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Hoover, O. Handbook of Coins of Northern and Central Anatolia, Pontos, Paphlagonia, Bithynia, Phrygia...5th to 1st Centuries BC. HGC 7. (Lancaster, PA, 2012).
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Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 2: Caria, Lydia, Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia. (Berlin, 1962).
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Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey 5: Tire Museum (Izmir), Vol. 1: Roman Provincial Coins From Ionia, Lydia, Phrygia, etc. (Istanbul, 2011
Waddington, W., E. Babelon and T. Reinach. Recueil Général des Monnaies Grecques d’Asie Minuere, Vol. I. (Paris, 1904-25).
Before the expedition of Alexander, and the subsequent gradual extension of Greek civilization among the rude peoples of the highlands of central Asia Minor, a native coinage in these regions was non-existent, though the Persian daric was doubtless current along the more frequented trade-routes from Syria through the Cilician gates and along the river-valleys of Phrygia and Lydia to the Greek ports on the western seaboard. It was not until Greek and Macedonian settlers had been planted here and there in the country by the Seleucids and Attalids in mutual rivalry that coinage began to come into general use, and it was not until after the defeat of Antiochus at Magnesia, B.C. 190, when the greater part of western Asia Minor was assigned to the kingdom of Pergamum, that Cistophoric mints were established (B.C. 189-133) at Laodiceia and Apameia. Afterwards, when the administration of the country was taken over by the Romans (B.C. 133), Synnada, as a convenient station on the road through Pisidia to Cilicia, was also promoted to the rank of a Cistophoric mint. The Alexandrine tetradrachms of this period, which Müller (Nos. 1178-95) assigned to Philomelium on the eastern highway to Iconium, belong more probably to Phaselis on the coast of Lycia (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 308). The only other city which struck silver coins in pre-Imperial times was Cibyra, which was allowed to retain its independence under its native dynasts down to B.C. 84. Including the above-mentioned cities, there were in all about a score of towns in which autonomous bronze money was coined at intervals during the course of the second and first centuries B.C. These were either the chief halting places on the various highways from west to east or from north to south, or towns in the immediate neighborhood of famous sanctuaries, such as Hierapolis, Dionysopolis, Hieropolis, &c. Most, though not all, of these towns continued to strike money throughout the Imperial period down to the time of Gallienus, and as the general prosperity of the country increased under the organized rule of Rome, mints at many other less important cities frequently sprang into activity, though it would seem that their issues were usually confined to special occasions such as periodical religious festivals or games, and, in many cases, the expense of the coinage was undertaken by some magistrate or wealthy citizen of high standing, such as ‘Αρχιερευς or ‘Ασιαρχης, as an offering (αναθημα) to his native city. Such voluntary liturgies would as a rule earn for the benefactor some honorary title, such as Φιλοπατρις, Φιλοκαισαρ, Υιος πολεως, &c. Sometimes, however, these liturgies would seem to have been granted ‘at the request of’ (αιτησαμενου) or ‘on the acceptance of a report by’ (εισαγγειλαντος) some local magnate and, in such cases, it is possible that the city may have undertaken the expense of the issue while delegating it in commission to a special officer (επιμεληθεις).  As a general rule, however, the
1 See v. Fritze in Nomisma, i. p. 2 sqq. municipal coins bear simply the name of the ordinary chief magistrate. Under the earlier emperors, as in the previous century, the names are frequently in the nominative case. This usage was soon abandoned, and from the time of the Flavians the genitive, with or without επι (or rarely παρα), prevails, and is thus equivalent to a date. The title of the magistrate, Archon, Strategos, or Grammateus, is usually added on the larger coins. For the geographical information in this section I am chiefly indebted to Prof. Sir W. M. Ramsay’s Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia and to J. G. C. Anderson’s papers in the Journal of Hellenic Studies, &c.
Abbaëtae-Mysi. This Mysian people occupied a district in western Phrygia of which Ancyra and Synaüs were the chief cities. Imhoof (Festschrift für O. Benndorf, p. 201) would assign the coins to the first of these towns.
Autonomous bronze of the second century B.C., all contemporary and of three sizes, obv. Heads of Zeus; young Herakles; Apollo (Chromios (?)) with hair rolled; and Asklepios; rev. ΜΥΣΩΝ ΑΒΒΑΙΤΩΝ, Winged fulmen in wreath; Club and Lion-skin in wreath; Double-axe in wreath; Staff of Asklepios (BMC Phrygia, Pl. II. 1-3, and Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 138).
Accilaëum (J. H. S., xix. 90) on the Tembris or Tembros in Phrygia Epictetus, east of Dorylaëum and Midaëum, appears to have coined quasi- autonomous and Imperial money only during the reign of Gordian. Types—Naked Zeus; Seated goddess with phiale and scepter; Dionysos; Mên; Nike; Tyche; &c. Also ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC. Inscr., ΑΚΚΙΛΑЄΩΝ. No magistrates’ names.
Acmoneia, on a tributary of the river Sindrus, about six miles west of Diocleia (Ramsay, C. and B., 625).
Autonomous bronze of three sizes. Middle of first century B.C. Inscr., ΑΚΜΟΝΕΩΝ. Magistrates’ names in nominative case with patronymic. Types—Bust of Athena, rev. Flying eagle on fulmen, between stars; Head of Zeus, rev. Asklepios; Bust of City-Tyche, rev. Artemis Huntress (BMC Phrygia, Pl. II. 5-7). (Cf. coinage of Apameia of the same period.)
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial—Augustus to Gallienus. Magistrates’ names, at first in nominative case, and from Nero to Caracalla in genitive with επι. Titles—Archiereus (or Archon ?) down to Trajan. The names of the magistrate and of his wife in Nero’s time are some- times as follows :—επι αρχ. το γ Σερουηνιου Καπιτωνος και ‘Ιουλιας Σεουηρας. The combination of the wife’s name with that of her husband is strongly in favor of the title Archiereus, rather than Archon, as the office intended by επι αρχ. (Ramsay, C. and B., 639 ff.). From Trajan’s time the title is Grammateus, and, in the reign of Septimius Severus, Flavius Priscus Jun. boasts of being the son of an Asiarch. (ЄΠΙ ΦΛ. ΠΡЄΙCΚΟΥ ΝЄΟΥ ΓΡ. ΥΟΥ ΑCΙΑΡ.). Chief types—Nike; Zeus seated, with adjuncts, owl and crescent; Artemis; Artemis Ephesia; River-god (Sindros?); Kybele; Asklepios and Hygieia; Hermes; Zeus seated to front with two giants at his feet; Dionysos in biga of panthers, riding on panther, or standing; Amaltheia suckling infant Zeus, around, three Kuretes; Herakles leaning on club; Demeter standing; City-Tyche seated between two River-gods (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 193); Horseman galloping towards mountain on which stand two women, in front, River-god (Sindros ?) (BMC Phrygia, Pl. IV. 6). Also busts of Roma (ΘЄΑΝ ΡΩΜΗΝ), ΙЄΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC, ΔΗΜΟC, ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ, ΒΟΥΛΗ, &c. For other varieties see Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 139.
Aezanis in Phrygia Epictetus, near the sources of the Rhyndacus. Autonomous bronze probably after B.C. 84, the Sullan era, according to which some specimens seem to be dated (Imhoof, Gr. M., 195). Inscr., ΕΠΙΚΤΗΤΕ[ΩΝ], obv. Helmeted bust, rev. Horse walking, sometimes with palm across shoulder, occasionally on caduceus, above, pileus surmounted by star; obv. Helmet with cheek-pieces, rev. Sword or dagger in sheath; obv. Head of Zeus, rev. Eagle on fulmen. Magistrates’ names in monogram, but in one instance at full length—ΓΑΙΟΥ. In the latter half of the first century B.C. the inscr. is ΕΖΕΑΝΙΤΩΝ; obv. Head of Herakles, rev. Hermes; obv. Head of City, rev. Dionysos.
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial—Augustus to Gallienus. Inscr., ΑΙΖΑΝΙΤΩΝ or ΑΙΖΑΝЄΙΤΩΝ with addition, on a coin of Commodus, of ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ ΤΟΥ ΔΙΟC (Invent. Wadd., Pl. XV. 7). Magistrates' names in genitive with επι, usually with patronymic without or with titles, Archon, Grammateus, Strategos, Stephanephoros, Archineokoros or Archiereus and Neokoros (?), Asiarch. (For list of names see BMC Phrygia, p. xxiv. ff.) Under M. Aurelius the Grammateus Eurykles dedicates a coin ΤΗ ΓЄΡΟΥCΙΑ (ανεθηκε being understood). Chief types— Zeus standing half-draped; Athena; Kybele; River-god (Rhyndakos) holding infant Ploutos; the Dioskuri; ΔΗΜΟC standing; Infant Zeus suckled by goat; Helios in quadriga; Hermes; Artemis Ephesia; Hekate triformis; Poseidon; Hephaestos forging helmet; &c. Also busts of ΘЄΟC CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC and ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΙЄΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC; ΔΗΜΟC; and ΘЄΑ ΡΩΜΗ.
Alia (near the modern Islam-Keui) on the upper Sindrus between Acmoneia and Siocharax. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, occasionally, from Trajan to Gordian. Inscr., ΑΛΙΗΝΩΝ. Magistrate's name G. Asinius Phrygius in genitive with ΑΙΤΗCΑΜЄΝΟΥ under Trajan, and G. Asinius Agreus Philopappos in nominative under M. Aurelius, with titles ΑCΙΑΡΧΗC and ΑΡΧΙЄΡΑΤЄ[ΥΩΝ] with or without ανεθηκεν. The expression αιτησαμενου seems to mean that the coins were issued at the request of the magistrate named, who had asked formal permission to dedicate an issue of coins to the city, while ανεθηκεν seems to imply that he had fulfilled his voluntary obligation, and been at the expense of the issue (see supra, p. 662). Αιτησαμενος occurs at Alia, Ancyra, Eucarpeia, Appia, Stectorium, Mylasa, and Stratoniceia- Hadrianopolis (BMC Lydia, cxvii). ‘Ανεθηκεν is much more frequent.
1 Ramsay (C. and B., 594) suggests that a special grant was accorded from Rome at the request of an influential citizen. But why the Roman rather than the local Senate ? 2 With regard to the religious cultus at Alia see Ramsay, C. and B., 593.
Amorium, an important town in far eastern Phrygia, struck autonomous bronze coins in the second or first century B.C. Inscription, ΑΜΟΡΙΑΝΩΝ. Magistrates’ names in nominative case or in monogram Types—obv. Head of Zeus, rev. Eagle on fulmen, with caduceus across wing; obv. Head of Kybele, rev. Lion on caduceus. (BMC Phrygia, Pl. VII. 1, 2.)
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial—Augustus to Geta. Magistrates’ names in nominative case under Augustus; afterwards in genitive with επι, or two names with family name, e.g. Silvanus and Justus, Vipsanii, ЄΠΙ CΙΛΟΥΑΝΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΙΟΥCΤΟΥ ΟΥЄΙΨΑΝΙWΝ. The title, Archon, is added on coins of Caracalla and Geta. Imhoof (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 202) points out that Amorium is called in an inscription (B. C. H., xix. 555 ff.) η λαμπροτατη και συμμαχος ‘Ρωμαιων, and that nearly all the magistrates’ names from Caligula onwards are Roman. Chief types—Zeus seated; Temple of Zeus; Demeter; Aphrodite; Athena; Nemesis; Bust of Sarapis, rev. Isis; Herakles before the tree of the Hesperides; River- god; Eagle on altar; Rhea seated before infant Zeus; Artemis and Apollo with altar between them; Dionysos and satyr; &c. (see BMC Phrygia, Pls. VII and VIII). Also busts of ΘЄΑ ΡΩΜΗ, ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC and ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ.
Ancyra, the chief city of the district Abbaït is in western Phrygia, was probably the place of mintage in the second century B.C. of the coins reading ΜΥΣΩΝ ΑΒΒΑΙΤΩΝ (see Abbaëtae-Mysi, supra, p. 663). After a long interval Ancyra begins again to strike quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins from the reign of Nero, when the town bore for a time the name of Julia. Inscription, ΙΟΥΛΙΕΩΝ ΑΝΚΥΡΑΝΩΝ (Wadd., Fastes, 135), down to that of Philip. Ordinary Inscription, ΑΝΚΥΡΑΝΩΝ.
Magistrates—Proconsul, Volasenna, A.D. 62-63, ΠΟ. ΟΥΟΛΑCЄΝΝΑ ΑΝΘΥΠΑΤΩ, ΑΙΤΗCΑΜЄΝΟΥ ΤΙ. ΒΑCCΙΛΑΟΥ ЄΦ(ορου). From Nero onwards the magistrate’s title is Archon or First Archon, who is also occasionally qualified as Hiereus, Stephanephoros, or Stephanephoros and Archiereus.  Chief types—Zeus standing, holding anchor and scepter. The anchor on the coins of Ancyra in Galatia, which King Midas found, and which in the time of Pausanias (i. 4) was still to be seen in the temple of Zeus in that city, proves that the same legend must have been common to both cities, unless at the Phrygian town it was merely a type parlant. Zeus and Hera face to face, sometimes between cypress trees; Artemis Ephesia; Athena; Poseidon seated. Also busts, ΘЄΑ ΡΩΜΗ, ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΘЄΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ, ΔΗΜΟC, &c. (BMC Phrygia, Pl. IX).
For list of magistrates’ names, &c., see BMC Phrygia, p. xxix ff. and Pl. IX.
Apameia, founded by Antiochus I (Soter) and named after his mother Apama, superseded the older stronghold and royal residence Celaenae
1 The coin of Antinoüs, dedicated by Julius Saturninus, ΑΝΚΥΡΑΝΟΙC (Mion. iv. 221, 160) belongs to Ancyra Galatiae (cf. C. I. G., 4013). which occupied the heights above it. Situate near the sources of the Maeander and its tributary mountain torrents, Marsyas, Orgas, and Therma, it was a central point from which trade-routes radiated in every direction. It became a commercial junction where goods arriving by the caravan routes from the east were packed in chests to be forwarded to the various seaports, Ephesus, Pergamum, &c. Hence its nickname η Κιβωτος, ‘the chest.’ There was also a tradition, due perhaps to a Jewish element in the population, that the mountain above the town was Ararat and that the Ark of Noah (η Κιβωτος) first rested on the hill of Celaenae. Its earliest coins are Cistophori and Half-Cistophori of the usual types, which fall chronologically into three classes. (i) B.C. 189- 133 with monogram . (ii) After B.C. 133 with ΑΠΑ and magistrates’ names in genitive case. (iii) Proconsular Cistophori, B.C. 57-48, of C. Fabius, B.C. 57-56, P. Lentulus, B.C. 56-53, Appius Claudius Pulcher, B.C. 53-51, M. Tullius Cicero, B.C. 51-50, and of C. Fannius, Pontifex, Praetor, B.C. 49-48, with local magistrates’ names usually accompanied by a patronymic. On the coins of classes ii and iii the adjunct symbol is the double-flute of Marsyas. Lentulus, Pulcher, and Cicero were Pro- consuls of Cilicia, to which province a portion of Phrygia was temporarily attached.
The autonomous bronze coins of Apameia range from B.C. 133-48, and are of four types :
These four denominations are contemporary with one another, and bear magistrates’ names in nominative or genitive case with patronymic: some of the names are identical with those on the cistophori. For illustrations see BMC Phrygia, Pl. X. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial—Augustus to Saloninus. Inscr., ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ, or rarely ΑΠΑ- ΜΕΙC, ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΦΡΥΓΙΑC, and, later, ΑΠΑΜЄΩΝ. Magistrates— Marius Cordus and M. Vettius Niger, Proconsuls of Asia under Nero, and M. Plancius Varus under Vespasian, A. D. 79. Local magistrates— Names at first in nominative case, but from Nero in genitive, with επι, επιμ[εληεντος], or παρα under Commodus, and again, usually, from time of Gordian, when the magistrate is a Panegyriarch. The following titles are sometimes added : Agonothetes, Hippikos, Asiarch, Grammateus, Panegyriarch, Archiereus. For list of names see BMC Phrygia, pp. xxxviff. Chief types—ΜΑΡCΥΑC playing double flute; ΜΑΡCΥΑC seated in grotto with packing chests around him. Inscr., ΚΙΒΩΤΟΙ ΑΠΑΜЄΩΝ; Zeus (Kelaineus) seated; ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ standing; Athena standing, or seated playing double flute, her face reflected in the waters of a fountain, and, on a lofty rock above her, the satyr Marsyas in attitude of astonishment; Aphrodite standing; Chest or ark (κιβωτος) inscribed ΝΩЄ, floating on water and containing two figures, and in front the same pair, a man and a woman, and, on the top, a raven (?), and above it a dove flying with a branch in her beak (Fig. 313). This type is probably copied from some painting in the city delineating the myth which localized the resting-place of Noah’s ark on the mountain behind Apameia (Ramsay, C. and B., 669). Also Lion before thyrsos, with cista mystica above; Hero ΚЄΛΑΙΝΟC standing; Pan standing; Hermes seated; Poseidon
Appia (Abia), on the north road from Acmoneia to Cotiaëum, about thirty miles north of Acmoneia, and the same distance south of Cotiaëum. Its territory comprised the valley of the upper Tembris, north-east of Mount Dindymus. Autonomous bronze, second or first century B.C. Inscr., ΑΠΙΑΝΩΝ, obv. Head of Kybele, rev. Zeus Aëtophoros seated (Imhoof-Blumer KM, i. p. 214). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial—Nero to Philip I and Otacilia. Inscr., ΑΠΠΙΑΝΩΝ. Magistrates’ names from Trajan, and titles, Strategos with ΑΙΤΗ[CΑΜЄΝΟΥ] (see p. 662); Grammateus with επι (Septimius Severus and Geta); and First Archon with επι (Philip I and Otacilia). Chief types—River-god (Tembris (?)); Zeus (Laodikeus) standing; Dionysos standing; Emperor (Philip II) standing; City-goddess seated between Tyche and Emperor who crowns her (BMC Phrygia, p. xi and Pl. XIII).
Beudus Vetus. See Palaeobeudus.
Bria, between Eumeneia and Sebaste, at the foot of the Burgas Dagh. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial only in time of Septimius Severus and family. Inscr., ΒΡΙΑΝΩΝ. Magistrate, Strategos. Types: Head of Sarapis rev. Isis; Head of Athena, rev. Hermes standing; The Dioskuri beside their horses; Tyche; &c. (BMC Phrygia, p. xli and Pl. XIII).
Bruzus (Kara-Sandukli) was the most northerly of a group of five cities (the Phrygian Pentapolis) occupying the valley of the upper Glaucus. The others were Eucarpeia, Otrus, Hieropolis, and Stectorium. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins—Hadrian (?) to Gordian. Inscr. ΒΡΟΥΖΗΝΩΝ. Dedicatory issues with ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄ in the time of Hadrian (?), Septimius Severus, and Caracalla, but no magistrates’ names on later coins. Chief types—Zeus enthroned, in one instance with two serpent-footed Giants beneath (Imhoof-Blumer KM, i. Pl. VII. 17); Zeus seated in temple; or with Hera standing before him; City-goddess standing; Hekate with two torches on globe; Demeter in serpent-car; Asklepios and Hygieia; Poseidon; etc. Also busts of City, ΒΡΟVΖΟC, ΔΗΜΟC, and ΒΟVΛΗ (BMC Phrygia, Pl. XIV. 1-7).
Cadi (Gediz), near the sources of the Hermus at the foot of Mount Dindymus, in the district called Abbaïtis in Phrygia Epictetus. Quasi-autonomous—Head of young Herakles, rev. ΚΑΔΟΗΝΩΝ Lion walking (BMC Phrygia, Pl. XIV. 9) or Apollo standing leaning on stele (Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 247, No. 1); &c. Also Imperial—Claudius to Gallienus. Inscr., ΚΑΔΟΗΝΩΝ. Magistrates with επι, Stephanephoros (time of Claudius), Archon or First Archon from Hadrian onwards. Games— CЄΒΑCΤΑ ΟΜΟΒΩΜΙΑ (Elagabalus and Trebonianus Gallus) and ΑΥΓΟΥ- CΤЄΙΑ (Gallienus). Chief types—Zeus Lydios or Laodikeus; Artemis Ephesia; both deities sometimes in temples; The Capitoline Triad— Zeus, Hera, and Athena; Two Nemeses; Kybele; Demeter; Dionysos; Athena; Hermes; Asklepios and Hygieia; Apollo; Artemis; River-god ЄΡΜΟC; Roma seated; &c. Also busts of CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ, ΙЄΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC, ΔΗΜΟC, ΒΑCΙΛЄΥC ΜΙΔΑC Bust of King Midas, &c. (BMC Phrygia, Pls. XIV, XV).
Alliance coins with Aezanis (see supra, p. 664), struck at the latter place.
Ceretapa (Kayadibi) in southern Phrygia, on the bank of a small lake about twenty miles south-east of Colossae. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins—Ant. Pius, Commodus, Septimius Severus, and Caracalla, &c. Inscr., ΚЄΡЄΤΑΠЄΩΝ ΔΙΟΚΑΙCΑΡЄΩΝ or ΚЄΡЄΤΑΠЄΩΝ. Magistrate’s name with patronymic, under Commodus with παρα, under Septimius Severus, &c., with title Strategos without preposition. Chief types—Herakles and Zeus face to face; Child Herakles kneeling on rocks with serpents twined round his arms; Attributes of Herakles, bow in case, club, and lion-skin; also types relating to the worship of Zeus, Kybele, Dionysos, Sarapis, Athena; River-god ΑVΛΙΝΔΗ[Ν]ΟC (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 155); also Busts of Herakles, ΒΟVΛΗ, &c. A coin of young Caracalla, as Caesar, bears his original name ΒΑCCΙΑΝΟC (Z. f. N., xvii. 20). Vaillant (Num. Gr., p. 69) cites an alliance coin of Hierapolis with Ceretapa (Commodus), but no specimen is known to me.
Cibyra. This city, near the sources of the Indus in southern Phrygia, bordering upon Lycia, was not incorporated into the Roman province of Asia until B.C. 84. After the defeat of Antiochus, B.C. 190, Cibyra gained or retained its independence as the chief city of a confederation of four towns, Cibyra, Balbura, Bubon, and Oenoanda, constituting the Cabalian Tetrapolis. Cibyra struck silver tetradrachms and drachms of the Cistophoric standard, and bronze coins which appear to belong to the period 166 to 84 B.C. They often bear names in the nominative case at full length, or more commonly abbreviated or in monogram. It has been thought that these names are those of dynasts of the Cibyratis, on the ground that one of them, Moagetes, is identical with the name of the last dynast, who was dispossessed by the Romans in B.C. 84; but it would seem that the names on the coins are far too numerous to be those of reigning dynasts (see BMC Phrygia, p. xlvi).
The types are as follows:—
|Helmeted male head.
[Imhoof-Blumer KM, i. Pl. VIII. 6.]
|ΚΙΒΥΡΑΤΩΝ Naked rider with lance
or lance and shield, names ΜΟΑ-
ΓΕΤΗ[Σ] or ΠΑΠΗΣ.
AR Dr. 53-50 grs.
[Imhoof-Blumer KM, 251, and Mon. gr. 395.]
|Similar, but horseman wears cuirass
and helmet. Numerous names, usually
abbreviated or in monogram and various
AR Tetradr. 196 grs.
AR Dr. 47 grs.
|Helmeted head.||ΚΙΒΥΡΑΤΩΝ Humped bull in incuse
|Id.||Eagle; Rider; Forepart of horse; &c.
|Head of Helios.||Humped bull; Forepart of do.; Bust of
|Head of Zeus.||Apollo standing. |
|Heads of the Dioskuri.||Nike erecting trophy. |
|Female head.||ΚΙΒΥΡΑΤΩΝ Rose. |
For other varieties see Imhoof (op. cit., and Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 156).
A few of the bronze coins are dated either from the era of Asia, B.C. 134-133, or from the Sullan era, B.C. 84. The next era of Cibyra dates from A.D. 24, as is proved by a coin of Elagabalus (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 253).
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial— Augustus to Gallienus. Inscr. ΚΙΒΥΡΑΤΩΝ or CЄΒ. ΚΙΒΥΡΑΤΩΝ (Augustus). ΚΑΙCΑΡЄΩΝ ΚΙΒΥ- ΡΑΤΩΝ (see Imhoof-Blumer KM, 256), in honor of Tiberius, was also in frequent use. Magistrates’ names at first in nominative without title, from Domitian in genitive with επι, and occasional title, Archiereus, or Grammateus. After Septimius Severus, magistrates’ names do not occur. Chief types—Dionysos; Zeus; Hades; Winged Nemesis; Amazon in various aspects, regarded as City-goddess; Veiled goddess (Hekate) with torch, in biga drawn by lions; a large wicker basket, the name of which may have been similar in sound to that of the name of the town; cf. κιβυσις, κυβισις, κιββα, κιβωτος (Wadd., As. Min., 19). This basket occurs frequently also as a symbol, and is often borne as a crown on the heads of various divinities (Θεοι Πισιδικοι (?), Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 157). Other frequent types are—River-god (Indos ?); Kore; Hekate triformis; Herakles resting his club on small terminal figure; also heads of CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC; ΚΙΒΥΡΑ; ΙΝΩ; [ΡΩ]ΜΗ ΑΔΡΙΑΝ[Η?]; and portraits inscribed ΑΤΙΩΣ, ΟΥΗΡΑΝΙΟC, and ΜΑΡΚЄΛΛΟC, probably local celebrities. Games—ΠΥΘΙΑ(?) (Mion. iv. 261, No. 391) if Sestini’s description is to be trusted.
Cidyessus, in the Sitchanli Ova, some thirty miles east of Siocharax. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins-Domitian to Otacilia. Inscr., on obverse, ΚΙΔΥΗΣΣΕΙΣ ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΟΡΑ ΔΟΜΙΤΙΑΝΟΝ, or, on reverse, ΚΙΔΥΗCCЄΩΝ. Magistrates’ names with επι—Archiereus, First Archon, or Logistes. Types—Zeus seated; Kybele seated; Athena standing; Mên (?) standing before seated Zeus, altar between them; Dionysos standing, with panther at his feet and small figure of Pan behind him; Bust of ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; &c. (BMC Phrygia, Pl. XIX. 1-3).
Colossae, on the Lycus, about twelve miles above Laodiceia. Autonomous—of the second or first century B.C. Obv., Head of Zeus, rev., ΚΟ- ΛΟΣΣΗΝΩΝ Winged fulmen (Sir H. Weber Coll.). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial—Aelius Caesar to Gallienus (?). Inscr., ΚΟΛΟCCΗΝΩΝ (rarely ΚΟΛΟCCΗΝΟΙC ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄΝ). Magistrates from Aelius Caesar to Caracalla, with or without titles—Grammateus, Archon, Strategos, Stephanephoros, &c.; and, on coins of Commodus, CΤΡΑΤΗΓ. ΤΩΝ ΠЄΡΙ ΖΩCΙΜΟΝ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΑ (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 158). The coins appear to be all dedicatory. Chief types—River-god ΛΥΚΟC recumbent; Wolf, symbol of R. Lycus; Artemis huntress; Artemis Ephesia; Artemis in biga of stags; Athena; Leto with infants; Zeus Laodikeus; Helios; Demeter; Sarapis; Isis; Asklepios and Hygieia; also busts of ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC; Helios; Mên; Athena; Sarapis; &c. (BMC Phrygia, p. xlix, and Pl. XIX. 4-9).
Cotiaëum (Koutaya), on the upper Tembris, about thirty miles north of Appia on the north road from Acmoneia to Dorylaëum. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins, Tiberius to Gallienus. Inscr., ΚΟ- ΤΙΑΕΙΣ ΡΩΜΗΝ or ΣΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ and, later, ΚΟΤΙΑЄΩΝ. Magistrates—ΕΠΙ ΜΑΡΚΟΥ ΛΕΠΙΔΟΥ M. Aemilius Lepidus, Proconsul of Asia, A.D. 21-22, and Μ. CΚΑΠΛΑ ΑΝΘ., M. Scapula, Proconsul under Trajan (Hunter, ii. 483). Local magistrates with επι, with or without titles, υιος πολεως, Archon or First Archon, Agonothetes δια βιου, Philopa- tris, Epimeletes, Stephanephoros, υιος ιππικου, Hippikos, and Archiereus. For fuller list of names and titles see BMC Phrygia, p. li.
Chief types—Kybele seated, often in lion-car, the lions sometimes supporting on their heads an agonistic table; Helios in quadriga, or standing with seated statuette of Kybele on his arm; Herakles with same statuette, or with infant Telephos, or in the garden of the Hesperides; Zeus seated; Apollo seated, or standing before tripod; Artemis Ephesia; Asklepios and Hygieia; &c. Also heads of Roma (ΡΩΜΗΝ), Synkletos (ΣVΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ), and ΔΗΜΟC (BMC Phrygia, Pls. XX-XXII).
Imperial coins, of Elagabalus only. Inscr., ΔΙΟΚΛЄΑΝΩΝ ΜΟΖЄΑΝΩΝ. Types—Apollo standing between tripod and column, on which he supports his lyre (BMC Phrygia, Pl. XXII. 7; cf. Hirsch, Auct. Cat. xiii. 4116); Demeter standing (Z. f. N., xvi. 8).
Dionysopolis occupied a fertile district on the south bank of the upper Maeander, by which its territory was separated from the κοινον of the Hyrgaleis (Ramsay, C. and B., 126; J. H. S., iv. 374 ff., x. 216 ff.; Reinach, Chron. d'Or., i. 497. 4). According to Steph. Byz. it was founded by Eumenes II (B.C. 197-159) and Attalus II (B.C. 159-138) of Pergamum on the spot where a ζοανον of Dionysos had been found. Autonomous Æ of second or first century B.C. Obv. Head of young Dionysos in ivy-wreath, rev. ΔΙOΝΥΣ Bunch of grapes (B. M.). Obv. Bust of young Dionysos in ivy-wreath with thyrsos at shoulder, rev. ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟ, Dionysos standing wearing himation, holding thyrsos and grapes over panther. Magistrate’s name with patronymic as on contemporary coins of Apameia. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins, Tiberius to Maesa. Inscr., ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ, ΔΙΟΝΥCΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ. Magistrates’ names in nominative with patronymic under Tiberius. In time of Septimius Severus and Caracalla with title Strategos (CΤΡΑΤΗ- ΓΟΥΝΤΟC), and dedicatory coins by ΧΑΡΗC Β ΙЄΡЄΥC ΔΙΟΝΥCΟΥ, with ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄΝ. On coins of Elagabalus, Maesa, and Annia Faustina, struck A.D. 221-2, the date . Ο = year 70, occurs. This points to the year A.D. 152-3 as the era from which Dionysopolis reckoned its years. Antoninus Pius may have inaugurated some festival there in that year. Cf. similar dated coins of the Hyrgaleis and of Laodiceia (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 222). Chief types (BMC Phrygia, Pl. XXIII)— Dionysos enthroned or standing, sometimes between Zeus Laodikeus and Asklepios, or between the Apollo of Hierapolis and Asklepios; Demeter (?) veiled to front holding in each hand a torch, beside her, Telesphoros (J. H. S., iv. 161); Asklepios and Telesphoros, Cista mystica with serpent; Zeus Laodikeus; Kybele seated; Artemis Ephesia; Hermes; Rider-god with double-axe; River-god ΜЄΑΝΔΡΟC; also heads of ΖЄΥC ΠΟΤΗΟC, epithet elsewhere unknown; ΠΟΛΙC, City- goddess; Sarapis; Seilenos; ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; and ΔΗΜΟC. The Rider-god with the double-axe is a type common to many towns in Lydia and Phrygia (BMC Lydia, p. cxxviii). Docimeium (Ichje Kara-hissar), lay in a gorge of the river Dureius, an affluent of the Caÿstrus about twenty miles north-east of Prymnessus on the road leading to Amorium. It was a Macedonian town founded by a certain Dokimos, perhaps the general who surrendered Synnada to Lysimachus, B.C. 302.
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins, Claudius to Tranquillina. Inscr., ΔΟΚΙΜΕΩΝ or ΔΟΚΙΜЄΩΝ ΜΑΚЄΔΟΝΩΝ. Magistrates— Anthypatos, ΕΠΙ ΚΟΡΒΟΥΛΩΝΟΣ ΑΝΘΥ, prob. Cn. Domitius Corbulo, Procos. of Asia, A.D. 51 or 52, who was put to death by order of Nero at Cenchreae, A.D. 67. Local Magistrate. Strategos, with additional title First Archon, on coin of Verus only (Mion. iv. 516). No other magistrates’ names. Chief types—Kybele standing to front between two lions; Kybele riding on lion; Kybele standing beside Mount Persis (Jahrbuch Arch. Inst., iii. 295); Dionysos naked to front, between small satyr and Eros (Imhoof-Blumer KM, Pl. VII. 20); Two naked men contending with lion at foot of a cultus-statue or trophy (?), probably a reminiscence of the bronze group dedicated by Krateros at Delphi in memory of his rescue of Alexander from the attack of a lion (Plut. Alex. 40; but see Imhoof-Blumer KM, 224, according to whose description the men are rescuing a woman from the lion). Mount ΠЄΡCΙC; River- god [Δ]ΟΥΡЄΙΟC; Apollo naked with tripod beside him; Athena; Artemis holding two torches; Hermes; Asklepios; Telesphoros; &c. Also heads of ΔΟΚΙΜΟC, the oekist; Herakles; Hermes; Pan; ΙΕΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; &c. For illustrations see BMC Phrygia, Pl. XXIV. The famous quarries of the marble known as Docimean and Synnadean were in Mount Persis.
Dorylaëum (Eski-shehr), the most northern town in Phrygia, on the river Tembris (Radet, En Phrygie, 80; Imhoof-Blumer KM, 225). Imperial coins, Vespasian to Philip II Inscr., ΔΟΡΥΛΑΕΩΝ. Magistrate— Anthypatos, ΙΤΑΛΙΚΩ ΑΝΘΥΠΑΤΩ, Ti. Catius C. Silius Italicus, Procos. of Asia shortly after A.D. 77. Local Magistrates, Archon, or First Archon and Stephanephoros, in genitive case with επι.
Chief types—Kybele; Hades; Dionysos; River god (Tembris); Zeus, on one coin of Trajan with epithet ΜΕΛΗΝΟC (Imh., l. c. This is the Zeus of Mela, and points to a close connexion between Dorylaëum and Mela in Bithynia); Nemesis; Thanatos with reversed torch; Two draped figures carrying spears and sacrificing before altar over which an eagle hovers, perhaps Dorylaos and Akamas as founders (cf. Radet, op. cit., p. 165 ff.). The names of two of the archons which occur on coins of Gordian and Philip I, Attikos and Timaeos, are met with in lapidary inscriptions found at Eski-Shehr and Shehr-E'uyuk. For illustrations see BMC Phrygia, Pl. XXV.
Eriza, an unimportant city in the lower Indus valley between Cibyra and Themisonium (Ramsay, C. and B., 253 ff.; Imhoof-Blumer KM, 226). Like Cibyra it seems to have been autonomous before B.C. 84, and to have issued a few bronze coins:—Obv. Head of Poseidon(?), rev. ΕΡΙΖΗΝΩΝ Eagle on fulmen (Z. f. N., x. 56). Obv. Bust of Athena, Magistrate's name ΠΑΖΑΜΟΣ, rev. ΕΡΙ Bust of horse (Imh., l. c.); obv. Horseman, rev. Athena fighting ΠΑΖΑ[ΜΟΣ?] (Invent. Wadd., 2338); obv. ЄΡ. Double-axe, rev. Trident (B. M.). Imperial—Septimius Severus, Caracalla, and Geta. Inscr., ЄΡΙΖΗΝΩΝ. Magistrates’ names with επι ιερ[εως]. Types— Helios or Mên on horse (Z. f. N., x. 56 and xii. 323); Artemis Ephesia (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 227, and BMC Phrygia, Pl. XXVI).
Eucarpeia (Emir Hissar) was the chief city in the valley of the Phrygian Pentapolis (Ramsay, C. & B., 690). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins, Augustus to Volusian. In the time of Augustus, Eucarpeia was the only place of mintage in the whole valley, and its coins consequently bear the inscr. ΕΥΚΑΡΠΙΤΙΚΟΥ, showing that they were current through- out the whole of the Eucarpitic Plain, as the Valley of the upper Glaucus may then have been called. The name ‘Pentapolis’ is quite late and only occurs twice (Ramsay, l. c. 698). These coins were issued in the name of ΛΥΚΙΔΑΣ ΕΥΞΕΝΟΥ, probably a Priest, and of ΑΠΦΙΑ ΙΕΡΗΑ, Priestess apparently of Artemis, whose statue is the prevailing type at Eucarpeia. The goddess stands to front, holding bow and drawing arrow from quiver; on her r. is a deer, and on her left a small cultus-idol of an Asiatic goddess, perhaps Kybele. From Hadrian’s time the inscr. is ЄΥΚΑΡΠЄΩΝ, and coins were struck ЄΠΙΜЄΛΗΘЄΙCΗC ΠЄΔΙΑC CЄΚΟΥΝΔΗC (Pedia Secunda, doubtless also a Priestess), and later under M. Aurelius, ЄΠΙΜЄΛΗΘЄΝΤΟC Γ. ΚΛ. ΦΛΑΚΚΟΥ (Flaccus, probably a Priest), or ΑΙΤΗCΑΜЄΝΟΥ Π. ΚΛ. ΜΑΞ. ΜΑΡΚЄΛΛΙΑΝΟΥ (Marcellianus, the official on whose special request an issue of coins may have been authorized, cf. Ramsay, l. c., 693). Other types—Kybele standing with hand resting on lion’s head; Hermes with ram; Poseidon; Eucarpeia, city-goddess, seated holding ears of corn; Bucranium surmounted by crescent and two stars; Temple of Tyche, &c., also heads of ЄΥΚΑΡΠЄΙΑ. ΔΗΜΟC, ΒΟΥΛΗ. Dionysos, Hermes, &c. For illustrations see BMC Phrygia, Pl. XXVI.
Eumeneia (Ishekli) was a Pergamene city founded by Attalus II B.C. 159-138 as a counterpoise to the neighboring Peltae, a Seleucid stronghold. He named it after his brother Eumenes. The territory of Eumeneia comprised the rich plain between the lower Glaucus and its junction with the upper Maeander, in the midst of which stood, at Attanassos, the hieron of an old Phrygian god (Ramsay, C. & B., 356). Its earliest coins are autonomous bronze of the second century B.C. Inscr., ΕΥΜΕΝΕΩΝ. Types—Head of Zeus, rev. oak-wreath; Head of Athena, rev. Nike; Head of Dionysos, rev. Tripod between bipennis entwined by serpent and filleted laurel branch, each surmounted by star, mostly with magistrates’ names in genitive case with patronymic. After an interval of about half a century coins were struck, probably at Eumeneia, under the name of Fulvia, which appears to have been imposed upon it for a very brief time in honor of the wife of M. Antony (ob. B.C. 40). Obv. Portrait of Fulvia as Nike winged, rev. ΦΟΥΛΟΥΙΑΝΩΝ ΖΜΕΡ- ΤΟΡΙΓΟΣ ΦΙΛΩΝΙΔΟΥ, Athena with spear and shield, or Same inscr. in ivy-wreath (Z. f. N. xvii. 21). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins were issued from the time of Tiberius to that of Gallienus. Inscr., ΕΥΜΕΝΕΩΝ and later ЄΥΜЄΝЄΩΝ ΑΧΑΙΩΝ, showing that some of the influential families claimed an Achaean ancestry. Magistrates—Tiberius to Nero in nominative case ΟΥΑΛΕΡΙΟΣ ΖΜΕΡΤΟΡΙΞ, doubtless a member of the same family as the Zmertorix of B.C. 40, ΕΠΙΓΟΝΟΣ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΡΙΣ (cf. C. I. G., 3887, where this magistrate is called ‘Ιερευς της Ρωμης), and ΚΛΕΩΝ ΑΓΑΠΗΤΟΣ. The son (?) of the last named, ΙΟVΛΙΟΣ ΚΛΕWΝ, appears on coins of Nero as Ο ΑΡΧΙЄΡΕVC  or as ΑΡΧΙΕΡΕΥΣ ΑΣΙΑΣ and his wife ΒΑΣΣΑ ΚΛΕΩΝΟΣ as ΑΡΧΙΕΡΗΑ [of Asia] on coins of Agrippina Jun.
Under Domitian the name is in the genitive case accompanied by ЄΙCΑΝΓЄΙΛΑΝΤΟC and ΑΡΧΙ. ΑCΙΑC, which is supposed to mean that the coin was issued ‘on the presentation of a report by’ the chief priest (see supra, p. 662). After Domitian the few names which occur are preceded by επι. Titles—αρχιερευς, under Philip I, and αγωνοθετης, under Volusian. Games (according to Sestini, Lett., ix. 61)—ΦΙΛΑΔЄΛΦΙΑ, on coin of Gallienus. Chief types—Naked Apollo holding double-axe and raven; the Rider-god with double-axe (cf. similar divinities at Thyatira); Zeus standing; Artemis Ephesia; Apollo and Dionysos in car drawn by goat and pantheress, on the goat’s back sits Eros playing the double flute; Nike sacrificing bull; River-god ΓΛΑΥΚΟC; etc. Also heads of Hermes, Dionysos, ЄΥΜЄΝЄΙΑ, ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΔΗΜΟC, &c. It will be seen from the above notes that the coinage of Eumeneia is chiefly of a sacerdotal character. No purely municipal titles occur. For illustrations see BMC Phrygia, Pl. XXVII.
Fulvia. See Eumeneia.
Grimenothyrae or Flavia Grimenothyrae. The Grimenothyreis were a people inhabiting the region between Temenothyrae (Ushak) and Keramon Agora on the upper Sindrus near Acmoneia. Their two cities were Flavia Grimenothyrae and Trajanopolis, some four miles to the south of it. Grimenothyrae dates from the time of Domitian, Trajanopolis, a more convenient site (Charik-keui), from that of Trajan (Imhoof, Festschrift für O. Benndorf, p. 204). The coins of Grimenothyrae range from Domitian to Hadrian, those of Trajanopolis (q. v.) from Trajan to Gordian. Inscr., A coin of Domitian (Imhoof, l. c.) reads ΦΛΑΟΥΙΩΝ ΓΡΙΜЄΝΟΘΥΡЄΩΝ; those of Trajan and Hadrian ΓΡΙΜЄΝΟΘΥΡЄΩΝ only; and these latter bear Magistrates’ names with επι but without titles. Chief types—Zeus seated; Asklepios and Hygieia; Zeus draped standing with eagle and scepter; Mên standing; Athena standing; Demeter standing; Herakles standing holding apple; &c. Also heads of Herakles, Artemis, ΙЄΡΑCΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΔΗΜΟC, &c. For illustrations see BMC Phrygia, Pl. XXVIII.
Hadrianopolis or Hadrianopolis Sebaste, in the extreme east of Phrygia Paroreios, some fifteen miles south-east of Philomelium near Doghan Arslan. According to Ramsay and Anderson, its original name seems to have been Thymbrion (J. H. S., viii. 491, 48, 49, and xviii. 116 ff.;
1 Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 150, notes the few other instances known to him, in which the article is prefixed to the magistrate’s title, e. g. ο αρχιατρος (at Ceramus), ο γραμ- μτευς (at Colossae), and ο επιμελητης (at Mastaura). Ramsay, Hist. Geog., 140, 57, and 142, 60). Imperial coins, Antoninus Pius to Trebonianus Gallus. Inscr., ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ or CЄΒ. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟΠΟ- ΛЄΙΤΩΝ usually abbreviated, mostly with Magistrates’ names in genitive, with or without επι, and with title Archon, apparently the Strategos. There was also a city in Thrace called Hadrianopolis, where, however, the title CЄΒ. is absent. The only means of distinguishing between the coins of these two cities is a careful study of fabric and characteristic types. The chief types of the Phrygian Hadrianopolis are—Mên standing; Nemesis between wheel and griffin; Distyle temple containing krater and staff; Nike; Tyche; Bull standing; River-god, ΚΑΡΜЄΙΟC; &c. (Imhoof, Mon. gr., 400; Gr. M., 737; Imhoof-Blumer KM, 232; J. Int. d'arch. num., i. 20; BMC Phrygia, Pl. XXVIII). There are also quasi-autonomous coins with heads of Athena, Mên, &c.
Hierapolis, the ‘Holy City’ (Pambuk Kalesi), stood on a lofty ridge overlooking the wide plain of the Lycus as far as its junction with the Maeander some fifteen miles to the west. The place owed its sanctity to its famous hot springs and its Charonion, believed to be an entrance into the underworld, from which a mephitic vapor was emitted. Leto the Mother-goddess, Apollo-Helios-Lairbenos, and other native Phrygian divinities were also revered at Hierapolis.
Its earliest coins are autonomous bronze of the second century B.C. reading ΙΕΡΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ. The form ΙΕΡΑΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ dates only from the time of Augustus. The types of the autonomous coins are, obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Goddess Roma (?) holding Nike, and seated on three shields; also, obv. Head of Zeus, rev. Apollo Kitharoedos; obv. Lyre, rev. Omphalos. Monogram or Magistrate’s name in nominative case. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins, Augustus to Valerian. Inscr., after Claudius, ΙЄΡΑΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ, with addition, sometimes, of ΝЄΩ- ΚΟΡΩΝ from time of Elagabalus. Roman Magistrates, ΦΑΒΙΟΣ ΜΑΞΙ- ΜΟΣ, Procos., B.C. 5, with his portrait, and ΜΑΡΚЄΛ. ΑΝΘΥ. (Clodius Eprius Marcellus, Procos., A. D. 70-73, cf. also Laodiceia). Municipal Magistrates, in nominative case, usually with patronymic, and occasionally with titles, Φιλοπατρις, Γραμματευς δημου, Γραμματευς. Magistrates’ names do not occur regularly after the reign of Nero,  and the only coins of Hierapolis after the time of Philip I seem to be alliance coins with Ephesus and Smyrna of the time of Valerian.
Chief types. (i) Before Trajan—Lyre; Tripod; Apollo Kitharoedos; Bipennis surmounted by head of Helios and with serpent round handle; Rider-god with bipennis; Demeter (?) seated; Zeus Laodikeus; Temple of the Augustan cult, with ΓΕΝΕΙ ΣΕΒΑCΤΩΝ. (ii) After Trajan— Artemis Ephesia; Athena and Hermes face to face; Athena Nikephoros; Apollo Kitharoedos; Rider-god with bipennis; Herakles standing; Two cloaked figures, each with spear, sacrificing before lighted altar (cf. Dorylaëum under Gordian); Rape of Kore; ΜΟΨΟC and ΤΟΡΡΗΒΟC, the prophet and the priest, the former with the bow and laurel-branch of the god Apollo, the latter holding cultus-image of the Phrygian goddess, and leaning on a lyre, referring to the introduction by him of the Lydian music into the ritual ceremony of the goddess (Ramsay, C. & B., 88); ΘЄΑ
1 Mion. iv. 630 and S. vii. 378, 391 are untrustworthy.ΡΩΜΗ seated; Zeus Laodikeus; Nemesis; Isis; Asklepios and Hygieia; River ΧΡΥCΟΡΟΑC, whose waters tumbling over the cliffs disappeared into a chasm in the plain beneath; Mên standing; Selene-Hekate with two torches in biga; Tyche ΕΥΠΟCΙΑ and ΕΥΒΟCΙΑ . These are the chief reverse-types. On the obverses of the above are heads of Apollo ΑΡΧΗΓЄΤΗC with lyre, or radiate as Helios; Helios ΛΑΙΡΒΗΝΟC; ΖЄΥC ΒΩΖΙΟC; ΖЄΥC ΤΡΩΙΟC; Dionysos; Athena; Selene; Sarapis; Asklepios; Herakles; ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΙЄΡΑΒΟΥΛΗ; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC; ΓЄΡΟΥCΙΑ; City-goddess, ΙЄΡΑΠΟΛΙC; &c.
Games—The strictly Hierapolitan Games were the ΠVΘΙΑ from the time of Caracalla; the ΑΚΤΙΑ in connection with the Neocory (Elagabalus and Philippus); the ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ (Philippus); and ΤΑ ΠΑΡΑ ΤΩ ΧΡVCΟΡΟΑ (Annia Faustina). On the numerous alliance coins other games are also mentioned in combination with the ΠVΘΙΑ of Hierapolis, e. g. Π and Χ, each in wreath, for ΠVΘΙΑ and ΧΡVCΑΝΘΙΝΑ (Hierapolis and Sardes); Π and Є for ΠVΘΙΑ and ЄΦЄCΙΑ or Π and Ο for ΠVΘΙΑ and ΟΛVΜΠΙΑ (Hierapolis and Ephesus); ΠVΘΙΑ and ΚΟΙΝΑ ΑCΙΑC (Hierapolis and Smyrna), &c. (See v. Papen in Z. f. N., xxvi, pp. 161-82.)
Alliance coins. Alliance coins were struck at Hierapolis apparently on five distinct occasions. (i) Under Hadrian, alliance with Laodiceia and reciprocally at Laodiceia with Hierapolis. (ii) Under M. Aurelius, Verus, and Faustina, alliances with Cibyra (coins struck there), Ephesus, and Synnada. (iii) Under Commodus, alliances with Ephesus, Sardes., and Aphrodisias. (iv) Under the Philips, alliances with Ephesus, Smyrna, Sardes, Pergamum, and Cyzicus, often with heads of Lairbenos, Synkletos, &c., instead of the Imperial portrait. (v) Under Valerian, alliances with Ephesus and Smyrna.
For illustrations see BMC Phrygia, Pls. XXIX-XXXII, and Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 151 sqq.
Hieropolis was the old religious center of the Glaukos valley of which Eucarpeia was the commercial capital. During nearly all of the first century A. D. Eucarpeia provided currency for the whole valley (see supra, p. 673). Hieropolis began to coin apparently only under Nerva, and its coinage does not extend beyond the time of Elagabalus. Inscr., ΙЄΡΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ. In the time of M. Aurelius, Verus, and Faustina Jun. the coins were issued in the name of an Asiarch, ЄΠΙΜЄΛΗΘЄΝΤΟC ΚΛ. ΠΩΛΛΙΩΝΟC ΑCΙΑΡΧΟΥ. No other magistrates’ names occur. The chief types are Nike wingless or winged; Zeus βροντων naked, hurling fulmen or holding eagle, sometimes with a second eagle at his feet and with aegis hanging over his extended arm; Kybele seated; Demeter standing before altar; Hades-Sarapis seated with Kerberos, and sometimes with Isis standing before him; Artemis running; Artemis Ephesia; Asklepios; Mên; Two stars in crescent above the horns of a bucranium, one above the other, connected by a vertical line (cf. coins of Eucarpeia, Peltae, and Stectorium); Tyche; &c.
1 Concerning these names see Ramsay, C. & B., 627, 637, and Imh., Lyd. Stadtm., 108, 182. 2 On the derivation of this word see Ramsay, C. & B., 153.Also busts of ΒΟΥΛΗ, ΔΗΜΟC, or ΙЄΡΟΠΟΛΙC turreted with scepter and cornucopia. For illustrations see BMC Phrygia, Pl. XXXII.
Hydrela is placed by Ramsay (C. & B., 172) on the left bank of the Maeander opposite Tripolis. The territory of the Hydrelitae comprised the lower plain of the Lycus including originally Hierapolis, which gradually superseded Hydrela and rose to be the religious center of the district, while Hydrela sank into the position of a small city of little importance. Its earliest coinage dates from the first century B.C. Obv. Bust of Artemis. Rev. Mên standing (Brit. Mus.). Inscr., ΥΔΡΗΛΙ- ΤΩΝ.
There are also a few quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins. Inscr., ΥΔΡΗΛΕΙΤΩΝ, one of Augustus (or young Nero ?) with magistrate's name in nominative, ΕΥΘΥΔΩΡΟΣ (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 245) and several dedicatory coins of Hadrian’s time with ΑΠЄΛΛΑC ΑΘΗΝΑΓΟΡΟΥ ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄ. Types—Mên on horse; Hera standing before Zeus Laodikeus and Athena (a modification of the Capitoline Triad, cf. Imhoof-Blumer KM, 121, 266, 272); Hermes standing; Dionysos standing; Apollo Kitharistes; Lion and Star; Club, bow-case, and quiver. Also Heads of Athena, Sarapis, and ΔΗΜΟC, some certainly much later than Hadrian's time (Millingen, Syll., 73). For illustrations see BMC Phrygia, Pl. XXXIII.
Hyrgaleis. These people occupied part of the modern Chalova in the bend of the upper Maeander between the territory of Dionysopolis on the west and the plain of Peltae on the east. The townships in the Hyrgalean Plain formed a single federation or κοινον. There are several ancient sites in the plain, but the place of mintage was probably Lounda. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins, Antoninus Pius to Severus Alexander. Inscr., VΡΓΑΛΛЄΩΝ, and more commonly VΡΓΑΛЄΩΝ.  Magistrates—Antoninus Pius to Domna and Caracalla in genitive with επι, and title Archon or Strategos (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 154; Z. f. N., xvii. 22; Invent. Wadd., 367). Apollodotus, one of the Strategoi of whom coins are known, has also left a lapidary inscription dedicated to Ant. Pius, on which he records, as the climax of his own services, the fact that he had struck coins (κοψας και νομισματα). (See Maonald in Class. Rev., 1907, p. 58.) The Hyrgaleis seem to have issued a great many coins in the year A.D. 222, when Severus Alexander became emperor. These are all dated ΤϚ (= 306 from the Lydo-Phrygian or Sullan era, B.C. 85-84), and are without magistrates’ names. The chief types of the Hyrgalean coins are Rider-god with double-axe and hound (Z. f. N., l. c.); Zeus Laodikeus; Kybele enthroned; Demeter standing; River-god ΜΑΙΑΝ- ΔΡΟC; Mên standing; Apollo and Artemis face to face, with stag between them; Hermes; Isis; Dikaiosyne; Tyche. Also Heads of Dionysos, Sarapis, ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΔΗΜΟC, ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ, veiled and diademed as on coins of the neighboring Dionysopolis, &c. (Imhoof, Gr. M., 216; Imhoof-Blumer KM, 246; Ramsay, C. & B., 129). For illustrations see BMC Phrygia, Pl. XXXIII.
1 Ramsay (C. & B. 129) mentions a coin of Domna with inscription VΡΓΑΛЄΩΝΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ (= κοινον).J. H. S., xviii. 110 ff.) at the foot of the north-east extremity of the range of mountains now called the Sultan Dagh. It was a station on the important trade-route from the west through Phrygia to Iconium and the east, and was situated about midway between the modern Afium Kara-hissar and Ak-Shehr (Philomelium). Ipsus was famous for the great battle, B.C. 301, in which Seleucus and Lysimachus defeated Antigonus and his son Demetrius. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins of Nero and Agrippina Jun., and, two hundred years later, of Aemilian and Cornelia Supera. Inscr., ΙΟΥΛΙЄΩΝ. Magistrate’s name in nominative under Nero and in genitive or dative with title archon under Aemilian, &c. Chief types—Kybele seated; Mên, on horse, shouldering three-pointed sceptre; Mên standing in temple; Tyche sacrificing; &c. For illustrations see BMC Phrygia, Pl. XXXIII.
Laodiceia ad Lycum was a stronghold of Seleucid power and influence founded by Antiochus II (B.C. 261-246), and named in honor of his wife Laodice. An older city on the same site was called Diospolis or Rhoas. The territory of Laodiceia included a great part of the Lycus valley, and was bounded by the two streams Lykos and Kapros, personified on its coins by a Wolf and a Boar. Its earliest coins are cistophori. These fall into three classes:—(i) B.C. 189-133, ΛΑΟ; symbols, Wolf and Head of city; Wolf and Lyre; Head of city goddess, Aphrodite or Laodice. (ii) After B.C. 133, ΛΑΟ, and Magistrates’ names in genitive or (later) in nominative with patronymic; constant symbol, Caduceus. (iii) Proconsular Cistophori of T. Ampius, B.C. 58-57; C. Fabius, B.C. 57-56; P. Lentulus, P. f., Procos. of Cilicia B.C. 56-53, and Imperator; Ap. Pulcher, Ap. f., Procos. of Cilicia B.C. 53-51, and Imperator; M. Tullius, M. f. Cicero, Procos. of Cilicia B.C. 51-50, and Imperator; and of C. Fannius, Pontifex, B.C. 49-48; with local magistrate’s name and patronymic; symbol, caduceus (cf. similar classes at Apameia).
The autonomous bronze coins of Laodiceia probably began about the same time as the earliest cistophori. Inscr., ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕΩΝ. Types— Turreted head of goddess, rev. Lion seated; Head of Zeus, rev. Lotus flower; Head of Aphrodite, rev. Aphrodite seated, holding dove; or Aphrodite standing, holding dove with rose before her. The following are of later date, after B.C. 133:—Head of Aphrodite or Queen Laodice, wearing stephane and diadem, rev. Cornucopia, double or single, the latter usually accompanied by a caduceus; Head of Apollo (?), rev. Tripod. The latest autonomous coins bear the mon. , perhaps year 21 of the Sullan era (= B.C. 63), or else a proper name (ЄΚΑΤ.... (?)). Types—Head of Zeus, rev. Cornucopia with eagle on it; Head of Dionysos, rev. Cista mystica between Caps of Dioskuri; Running boar, rev. Wolf. (River-gods Kapros and Lykos.) My suggestion that the female head wearing stephane and diadem(?) may be a traditional portrait of Queen Laodice, and not merely an ideal head of Aphrodite, though hypothetical, is, I think, warranted by the edict of Antiochus II (B. C. H., 1885, 324 ff.) conferring upon Laodice divine honors and appointing High Priestesses for her special cult in the various satrapies of his dominions.
The quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins of Laodiceia range from Augustus to Trajan Decius. Inscr., ΛΑΟΔΙΚЄΩΝ, or, from the time of Caracalla, often ΛΑΟΔΙΚЄΩΝ ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ. Magistrates—Anthypatos (Proconsul), T. Clodius Eprius Marcellus, A.D. 70-73, and C. Popilius Pedo, A.D. 160-161. Local magistrates’ names at first in nominative, e.g. ΣΕΙΤΑΛΚΛΣ and ΠΥΘΗΣ (these two with their portraits); later, sometimes in genitive with επι, or in Domitian’s reign with δια. Titles— Philopatris (time of Augustus), Hiereus and Nomothetes (Nero), Grammateus (Hadrian), Στρατηγων (Sabina), ‘Αρχιερατευων (M. Aur. Caes.), Asiarch (Caracalla), Archiereus (Otacilia). The names of several of the magistrates from Augustus to M. Aurelius have been identified by Ramsay (C. & B., 42 ff.) as members of the wealthy and influential family of the Zenonidae, among whom were Claudia Zenonis and Julia Zenonis, women who were probably hereditary High Priestesses in the reign of Domitian, and P. Claudius Attalos, who dedicated coins in the time of Ant. Pius and M. Aurelius as High Priest, Π. ΚΛ. ΑΤΤΑΛΟC ΑΡΧΙЄ- ΡΑΤЄΥΩΝ ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄ (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 270, and Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 160). This Attalos was a citizen both of Laodiceia and of Smyrna, where by his abilities he had earned the title Σοφιστης. Coins of the latter city read ΑΤΤΑΛΟC CΟΦΙCΤΗC ΤΑΙC ΠΑΤΡΙCΙ CΜΥΡ. ΛΑΟ. He also dedicated coins at Laodiceia with the word ЄΠΙΝΙΚΙΟΝ upon them; type, Zeus Laodikeus standing (Mion., iv. 703), or a temple inscribed ЄΠΙΝΙΚΙΟΝ; but as a similar temple inscribed ЄΠΙΝЄΙΚΙΟC occurs on coins of Domitian, it cannot have been erected by Attalos.
In the time of Commodus Laodiceia received the title Neokoros, and by a decree of the Senate at a later date the name of Elagabalus  was associated with that of Commodus, ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ ΚΟΜΟΔΟΥ ΚЄ ΑΝΤΩΝЄΙΝΟΥ ΔΟΓΜΑΤΙ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΥ.
The Games at Laodiceia mentioned on coins are the ΑΝΤΩΝЄΙΝΙΑ ΚΟΜΟΔЄΙΑ, the ΚΟΙΝΑ ΑCΙΑC, and the ΑCΚΛΗΠЄΙΑ (Z. f. N., xiv. 122).
Dates. Some of the coins of Caracalla and Sev. Alexander bear the dates 88 and 108, which point to an era in Hadrian’s reign, either A.D. 123 or 130, in both of which years he visited Laodiceia (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 272).
Among the chief types of the coins of Laodiceia are the following heads or busts—ΘЄΑ ΡΩΜΗ; ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΒΟVΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC; ΛΑΟΔΙΚΗΑ and ΛΑΟΔΙΚЄΙΑ; CΥΝЄΔΡΙΟΥ ΝЄΩΝ , bust of the Synedrion of young citizens, with two staves (?) at his back; ΖЄΥC ΑCЄΙC; Mên; &c. The principal reverse-types are—Lion or Panther seated, with double-axe over shoulder; Zeus Laodikeus standing draped in long chiton, holding an eagle and resting on his sceptre; Aphrodite draped standing; Altar surmounted by head-dress of Isis, or by mask of Seilenos; Infant Ploutos on cornucopia; Artemis Ephesia; Hades with Kerberos; Wolf and Boar (River-gods Lykos and Kapros); Zeus ΑCЄΙC carrying infant, with goat beside him; Pantheistic Tyche (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 161); Gymnasiarch (?) with vase at his feet containing vexillum; Aphrodite naked to front, dressing her hair, between Eros and dolphin; the three Charites; Hekate triformis; City-goddess standing between Wolf and Boar, and holding phiale and statuette of Zeus Laodikeus (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 161); or Lykos and Kapros recumbent in human form; Hera standing before Zeus andAthena (the Capitoline Triad); Kybele enthroned; Dionysos in panther- car; the Dioskuri beside their horses; Emperor in quadriga of lions; Eros winged or Thanatos, in sleeping attitude, with torch reversed; the Seasons, personified as four children, inscr., ЄΥΤΥΧЄΙC ΚΑΙΡΟΙ, equivalent to the Latin TEMPORVM FELICITAS (cf. Rev. Num. 1891, 31); Laodiceia seated between ΦΡΥΓΙΑ and ΚΑΡΙΑ standing (Num. Zeit. 1891, Pl. I. 1); Rhea or Amaltheia nursing infant Zeus, around are the Kuretes beating their shields, and at her feet recumbent River-gods. For a detailed account of the history, religion, and municipal constitution of Laodiceia see Ramsay, C. & B., p. 32 ff.; and for illustrations, BMC Phrygia, Pls. XXXIV-XXXVIII.
Alliance coins in time of Nero with Smyrna; Hadrian with Hierapolis; M. Aurelius with Smyrna, Ephesus, Pergamum, and Adra- myteum (?) (Mion. iv. 749 after Vaillant); Commodus with Ephesus and Nicomedia; Caracalla with Ephesus, Smyrna, and Pergamum; Philip II. with Ephesus and Smyrna. Alliance coins with Laodiceia were also issued at Hierapolis, Smyrna, Perinthus (?) (Mion. iv. 752), Antiocheia ad Maeandrum (?) (after Vaillant), also at Tripolis and at Heracleia Salbace (Invent. Wadd., 2424).
Leonna or Leonnaea is conjecturally placed by Ramsay (C. & B., i. 597) at Hissar, five miles north of Sebaste in the plain of the Sindrus (?) (the Banaz-Ova) west of the Burgas Dagh. The only known coin is of the second century B.C. and is figured by Imhoof (Imhoof-Blumer KM, Pl. IX. 7). Obv. Turreted female head. Rev. ΛΕΟΝΝΑΙΤΩΝ, Lion seated on spear-head holding broken shaft of spear in raised l. forepaw. The seated lion occurs on contemporary coins of Peltae.
Lysias, according to Ramsay (C. & B., 754) and Anderson (J. H. S., xviii. 107 ff.), probably founded by a general of Seleucus or Antiochus the Great and named after himself, lay on the great trade-route from Apameia north-east to the Paroreios, in the plain called Oinan-Ova some five miles west of the head of L. Limnae (Hoiran Göl). The known coins seem to have been struck on two occasions only, once by Flavius Attalus (M. Aurelius and Commodus) and once again under Gordian with contemporary quasi-autonomous issues. Inscr., ΛΥC Ι ΑΔЄΩΝ. Magistrate—επι Φλα. ‘Ατταλου. Types—Heads of ΒΟΥΛΗ, ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ, and ΔΗΜΟC. Reverses, Dionysos standing; Hekate tri- formis; Demos standing; Kybele seated; Tyche; Emperor on horseback (BMC Phrygia, Pl. XXXVIII).
Metropolis. There were two cities of this name in Phrygia and one in Ionia, and it is difficult to distinguish between their coins. To the northern Metropolis in the Caÿster valley east of Prymnessus no coins can be certainly attributed, and the only ones that clearly belong to the southern Metropolis in the Chal Ova on the great eastern highway from Apameia to Phrygia Paroreios, are of the time of Philip I and Trajan Decius, Etruscilla, Herenenius Etruscus, and Hostilian. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial. Inscr., ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ ΦΡΥ. or ΦΡΥΓ. Magistrate, ΠΑΡ. ΑΛЄΞ. ΤΙЄΙΟΥ ΑΡΧ. ΠΡΩ. This Alexander Tieiou, First Archon, is mentioned in an inscription as a leading citizen of the town about A. D. 250 (Ramsay, C. & B., 758). The formula with παρα instead of επι occurs also at Apameia, and partly on this account Ramsay (C. & B., 749, note) assigns Metropolis to the conventus of Apameia. Chief types—Helmeted bust of hero ΑΚΑΜΑC, son of Theseus, probably the traditional Founder (see also Synnada); also busts of ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ, or Emperor. Reverses, Mên standing; Cultus effigy of Artemis Ephesia, but without her stags; Tyche; Corn sheaf with five ears; Asklepios; Dionysos; &c. (BMC Phrygia, Pl. XXXIX).
Midaëum, in the extreme north of Phrygia on the river Tembris or Tembros, takes its name from King Midas. Eckhel, D. N., iii. 168, mentions a coin of Gordian with a head of Midas and inscription ΤΟΝ ΚΤΙCΤΗΝ. It was situated about eighteen miles east of Dorylaëum on the road to Pessinus in Galatia. Imperial coins, Augustus to Philip I. Inscr., ΜΙΔΑΕΩΝ, accompanied sometimes by Magistrates’ names with επι and title ΠΡ. ΑΡΧ. (First Archon). Chief types—Pan standing; Asklepios; Hygieia; River god, ΤΕΜΒΡΙC or ΤΕΜΒΡΟC; Hades seated with Kerberos; Demeter standing; Zeus draped standing with eagle at his feet; Dionysos standing; ΤΥΧΗ ΜΙΔΑΕΩΝ, City Tyche seated between two Erotes; Kybele seated. On a coin of Diadumenian in the British Museum the inscription is curiously written ΜΙΔΑΕΩΝ. Β, which has not been explained, but which I suggest may be intended as a mark of Value, Α Β standing for 2 Assaria; see BMC Phrygia, p. 337, note 1.
Nacoleia, now the desolate village of Sidi-el-Ghazi, was in Roman times a flourishing town situated on the river Parthenius, an affluent of the upper Sangarius, some forty miles south of Dorylaëum. It was once surrounded by splendid forests, but the country is now bare and arid. Its coins range from Titus to Gordian. Inscr., ΝΑΚΟΛЄΩΝ. Magistrate, T. Aquillius Proculus, Procos., A. D. 103-104. Sir W. M. Ramsay acquired at Nacoleia a specimen reading ЄΠΙ ΑΚVΛΛΙ ΠΡΟΚΛΟV (Wadd., Fastes, 171). Types—Zeus seated; Demeter (?) enthroned; Herakles standing, with inscription ΤΟΝ ΚΤΙCCΤΗΝ (sic), B. M.; Winged caduceus; Asklepios; Eagle; City-Tyche seated; River ΠΑΡΘЄΝΙΟC; &c. (BMC Phrygia, Pl. XXXIX).
Ococleia. This city is conjecturally placed by Ramsay close to Metropolis in the Chal-Ova, and Imhoof (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 280) notes that the obv. die of one of its coins is identical with that of a coin of the neighboring Lysias. It struck quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins, Commodus and Gordian. Inscr., ΟΚΟΚΛΙЄΩΝ. Magistrate, ЄΠΙ ΚΛ. ΚΑΛΩ- ΒΡΟΤΟΥ, obv. ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC. The same magistrate is entitled Asiarch on a coin of Crispina belonging to Sir W. M. Ramsay. Types— Zeus seated; Kybele-Demeter standing; Kybele seated; Tyche.
Otrus was one of the five cities of the Eucarpitic plain in central Phrygia. It seems to have been situated midway between Eucarpeia and Hieropolis. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins with heads of Faustina I (Z. f. N., xii. 346), Commodus, Domna, Caracalla, Geta, and ΔΗΜΟC. Inscr., ΟΤΡΟΗΝΩΝ. Magistrate, Archon with επι, and with addition, in one instance, of ΥΙΟΥ ΑCΙΑΡΧ. Also Asiarch in nominative case, under Caracalla, with ανεθηκε. Types—Athena standing; Zeus draped, with phiale and sceptre, eagle at feet; Demeter standing; Asklepios, &c.; Kybele enthroned; Goddess holding phiale over flaming altar; Otreus (?) stepping into galley ; Aeneas carrying Anchises and leading Ascanius,—symbolizing, as Ramsay (C. & B., 688) suggests, an emigration from Otroea on L. Ascania in Bithynia, a place which is said to have been founded by the Phrygian king Otreus (Strab. xii. 566). For illustrations see BMC Phrygia, Pl. XL.
Palaeobeudos, or Beudos Vetus, seems to have been situated near the north end of the Synnadic plain, some eight miles north of Synnada. It appears to have struck coins only under Hadrian. Inscr., ΠΑΛΑΙΟ- ΒЄΥΔΗΝΩΝ. No names of magistrates. Types—Apollo naked, with lyre and laurel-branch; Mên standing; Demeter standing. BMC Phrygia, Pl. XL.
Peltae a Macedonian colony occupying the plain between Lounda and Eumeneia, is one of the cities in Phrygia which coined money in the second century, though probably not earlier than 133 B.C. Obv. Bust of hero in crested helmet with cheek-piece, rev. ΠΕΛΤΗΝΩΝ, Lion seated; obv. Head of Zeus, rev. Winged fulmen; obv. Head of bearded Herakles laureate, rev. Club with lion-skin over handle.
These pieces bear magistrates’ names in monogram or in abbreviated form. After a long interval Peltae began again to strike coins, quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Ant. Pius to Volusian. Inscr., ΠЄΛΤΗΝΩΝ or ΠЄΛΤΗΝΩΝ ΜΑΚЄΔΟΝΩΝ. Magistrate, Archon or First Archon, Strategos or (on coin of Volusian) Grammateus (Invent. Wadd., 6392) with or without επι. Types—Heads of Herakles; Dionysos; Helios; Athena; Asklepios; City; &c.; ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC; and Emperors. Among the reverse types the following may be mentioned: Hermes standing, holding the infant Dionysos (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., Pl. VII. 1); Apollo standing; Athena Nikephoros; Kybele to front; Temple of Artemis Ephesia; Artemis huntress; Herakles strangling lion; Asklepios; Hygieia; River ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΟC; Emperor on horse; Stag; Bucranium supporting crescent containing two stars (cf. coins of Eucarpeia and Hieropolis); Tyche; Nike; &c. BMC Phrygia, Pl. XLI.
Philomelium (Ak-Sheher), in the plain of Phrygia Paroreios, separated from central Phrygia by the lofty range of the Sultan Dagh, was probably a Pergamenian outpost on the high road to Iconium. A stream called the Gallus (?) flowed through the town northwards towards the Lake of the Forty Martyrs, some eight miles north. Philomelium struck autonomous coins  in the second century B.C., or perhaps rather later. Inscr., ΦΙΛΟΜΗΛΕΩΝ, obv. Bust of Mên with crescent at shoulders, rev. Zeus enthroned. The obv. of these coins bears a striking resemblance to that of some coins of Antioch, η προς τη Πισιδια (Strab. 577), about
1 Cf. similar type at Stectorium.2 The dated Alexandrine tetradrachms assigned by Müller (1178-1195) to Philomelium are attributed by Imhoof (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 308), with greater probability, to Phaselis, fifteen miles west of Philomelium, but cut off from easy communication with it by the long range of the Sultan Dagh. The influence of the great sanctuary of Mên ‘Ακραιος or ‘Ασκαηνος at Antioch would seem therefore to have extended across the mountains. These coins bear magistrates’ names abbreviated. Somewhat later, perhaps, are coins, obv. Bust of Nike, rev. Two cornucopia crossed, with crescent containing star, and fulmen between them. Imhoof (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 285) suggests that these may have been copied from denarii of L. Valerius Flaccus (ob. B.C. 86). After a long interval the coinage begins again under Tiberius(?) and extends down to the reign of Trajan Decius. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Heads of ΔΗΜΟC and Emperors. Inscr., ΦΙΛΟΜΗΛЄΩΝ. Magistrates, ΤΙΤΟΣ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΡΙΣ under Tiberius; also ΒΡΟΚΧΟΙ, Two colleagues of a family bearing the cognomen Brocchus (Claudius and Nero Caesar). Subsequently the names are in genitive with επι, and in the time of Caracalla with title Strategos. Under Severus Alexander, Philip I, and Trajan Decius coins were issued with the addition of the Latin letters S. P. Q. R. These coins differ in fabric and size from the rest, and the Latin letters perhaps indicate that coins of this large size were the only ones recognized by the Roman government as legal tender in exchange for the sestertius of about the same size as issued at Rome. Chief types—Zeus seated; Dionysos standing; River-god ΓΑΛΛΟC; Athena Nikephoros with serpent before her; Circular shrine containing statue of goddess; Emperor on galloping horse; Hexastyle temple containing serpent, in ex. ΑCΚΛΗΠΙΟC (Z. f. N., xvii. 22). BMC Phrygia, Pls. XLI, XLII.
Prymnessus (Seulun, near Afium Kara-Hissar) was situated on a small affluent of the Caÿster, some fifteen miles north of Synnada on the road from that city to Docimeium. The position of the town, at a point where much frequented trade-routes from south to north and from east to west met and crossed one another, must have made Prymnessus a commercial rather than a religious center of activity, and its prevailing coin-type, Dikaiosyne with her pair of scales (the Roman Aequitas), is especially appropriate to an exchange-mart such as this city must have been in Roman times.
Its earliest coins are autonomous of the first century B.C. Obv. Turreted head of City, rev. ΠΡΥΜΝΗΣΣΕΩΝ, Hermes standing, with much abbreviated magistrates’ names. Its subsequent issues are quasi- autonomous and Imperial, Augustus to Gallienus. Inscr., ΠΡΥΜ- ΝΗCCЄΩΝ or ΠΡΥΜΝΗΣΣΕΙΣ. Magistrates’ names, at first usually in nominative case, accompanied sometimes by title, e. g. under Tiberius, ‘Αρτας Φιλοπατρις, and ‘Ιουκουνδα ιερηα, probably husband and wife, Priest and Priestess. From Nero onwards the names are in genitive with επι and, occasionally, titles, ‘Ιερευς, Archon, Hippikos. Chief types—ΜΙΔΑC or ΒΑCΙΛЄΥC ΜΙΔΑC, Bearded head of King Midas in Phrygian cap; ΘЄΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ; ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC; Busts of Mên or Sarapis. Reverse types—River-god (Kaystros (?) ); Scales; Dikaiosyne with scales, standing or seated, sometimes in temple, or on throne supported by two figures of Nike flying, and with two Erotes riding on Hippocamps in ex. (BMC Phrygia, Pl. XLIII. 2); Zeus Καρποδοτης (?) (Ramsay, Athenische Mittheilungen, vii. 35) seated; Kybele seated, or standing; Asklepios; Hygieia; Isis; Tyche; &c.Sanaüs is placed by Ramsay (C. & B., i. 230) at the foot of the hills overlooking the northern coast of the salt lake Anava, on the eastern highway between Apameia and Laodiceia. The only coin at present known of this town belongs to the second or first century B.C. Obv. Head of Apollo, rev. ΣΑΝΑΗΝΩΝ, Tripod between laurel boughs. Magistrates, ΑΠΟΛ or ΠΡΟ (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 286, and Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 165). It would seem that the territory of Sanaüs was subsequently absorbed into that of Apameia.
Sebaste (Sivasli) was the most important city on the road from Eumeneia northwards to Acmoneia, which skirted the great plain now called the Banaz Ova, running beneath the foot-hills of the Burgas Dagh range of mountains. Sivasli is still a rich village full of ancient remains, among which is an inscription recording the formation of a Γερουσια. The plain north of Sivasli is still well-wooded, and is bounded on the west by the river Banaz Chai, the ancient Senarus, or rather CΙΝΔΡΟC as it is spelt on a coin (BMC Phrygia, Pl. XLIII. 4). Coins, quasi-autonomous and Imperial, were occasionally issued from Augustus to Gordian or later. Inscr., ΣΕΒΑΣΤΗΝΩΝ. Magistrates in nominative case till time of Septimius Severus; later in genitive with επι and title Archon. Chief types—Heads of Dionysos; Mên; Young Herakles; ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC. Reverse types—Zeus seated; Kybele seated; Perseus slaying Gorgon, Athena behind him; Mên standing; Dionysos in panther-car; Demeter standing; Bow in case and club; Hygieia; Asklepios; Ganymedes standing holding syrinx and pedum, eagle embracing him; River-god CΙΝΔΡΟC; Emperor (Caracalla (?)) on galloping horse; &c.
Alliance coin with Temenothyrae struck at the latter place.
Sibidunda is identified by Anderson (J. H. S., xviii. 104) with Atli-Hissar at the southern extremity of the plain of Synnada, at the point where the road from Synnada to Metropolis enters the hilly country which separates the Synnadic and Metropolitan plains. Imperial coins, M. Aurelius Caesar to Gordian. Inscr., CΙΒΙΔΟΥΝΔЄΩΝ. No names of magistrates. Types—Zeus seated; Artemis running; Helen standing between the Dioskuri, her head surmounted by crescent. This type occurs also in Pisidia and Pamphylia (see BMC Phrygia, Pl. XLIV; Lycia, Pl. IX. 12, and Introd., p. lvii); Dionysos standing, or in biga of panthers; Mên standing. The absence of magistrates’ names on the coins of Sibidunda suggests a doubt as to whether this city was included in the province of Asia.
Siblia. This town is placed by Ramsay (C. & B., i. 221 ff.) in the plain of the upper Maeander halfway between Apameia and Eumeneia. The coinage, quasi-autonomous and Imperial, extends from Augustus to Geta. Inscr., ΣΙΒΛΙΑΝΩΝ and later CЄΙΒΛΙΑΝΩΝ. Magistrates’ names at first in nominative case, and later in genitive with παρα, e. g. under Caracalla and Geta ΠΑΡΑ ΜΗΝΟΔΟΤΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΙΛΙΑΝΗC, probably a Priest and Priestess. Chief types—Busts of Mên; ΔΗΜΟC; CЄΙΒΛΙΑ turreted. Reverses—Herakles standing; Herakles strangling
1 Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 168, reads ΜΑΙΑΝΗC.lion; Dionysos standing; Hermes standing; Athena standing; Zeus standing; &c. (BMC Phrygia, Pl. XLIV, and Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., Pl. VII. 3.)
Siocharax. A town in the hilly country of the Moxeani, in a narrow valley where two roads met, the northern road from Eumeneia to Cotiaëum, and the eastern route through the Caÿster valley (Ramsay, C. & B., i. 632 ff.; Anderson, J. H. S., xvii. 421). The only coin at present known belongs to the time of Geta Caesar, and reads ЄΠΙ ΦΙΛΙCΚΟΥΛΙΔΟΥ ΑΡΧ. CΙΟΧΑΡΑΚЄΙΤΩΝ ΜΟΨЄΑ. Type—Tyche. See BMC Phrygia, p. 382, and Pl. XLIV. 9.
Stectorium, the southernmost city of the Phrygian Pentapolis, stood on the left of the road which runs along the valley from Apameia to Hieropolis and Eucarpeia (Ramsay, C. & Imhoof-Blumer KM, i. 689 ff.). A single autonomous coin is known (Fox, Gr. Coins, ii. Pl. VIII. 153), obv. Bearded head, rev. Bow and quiver., Inscr., [Σ]ΤΕΚΤΟΡΗΝΩΝ, which seems to belong to the first century B.C. (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 290). The sub- sequent issues, quasi-autonomous and Imperial, range from the time of M. Aurelius to Philip I. Inscr., CΤЄΚΤΟΡΗΝΩΝ. Magistrates, with οιτησαμενου (M. Aurelius and Faustina Jun.), later with επι, and, in Philip’s time, with addition of ‘Ασιαρχου και της πατριδος. Chief types—Heads of Herakles; Sarapis; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΒΟΥΛΗ; and ΔΗΜΟC. Reverses—Dionysos standing; Asklepios; Hygieia; Crescent on bucranium, containing two stars; Zeus seated; Athena standing; Rider-god with double axe; Hero, Mygdon (?)  armed, or stepping into galley, cf. analogous type at Otrus, where the hero is perhaps Otreus (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 290); Mygdon(?) in biga of galloping horses (Invent. Wadd., Pl. XVIII. 11). Otreus and Mygdon are mentioned by Homer (Il. iii. 186) as joint rulers in Phrygia.
Synaüs. This town was situated near the sources of the river Macestus, and close to Ancyra, in the district called Abbaïtis in Western Phrygia. It struck occasionally quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins, Nero to Philip. Inscr., CΥΝΑЄΙΤΩΝ. Magistrates, ЄΠΙ ΜΑΡ- ΚЄΛΛΟΥ ΤΟ Γ (the third year of the Proconsulship of T. Clodius Eprius Marcellus, A. D. 70-73). Local magistrate, Archon, who sometimes ranks as an Asiarch or son of an Asiarch, e.g. ЄΠ. ΙΟΥ. ΧΑΡΙΔΗΜΟΥ ΑΥΡ. ΥΟΥ ΑCΙ. ΑΡΧ. Α. ΤΟ. Β. on a coin of Philip I (BMC Phrygia, p. 391). Chief types—ΘЄΑΝ ΡΩΜΗΝ; ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΔΗΜΟC; Naked Apollo shooting with bow; Dionysos standing; Two Nemeses; Zeus Laodikeus; Artemis Ephesia; Rider-god with double axe; &c.
Synnada. This city stood in a plain and was of considerable importance as a station on the road from Apameia to the north and east. Cicero (Ad Att., v. 16. 2), on his way to Cilicia, stayed three days at Laodiceia, three at Apameia, and three at Synnada. Its earliest coins are Cistophori, after B.C. 133 (Num. Chron., 1883, p. 187; Rev. Num., 1892, Pl. III. 6). The adjunct symbols are, on one, an Amphora, and, on
1 The tomb of Mygdon in the territory of Stectorium is mentioned by Paus. (x. 27. 1). See, however, with regard to these types, Regling, in Klio, viii, pp. 489-92, who identifies the hero as Hektor. the other, an Owl on an amphora. The bronze coins of the same period have on obv. Turreted head of Kybele or City, rev. Zeus standing draped holding fulmen and resting on sceptre. Magistrate’s name in genitive case (BMC Phrygia, p. xcviii). The following is also pre-Imperial :— Obv. Head of Zeus with sceptre behind, rev. Poppy and ear of corn between caps of Dioskuri Imhoof-Blumer KM, 292). The subsequent issues. quasi-autonomous and Imperial, range from Augustus to Gallienus. Inscr., ΣΥΝΝΑΔΕΩΝ, CVΝΝΑΔЄΩΝ, CVΝΝΑΔЄΩΝ ΔΩΡΙЄΩΝ ΙΩΝΩΝ, CΥΝΝΑΔЄΩΝ ΙΩΝΩΝ, CΥΝΝΑΔΙC, CΥΝΝΑΔЄΙC, &c. Magistrates’ names at first generally in nominative case; after Claudius usually in genitive with επι. Titles—Archiereus (Claudius); Philokaisar (Claudius, Nero); Hiereus (Faustina); Hiereia (Lucilla) (BMC Phrygia, p. xcix); Prytanis and Logistes (Ant. Pius, M. Aurelius, &c.); Archon, Agonothetes, and Hippikos, in dative case (= Latin ablative) (Gordian and Trajan Decius); and Archon, in genitive with επι (Gallienus). A coin of Ant. Pius has on the obv. the word ΑΠΟΚΑΤЄ[στησεν], probably equivalent to the Latin ‘restituit’ or ‘renovavit’ (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 294). Chief types—Heads of ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΙЄΡΑΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΘЄΑ ΡΩΜΗ; ΖΕΥC ΠΑΝΔΗΜΟC; ΑΚΑΜΑC, helmeted head of hero, son of Theseus, probably as Founder; ΘΥΝΝΑ- ΡΟC, a local hero, bearded; also heads or busts of Athena; Kybele or City; Sarapis; &c. The reverse types are also numerous, ΖЄΥC ΠΑΝ- ΔΗΜΟC seated holding Nike or eagle; ΔΙΑ ΠΑΝΔΗΜΟΝ (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 294); ΔΗΜΟC ΡΩΜΑΙΩΝ standing; Athena ΠΟΛΙΑC standing; Standing figure of Demeter; Artemis Ephesia; Herakles; Amaltheia turreted, carrying infant Zeus and with goat at her feet; Akamas or Lakedaemon helmeted, in short chiton and holding Palladium (cf. Sagalassus Pisid., BMC Lycia, cvi and 241 ff.); Asklepios; Hygieia; Nemesis; Mên; Tyche; Isis; Temple of Dionysos (?); Modius or Cippus in temple, flanked by palms; Cippus in arena with Bestiarii around fighting with beasts, or gladiators in combat; Palladium; Emperor in quadriga crowned by Nike. An interesting type on late Imperial coins is a mountain, which is probably Mount Persis at the neighboring Docimeium, which contained the famous quarries of the precious marble known as Synnadic, because it was through Synnada that it was conveyed and exported to Ephesus and over sea to Italy. Games— ΑΔΡΙΑΝΙΑ ΠΑΝΑΘΗΝΑΙΑ Agonistic crown (Mion., iv. 983).
Alliance coin with Hierapolis (Verus), rev. Zeus (Pandemos (?) ) seated before the Apollo Kitharistes of Hierapolis standing. For illustrations and lists of magistrates’ names see BMC Phrygia, p. xcvii ff. and Pl. XLVI.
Temenothyrae Flaviopolis (Ushak), originally, no doubt, a station on the old Royal Road from Smyrna to the East, was situated near the sources of the Hippurius (?) in the highlands to the north of the great plain (Banaz Ova). Its name, Flaviopolis, indicates that, as a πολις, it dates from the time of the Flavian Emperors (Imh., Festschrift für O. Benndorf, p. 207). The coinage, quasi-autonomous and Imperial, ranges from the time of Hadrian to that of Saloninus, and is plentiful. It is remarkable that, with a very few exceptions, the coinage of Temenothyrae consists of dedicatory issues, as is evident from the fact that the Magistrates’ names are almost always in the nominative case with the ethnic in the dative, ΤΗΜЄΝΟΘΥΡЄΥCΙ, ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄ being expressed or understood. Coins reading ΤΗΜЄΝΟΘΥΡЄΩΝ are quite exceptional. The titles of the magistrates are Asiarch, under Commodus, and, from Septimius Severus onwards, First Archon. One of these under the Philips and another under Valerian add the title Archiereus. The chief obverse types are Heads of ΤΗΜЄΝΟC ΟΙΚΙCΤΗC or ΚΤΙCΤΗC; ΘЄΑ ΡΩΜΗ; ΦΛΑ- ΒΙΟΠΟΛΙC; ΔΗΜΟC ΦΛΑΒΙΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ; ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC; Herakles; Mên; Artemis; &c. Reverses— Standing figure of Dionysos; Artemis; Demeter; Hermes; Athena; Zeus Laodikeus; Zeus Sarapis; Herakles before the tree of the Hesperides entwined by serpent, the three Hesperides behind the tree; Herakles captured by Eros, who pulls him along by a rope attached to his leg before a column surmounted by a statue ; Herakles contending with River-god; Apollo standing at rest between snake-encircled tripod and lyre, beneath tree; Asklepios and Hygieia; Seated figures of Athena Nikephoros; Zeus Aëtophoros; City (?) standing before seated Zeus Nikephoros; Hephaestos forging shield of Achilles; also Rider-god with double-axe; Mên in biga of bulls; Artemis in biga of stags; Lion walking; Altar; Valerian and Gallienus sacrificing, Nike between them bestowing a crown on each.
For illustrations and list of magistrates’ names see BMC Phrygia, p. ci and Pls. XLVII, XLVIII.
Themisonium. This city was originally a Seleucid foundation in the valley of the upper Indus and its affluent the Cazanes. It was a station on the road from Laodiceia southwards to Cibyra, and was about mid- way between the two. Its name is derived from Themison, the favorite of Antiochus II, and its foundation dates probably from about B.C. 251- 246 (Ramsay, C. & B., i. 252 ff.). There are, however, no coins of Themisonium known which can be assigned to pre-Imperial times. Its coins, quasi-autonomous and Imperial, range from Septimius Severus to Philip I. Inscription, ΘЄΜΙCΩΝЄΩΝ. No magistrates’ names have hitherto been noted. Types—Obverses, Heads of the god ΛΥΚ[ΛΒΑC (?)] CΩΖΩΝ radiate; Sarapis; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC; &c. Reverses, River-god ΚΑΖΑΝΗC; Athena sacrificing; Asklepios and Hygieia; Dionysos standing; Demeter veiled, to front, with torches in raised hands; Isis standing; Herakles standing between Lykabas Sozon (?) beside his horse, and Hermes; Athena Nikephoros; &c. Pausanias (x. 32) relates that the Themisoneans set up statues of Herakles, Apollo, and Hermes in a cavern near the town. BMC Phrygia, p. civ and Pl. XLIX.
Tiberiopolis in the district Abbaïtis between Aezanis and Ancyra. Quasi-autonomous from time of Tiberius (?). Inscr., ΔΙΔΥΜΟΙ— CЄΒΑCΤΗ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC. Busts of Livia and the Senate face to face, either as joint founders of a temple of the Augustan worship at Tiberiopolis or as divinized objects of worship side by side with the Emperor; cf. the cultus, at Tiberiopolis, of the ομοβωμιοι Θεοι Σεβαστοι, probablyTiberius and Livia (Ramsay, Hist. Geogr., p. 147). Livia was by a decree of the Senate appointed Priestess of the worship of Augustus after his death, but she herself was not divinized until the reign of Claudius. The date of this coin is therefore somewhat doubtful. The Imperial coins range from Trajan to Gordian. Inscr., ΤΙΒЄΡΙΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ or ΤΙΒЄΡΙΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ. Magistrates’ names in genitive with επι under Hadrian and with title Archon in time of Gordian. Types—Obverses, Busts of ΙЄΡΑ CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟVΛΗ; ΒΟVΛΗ; Sarapis; etc. Reverses, Figures of ΓЄΡΟV[σια] and ΒΟVΛ[η]; Artemis Ephesia; Artemis huntress; Stag; Zeus holding Eagle; Apollo holding branch, resting on column, or on lyre; Asklepios; temples; etc. BMC Phrygia, p. cv and Pl. XLIX.
Trajanopolis, a city of the Grimenothyreis, but not identical with Grimenothyrae, from which it was about four miles distant, at the modern village Charik-keui (Imhoof, Festschr. für O. Benndorf, p. 204 ff.). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins, Trajan to Gordian. Inscr., ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ. Types—Obverses, Heads of ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΔΗΜΟC; Athena; etc. Reverses, Nike; Zeus Laodikeus; Athena; Asklepios; Demeter-Tyche; Kybele; Artemis Ephesia; Rider-god with double axe; etc. Magistrates’ names in nominative case with titles, First Archon under Caracalla (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 526), and Grammateus and First Archon under Gordian. There are also dedicated coins, though ανεθηκε is not expressed, under Caracalla with inscr. ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟ- ΠΟΛΙΤΑΙC (Imhoof, op. cit., and BMC Phrygia, p. cv and Pl. I).
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Phrygia, a region of Asia Minor, adjoining to Caria, Lydia, Mysia, and Bithynia, "of all which (says Strabo) the boundaries so intermix as to be with difficulty distinguished."