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Under the kings of the Pergamene dynasty the so-called Cistophori made their first appearance as the chief medium of circulation for Western Asia Minor. The Cistophorus was so named from its type, the Sacred Bacchic Chest or Cista. According to Dr. Imhoof (Die Mï¿½nzen der Dynastie von Pergamon, p. 33) this coinage originated at Ephesus shortly before B.C. 200, and its use rapidly extended throughout the dominions of Attalus I of Pergamum. Henceforth the Cistophorus became a sort of Pan-Asiatic coin, its general acceptance being secured by the uniformity of its types, while the local mint-letters and magistratesâ€™ symbols were merely subordinate adjuncts. The institution of this quasi-federal coinage in Asia Minor may have been suggested by the popularity of the Federal money of the Achaean League in Peloponnesus, as well as by the eager adoption by so many Asiatic cities of Alexandrine tetradrachms. The manifold advantages of a uniform currency were evidently beginning to be understood and widely appreciated in the ancient world about this time, and the cistophorus, whether intentionally coined for this purpose or not, met the popular demand, and was issued in vast quantities from numerous Asiatic mints (cf. Livy xxxvii. 46, 58, 59, and xxxix. 7).
The types of the Cistophori may be thus described.
|Cista mystica, with half-open lid, from which a serpent issues; the whole in wreath of ivy. (Fig. 284.)||Two coiled serpents, with heads erect;
between them, a bow-case.
AR Tetradrachm 195 grs.
|Club and lion-skin of Herakles; the
whole in wreath of ivy, vine, or laurel.
(Num. Chron., 1880, Pl. VIII. 12.)
|Bunch of grapes placed on a vine-leaf.|
Cistophori are known to have been issued at the following mints in Asia Minor:â€" Adramyteum and Pergamum in Mysia; Ephesus and Smyrna in Ionia; Apollonis, Thyateira, Nysa, Sardes, Stratoniceia ad Caï¿½cum, and Tralles in Lydia; Apameia, Laodiceia, and Synnada in Phrygia; also in Crete (see supra, p. 479). See Pinder, ï¿½ber die Cistophoren, 1856.
In field, as a constant symbol the snake-entwined Asklepian staff, often with the addition of the letters ΠΡΥ in monogram, standing for Prutanis Πρυτανις, together with abbreviated magistratesâ€™ names.
Series of Proconsular cistophori, bearing the names of the Proconsuls C. Fabius, B.C, 57-56, with local magistratesâ€™ names ΜΗΝΟΦΙΛΟΣ and ΔΗΜЄΑC; C. Claudius Pulcher, B.C. 55-54 (?), with local magistratesâ€™ names, ΜΗΝΟΔWΡΟC, etc. (BMC Mysia, p. xxx; N. C., 1899, p. 97).
Cistophorus struck by Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio as â€˜Imperatorâ€™; Legionary Eagle, in place of Bow-case, between serpents on reverse (B. M. Guide, Pl. LX. 5). (For a cistophorus probably struck B.C. 50-49 by L. Antonius as Q[uaestor] see N. C., 1893, p. 10.)
The bronze coins (sizes 1.-.6) described below have been generally ascribed to the period (B.C. 133 to Augustus) when the Pergamene kingdom and its capital became part of the Roman province of Asia. Von Fritze (Corolla Num., p. 47 f.) has, however, shown reasons for assigning them to the later period of the Pergamene kingdom, circ. B.C. 200-133. They would thus be a civic issue supplementing the regal issue of bronze coins. It may be doubted whether any bronze coins were struck at Pergamum between B.C. 133 and the time of Augustus.
|Bust of Athena.||ΠΕΡΓΑΜΗΝΩΝ Asklepios standing.|
|Head of Athena.||â€ž Nike standing.|
|Head of Asklepios.||â€ž Eagle on fulmen.|
|â€ž â€ž||ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ Serpent staff.|
|â€ž â€ž||ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ Serpent coiled round netted omphalos.|
|Head of Apollo.||ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ Tripod.|
|Head of Hygieia.||ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΥΓΙΕΙΑΣ Serpent coiled round omphalos.|
|Head of Athena.||ΑΘΗΝΑΣ ΑΡΕΙΑΣ Owl (Mion.).|
|â€ž â€ž||ΑΘΗΝΑΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ Owl in wreath, or on fulmen, or on palm. (Cp. BMC Mysia, p. 132 AR.)|
|â€ž â€ž||ΑΘΗΝΑΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ Trophy.|
|Head of Asklepios.||No inscr. Serpent coiled round crooked staff.|
Imperialâ€" Augustus to Gallienus. Also quasi-autonomous of same period. Inscr. ΠΕΡΓΑΜΗΝΩΝ. Types: Asklepios, Hygieia, Telesphoros. The Asklepian cultus was of great importance (see Wroth, â€˜Asklepios and the coins of Pergamum,â€™ in N. C., 1882, pp. 1-51, and von Fritze, Nomisma, ii. pp. 18-35), and Asklepian types are abundant, especially under the Antonines and under Caracalla, who visited the Pergamene temple of Asklepios in A.D. 214. ΚΟΡΩΝΙC, mother of Asklepios, standing; Statue of Asklepios between rivers Keteios and Seleinos; Asklepios, small naked figure and rat (BMC Mysia, p. 148); Caracalla adoring Asklepian serpent and Telesphoros (BMC Mysia, p. xxxi); also sacrificing to Asklepios (ib.); ΘΕΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ, Head of Senate, rev. ΘΕΑΝ ΡΩΜΗΝ, Head of Roma; ΠЄΡΤΑΜΟC ΚΤΙCΤΗC, Head of hero Pergamos; Athena; Armenian (?) captive (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 506); ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΝ ΠΕΡΓΑΜΗΝΟΙ, Augustus in temple; ΛΙΒΙΑΝ ΗΡΑΝ, Bust of Livia as Hera, rev. ΙΟΥΛΙΑΝ ΑΦΡΟΔΙΤΗΝ, Bust of Julia as Aphrodite; obv. Bust of ЄΥΡΥΠΥΛΟC ΗΡΩC, rev. Cypriote temple of Aphrodite (ΠΑΦΙΑ) (see BMC Cyprus, Pl. XXVI. 7); ΖЄΥC ΦΙΛΙΟC; Temple of Rome and Augustus (BMC Mysia, p. 142); River-god, ΚΑΙΚΟC; River-god, ΚΗΤΕΙΟC; Apollo Smintheus (BMC Mysia, p. 145); Satyr dancing the boy Dionysos on his foot (BMC Mysia, p. 150); Youthful Zeus, Gaia and Thalassa (BMC Mysia, p. 151); Ariadne sleeping (Z. f. N., xxiv, p. 74); Great Altar of Pergamum, with humped bulls in front (R. N., 1902, p. 234); Herakles and Erymanthian boar (Inv. Wadd.); Kabeiri (Z. f. N., xxiv. p. 120 f.).
Magistratesâ€"Vettius Bolanus, M. Plautius Silvanus, Q. Poppaeus Secundus, P. Petronius, C. Antius, A. Julius Quadratus, Proconsuls of Asia. The usual local magistrate is a Strategos; also Grammateus, Hiereus, Gymnasiarch, Prytanis (a woman, BMC Mysia, p. 145; cf. Ath. Mitth., 1899, p. 167), Theologos (N. C., 1894, p. 12).
Titlesâ€"ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Β and Γ; ΠΡΩΤΩΝ; Η ΠΡΩΤΗ ΤΗC ΑCΙΑC
Gamesâ€"ΠΡΩΤΑ ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ ЄΝ ΠЄΡΓΑΜΩ (Gallienus).
Perperene, south-east of Adramyteum. Small autonomous bronze of the second or first century B.C. Head of Apollo, rev. ΠΕΡ, ΠΕΡΠΕ, Grapes. Imperialâ€" Domitian to Otacilia. Also quasi-autonomous Inscr., ΠΕΡΠΕΡΗΝΙΩΝ. Types: Grapes; Telesphoros holding grapes; Asklepios; Two serpents at altar; Dionysos; Zeus; Athena; Demeter; Apollo (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 506); Head of the Senate as town-goddess (ib. p. 32); Bust of the Imperial ΗΓЄΜΟΝΙΑ laureate, on coins of Caligula (ib. p. 32) and Nero.
Pitane, on the Elaean gulf near the mouth of the Euenus. ï¿½, end of fifth century B.C., wt. 5.6 grs., obv. Head r., rev. ΠΙΤΑΝΑ Pentagram (Brit. Mus.). Also ï¿½ of fourth century B.C. to first century. Inscr., ΠΙ, ΠΙΤΑ, ΠΙΤΑΝΑΙΩΝ. Usual types: obv. Head of Zeus Ammon in profile or facing, rev. Pentagram. Also Head of Bacchante; Omphalos entwined by serpent. Imperialâ€" Augustus to Otacilia. Inscr. ΠΙΤΑΝΑΙΩΝ. Types: Round shield ornamented with pentagram; Head of Ammon; Telesphoros; Athena; Zeus; Prow; Amazon. Magistrates, P. Cornelius Scipio, Proconsul (with head): Strategos.
Placia, on the Propontis, between Cyzicus and the mouth of the Rhyndacus. Autonomous small bronze of the fourth century B.C. Inscr., ΠΛΑΚΙΑ or ΠΛΑ. Typesâ€" Head of Kybele, sometimes turreted, rev. Lion r.; Lionâ€™s head; or Bull walking. On the worship of Kybele at Placia and Cyzicus, under the name of ae Maetaer Plakianaeη Μητηρ Πλακιανη, see Mittheilungen d. deutsch. arch. Inst., vii. 151.
Poemanenon, a dependency of Cyzicus, ï¿½ of first century B.C. Type: Head of Zeus, rev. ΠΟΙΜΑΝΗΝΩΝ Fulmen. Imperial and quasi-autonomousâ€" Trajan to Philip. Types: Head of ΗΟΙΜΗC the founder, rev. Hermes (Z. f. N., iii. 123); Eros (Invent. Wadd.); Tyche; Tripod entwined by serpent; Zeus; Asklepios. Magistrate, Archon. (On the site of Poimanenon, cf. J. H. S., xxvi; p. 23.)
Priapus, a colony of Cyzicus near Parium. Autonomous bronze of the third and first centuries B.C. Inscr., ΠΡΙ ΑΠΗΝΩΝ or abbreviated.
|Head of Apollo.||Cray-fish (or lobster); also shrimp.
|Head of Artemis.||Stag recumbent.
|Bearded head filleted r.||Amphora.
(Imhoof, Mon. gr., p. 258) ï¿½ .45
|Head of Dionysos.||Amphora.
|Head of Demeter veiled.||Stag and cista mystica.
|Head of Aphrodite in sphendone or in saccos.||ΠΡΟΚΟΝ Oenochoï¿½.
AR 39 grs, (Cf. N. C., 1904, p. 301.) Also ï¿½.
|Head of Aphrodite, hair in saccos. Magistrate, ΑΝΑΞΙΓΕΝΗΣ.|| â€ž Stag recumbent; in front
AR 55 grs. (B. M. Guide, Pl. XXIX. 28.)
|Similar.|| â€ž Forepart of stag and oenochoï¿½.
AR 55 grs.
|Similar; no magistrateâ€™s name.|| â€ž â€ž
AR 37 grs.
|Head of Aphrodite. Magistrateâ€™s name, ΔΙΑΓΟΡΑΣ.|| â€ž Oenochoï¿½.
|Head of Aphrodite.|| â€ž Dove and oenochoï¿½.
|Head of Apollo.||ΤΕΥ Young head in Persian tiara.
AR 25 grs.; also ï¿½.
Thebe, called Hypoplacia, from its situation at the foot of Mount Placius. Small ï¿½ of fourth century B.C., obv. Female head in saccos, rev. ΘΗΒ Three crescents united. (Imhoof-Blumer KM, ii. p. 506.)