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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Themes & Provenance| ▸ |Gods, Non-Olympian| ▸ |Saturn||View Options:  |  |  | 

Saturn

Saturn was a major Roman god identified with the Greek deity Cronus, and the mythologies of the two gods are commonly mixed. Saturn had a temple on the Forum Romanum, which contained the Royal Treasury. Saturn is the namesake of both Saturn, the planet, and Saturday. In Roman mythology, when Jupiter ascended the throne of the Gods, Saturn fled to Rome and established the Golden Age, a time of perfect peace and harmony, which lasted as long as he reigned. In memory of the Golden Age, the Feast of Saturnalia was held every year at the Winter Solstice. Saturnalia was an occasion for celebration and visits to friends. Slaves and masters ate at the same table. No war could be declared. Executions were postponed. Homes were decorated with greenery. And it was a season for giving gifts, particularly wax candles, perhaps to signify the returning light after the solstice. Aspects of Saturnalia survive today in Christmas celebrations and carnival festivals around the world.

Roman Republic, Anonymous, c. 157 - 155 B.C.

|211-100| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |Anonymous,| |c.| |157| |-| |155| |B.C.||semis|
In 157 B.C., the Carthaginians, prevented by their treaty with Rome from engaging in armed resistance, but also guaranteed against loss of territory, appealed to Rome against the aggression of King Masinissa of Numidia. The Roman censor Marcus Porcius Cato arbitrated a truce. While in Carthage, Cato was so struck by the Carthaginian prosperity that he was convinced the security of Rome depended on the annihilation of Carthage. From this time on, Cato repeated the cry "Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam" ("Moreover, I advise that Carthage must be destroyed") at the end of all his speeches, no matter what subject they concerned.
RR58571. Bronze semis, Crawford 198/2b, Sydenham 231b, BMCRR Italy -, SRCV I 847, Choice VF, weight 11.445 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 45o, Italian mint, c. 157 - 155 B.C.; obverse laureate bearded head of Saturn right, S (mark of value) behind; reverse prow of galley right, with acrostillium, rostrum tridens, apotropaic eye, oar-box, and deck structure; S (mark of value) right; ROMA below; no symbol, mint mark or monogram; ex Nilus Coins, beautiful jade-green patina; scarce; SOLD


Roman Republic, First Triumvirate, M. Nonius Sufenas, 59 B.C.

|99-50| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |First| |Triumvirate,| |M.| |Nonius| |Sufenas,| |59| |B.C.||denarius|
The reverse honors the praetor, Sextus Nonius Sufenas, nephew of Sulla, who initiated the victory games in 81 B.C.
SH60293. Silver denarius, SRCV I 377, Sydenham 885, Crawford 421/1, RSC I Nonia 1, EF, weight 3.758 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 59 B.C.; obverse head of Saturn right, harpa, conical stone and S C behind, SVFENAS before; reverse Roma on left seated left, Victory standing left behind crowns her with wreath in right and holds palm frond over shoulder in left, PRLVPF around, SEXNONI in exergue; ex Harlan Berk, ex Heritage Auctions; SOLD


Roman Republic, Anonymous ROMA Monogram Series, c. 211 - 210 B.C.

|211-100| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |Anonymous| |ROMA| |Monogram| |Series,| |c.| |211| |-| |210| |B.C.||semis|
In 211 B.C., Hannibal marched northwards on the city of Rome in a belated and unsuccessful effort to capture the city. Rome faced the danger of famine, caused by Hannibal's forces and the withdrawal of so many men from farming. The situation was only relieved by an urgent appeal by the Romans to the King of Egypt, Ptolemy IV, from whom grain was purchased at three times the usual price.
RR71033. Bronze semis, SRCV I 789, Crawford 84/5, Sydenham 190a, BMCRR Italy 193, VF, weight 16.745 g, maximum diameter 29.7 mm, die axis 315o, southeastern Italy mint, c. 211 - 210 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Saturn right, S (mark of value) behind; reverse prow right, S (mark of value) above, ROMA monogram right, ROMA below; scarce; SOLD


Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus and Q. Servilius Caepio, quaestors c. 100 B.C.

|211-100| |B.C.|, |Roman| |Republic,| |L.| |Calpurnius| |Piso| |Caesoninus| |and| |Q.| |Servilius| |Caepio,| |quaestors| |c.| |100| |B.C.||denarius|
This exceptional type was a joint issue of the Quaestor Urbanus (Caepio) and the Quaestor Ostiensis (Piso), produced for the purchase of grain by special decree of the Senate (Ad frumentum emundun, ex senatus consulto).
RR21649. Silver denarius, SRCV I 210, Crawford 330/1b, Sydenham 603a, RSC I Calpurnia 5a, Choice gVF, weight 3.852 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, obverse head of Saturn right, crescent, PISO , and harpa behind, CAEPIO over trident below, Q below chin; reverse the two quaestors seated left between two stalks of grain, AD FRV EMV EX S C in ex; some mint luster; SOLD







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