Archipelago, and the Despotate of Epirus. Coins were struck for Philip with this title at Lepanto (Naupaktos), in Epirus, across the Gulf of Corinth from Patras. In 1313, Philip abandoned his claim to Epirus and claimed the defunct Latin Empire of Constantinople instead as the inheritance of his wife Catherine II of Valois, Princess of Achaea.Frankokratia_Map
CR96934. Billon denier tournois, Metcalf Crusaders DR2(b)i, pl. 43, 1117; Malloy Crusaders p. 398, 113 var. (stops), F, well centered, strike a little weak, light deposits, tiny edge splits, weight 0.741 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 270o, Lepanto (Nafpaktos, Greece) mint, c. 1307 - 1313; obverse + (pierced crosslet) Ph'S P. ACh' TAR D' R (Philippus princeps Achaie, Taranti, despotus Romanie, rounded letters, C closed by bar), cross patte within inner border; reverse ⚜ NEPANTI CIVIS (rounded letters, C closed by bar), castle tournois, surmounted by a cross dividing legend, fleur-de-lis below; from the Louis G Estate; $70.00 SALE PRICE $63.00




  



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REFERENCES|

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