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Ancient Coins from Ionia for sale in the Forum Ancient Coins shopBabelon, E. Traité des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines. (Paris, 1901-1932).
There can be little doubt that in the seventh century B.C. the Greek cities on the Ionian coast adopted the Lydian invention of coining money, i. e. of stamping the precious metals with marks or types as guarantees of fixed values. Gold and silver, which from time immemorial had been the universal media of exchange, had no real need of such warrants. They were weighed in the scales, and the generally accepted relation between them was in the proportion of 1 to 13 1/3. The ordinary product of the rich Lydian gold-producing districts consisted, however, of an impure gold containing a large admixture of silver, sometimes more, sometimes less, but always variable. The average market price of the impure metal, which from its silvery color obtained the name of ‘pale gold’ or ‘electrum’, was considerably less than that of pure gold; it was roughly tariffed at the rate of about 1 to 10 in relation to silver, in contrast with 1 to 13 1/3. In order to utilize this abundant natural mixture of gold and silver as a ready medium of exchange, some sort of warrant of exchange value would naturally be required on the part of the purchaser. Accordingly each ingot issued as coin soon came to be stamped with the signet or mark of the issuer responsible for its value, and this custom was so convenient that it was afterwards extended to the purer metals. Of the early electrum coins those which bear distinctive types or symbols are mentioned under the various mints to which they are usually, though doubtfully, attributed. With a very few exceptions the remainder can only be generally classed to the western coast of Asia Minor, where nearly all the extant specimens have been found. Some few pieces may, however, have been struck in Thrace or Thasos, and possibly in Aegina, but these are exceptional.
Chiefly of the western coast towns of Asia Minor. 
As the current value of electrum seems to have stood in the earliest times as 1 to 10 in relation to silver, the weight of the electrum stater in each district would naturally be regulated by the standard used for weighing silver in that district. An electrum stater would thus be readily exchangeable for ten silver pieces of its own weight.
Electrum coins are known of the following maximum weights: Euboïc, 269 grs. (distater), 133.6 grs. (stater); Babylonic, 167 grs.; Phocaïc, 254-248 grs.; Phoenician, 220-215 grs.; Aeginetic (?), 212 grs. Halves, Thirds, Sixths, Twelfths, Twenty-fourths, Forty-eighths, and even Ninety-sixths, of the stater are also met with, but the Hecte or Sixth was the denomination which was in most common use.
Among the types of the larger electrum coins (seventh and sixth
1 For other doubtfully attributed specimens see under Cyzicus, Lampsacus, Abydus. Dardanus, Methymna, Mytilene, Cyme, Clazomenae, Ephesus, Erythrae, Miletus, Phocaea, Teos, Chios, Samos, Sardes, &c.
|Two lions’ heads to front, upwards and downwards.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. I. 1.]
|Three incuse sinkings, the central one oblong, the others square. |
EL. Stater 219.5 grs.
|Forepart of bridled horse, l. (Cyme ?).|
[Invent. Wadd., Pl. III. 9.]
|Three incuse sinkings as on previous coin. |
EL. Stater 220 grs.
|Two lions standing on their hind legs, facing one another, but with heads turned back; between them is the capital of a column on which each lion rests a fore-paw, while the other fore-paw of each is raised.|
[Num. Chron., 1896, Pl. VII. 15.]
|Rude incuse square. |
EL. Stater 216.1 grs.
|Half figure of Oriental deity to front, head r., with pointed beard and long hair, holding disk in his arms, and with four curled wings, two at shoulders and two at waist. [B. M., unpublished.]||Three incuse sinkings, the central one oblong, the others square. |
EL. Half-stater 108.6 grs.
The motives of the two last described coins are remarkable; that of t he stater resembles the Lion-gate of Mycenae and some early Phrygian monuments of the ninth and eighth centuries B.C. (Ramsay, J. H. S., 1888, 350 sq.). The obv. type of the half stater closely resembles that of an early silver stater of Mallus in Cilicia (BMC Ionia, Pl. XL., 9).
The later staters of Phoenician weight are mentioned under the several cities whose types they apparently bear. It is, however, quite probable that all these staters were struck at a single mint, or, in rotation, at two or more mints, according to some monetary agreement. It is therefore open to question whether the types are to be trusted as evidence of local origin, e. g. Sphinx (Chios ?); Forepart of winged horse (Lampsacus ?); Eagle with head reverted (Abydus ?); Cock (Dardanus ?); Sow (Methymna ?); Horse prancing (Cyme ?); Forepart of bull with head reverted (Samos ?); Forepart of winged boar (Clazomenae?). It is possible that they may be the signets of magistrates; see MacDonald, Coin Types, p. 49 f.
|Lion’s head with protruding tongue (Old Smyrna ?).|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. II. 1.]
|Rough incuse square. |
EL. Stater 248.27 grs.
|Tunny fish between two fillets (Cyzicus ?).|
[N. C., 1875, Pl. X. 7.]
|Incuse square containing branching lines, with smaller incuse square beside it (as counter-mark ?) containing scorpion. |
EL. Stater 252.9 grs.
|Chimaera l. (Zeleia?).|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. II. 2.]
|Two incuse squares, larger and smaller. |
EL. Stater 252.6 grs.
|Centaur carrying off woman (Thrace or Thasos?).|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. II. 3.]
|Deep incuse square quartered. |
EL. Stater 252.5 grs.
[N. C., 1875, Pl. VIII. 16.]
|Incuse square divided into two parts. |
EL. Stater 207 grs.
With regard to this coin see supra, p. 395.
|Double floral device ?|
[Found in Samos. B. M.]
|Two oblong incuse depressions. |
EL. Distater 268.3 grs.
|Id.||One square and one oblong incuse. |
EL. Stater 133.1 grs.
|Gorgon-head of very archaic style (Parium ?). [BMC Ionia, Pl. II. 14. Cf. BMC Mysia, p. 94, note.]||Cross pommée with pellet in center, contained in a cruciform incuse. |
EL. Stater 123.46 grs.
|Lion’s head to front; style very archaic (Samos?).|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 20.]
|Two incuse depressions, one oblong, the other triangular. |
EL. Stater 133.35 grs.
|Striated surface (Miletus or Sardes ?).|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 3.]
|Three incuse sinkings; that in the center oblong, the others square. |
EL. Stater 166.87 grs.
With regard to the attribution of this primitive stater see infra, under Lydia (Fig. 310), and for numerous divisions of the staters mostly of Lydian origin, though found at Ephesus, see Brit. Mus., Excavations at Ephesus, 1908, pp. 74 ff.
There are also a number of silver coins of archaic times of various standards of weight. Those which from their types seem to belong to the coasts of Asia Minor will be noted under the towns to which they are here conjecturally attributed.
Ionian League of thirteen cities. The Ionian towns, though politically independent of one another, constituted for religious purposes a koinon or League, the meetings of which were held originally in the Panionion in the neighborhood of Priene, where stood a temple of Poseidon and a sacred grove. Under the Empire, games called Panionia or Panionia Pythia were held perhaps elsewhere, e. g. at Colophon, Ephesus, Miletus, Smyrna, &c. The coins struck for this Festival in the time of Ant. Pius and M. Aurelius, under the supervision of M. Cl. Fronto, Asiarch and Archiereus of the thirteen cities, bear no city name. The reverse types are as follows:—Ant. Pius.-Hades in quadriga carrying off Persephone, Eros with torch driving the horses (BMC Ionia, p. 16); Demeter in serpent-car, with torch in each hand (ibid.); Herakles giving his hand to Iolaos (Bibl. Nat., Paris); M. Aurelius Caesar.—Temple of Artemis Ephesia (Milan); Tyche standing (Mion., iii. p. 62, No. 5). The inscr. ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΙΓΠΟΑΕΩΝΠΡΟΜΚΛΦΡΟΝΤΩΝΑCΙΑΡΧΚΑΙΑΡΧΙΙΓΠΟΑΕΩΝ=κοινον ιγ πολεων προ[νοηθεντος] Μ. Κλ. Φροντον[ος] ‘Ασιαρχ[ου] και ‘Αρχι[ερεως] ιγ πολεων.
Clazomenae stood partly on the mainland and partly on a small island on the southern shore of the Gulf of Smyrna. The distinctive badge of the city appears from the later inscribed coins to have been a winged boar; cf. Aelian (Hist. An., xii. 38), who relates, on the authority of Artemon, that such a monster once infested the Clazomenian territory. Hence numerous coins of this type, though without inscriptions, are presumed to be of Clazomenian origin. Clazomenae is therefore classed among the cities which took part in the early electrum currency of the sixth century B.C.
|Forepart of winged boar flying r., wearing collar of beads.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 18.]
|Quadripartite incuse square. |
EL. Stater 217.37 grs.
|Uncertain inscr. [Κ]ΛΑ..Τ..? Boar’s head r.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 17.]
|Two incuse squares of different sizes. |
EL. Hecte 35.9 grs.
It is to the time of the Persian dominion under the satraps of Cyrus, Cambyses, and Darius I, until the Ionian revolt B.C. 494, that the following silver coins seem to belong:—
|Forepart of winged boar, flying r.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VI. 1-3.]
|Quadripartite incuse square. |
AR Didr. 108.1 grs.
AR Dr. 51 grs.
AR Diobol, 18 grs.
During the century which began with the Ionian revolt, and which comprised the Athenian Hegemony, B.C. 469-387, the date of the Peace of Antalcidas, the Phoenician standard seems to have been replaced by the Attic:—
|Forepart of winged boar.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VI. 4, 5.]
|Incuse square, within which Gorgon-head. |
AR ½ Dr. 30 grs.
AR Diobol, 18.2 grs.
|Head of Athena, r., in helmet with cheek-piece lowered.|
BMC Ionia, Pl. VI. 6.]
|ΚΛΑ Ram’s head r. |
This period extends from the Peace of Antalcidas to the battle of Ipsus. The more important cities on the west coast of Asia Minor now began to strike money in great abundance, and some of them, such as Lampsacus, Rhodes, Clazomenae, etc., even issued gold coins for special requirements, probably in time of war. The coins of Rhodes and Clazomenae are particularly remarkable as the finest examples of the full-face type of Apollo. The engravers of these coins must have been really great artists, for they have, without any elaboration, and with a bold simplicity of touch, produced, within the small circle of a coin, masterpieces in mezzo-rilievo.
|Head of Apollo, nearly facing, of finest style.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VI. 7; Imhoof KM, p. 66.]
|ΚΛΑ or ΚΛΑΖΟ Swan with open or closed wings: symbol, (sometimes) winged boar. Magistrate’s name in nom. case. |
AV Octobol. 88-87 grs.
|Similar. On some specimens engraver's signature, ΘΕΟΔΟΤΟΣ ΕΠΟΕΙ (Fig. 293). Cf. R. N., 1906, p. 249.||Similar, but no symbol.|
These beautiful coins usually bear magistrates’ names in the nom. case:—ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΔ., ΜΑΝΔΡΩΝΑΞ, ΑΡΙΜΝΗΣΤΟΣ, ΑΝΤΙΦΑΝΗΣ, ΕΥΘΥΔΑΜΑΣ, ΠΥΘΕΟΣ , ΑΠΟΛΛΑΣ, ΜΝΗΣΙΘΕΟΣ, &c.
The bronze coins of this period have usually helmeted heads of Athena in profile or facing, and on the reverses a ram’s head or a ram recumbent or standing (BMC Ionia, Pl. VI. 10-17). For varieties with various magistrates’ names see Imhoof KM, p. 66 f.
The swan, which is the characteristic reverse-type of the finest coins of Clazomenae, is one of the many symbols of Apollo, and it has been suggested that the name of Clazomenae may have been derived from the plaintive notes of these birds (κλαζω, cf. Hom. Il. x. 276) which are said to abound in the Delta of the Hermus.
In addition to the above-described autonomous coins, there are silver pieces with the winged boar on the reverse which bear the name of Orontas, who was satrap of the Hellespont, B.C. 352-345. Their attribution to Clazomenae is, however, uncertain, see infra, p. 598.
|Naked warrior kneeling, defending himself with shield and short spear. Between his legs, Τ.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXI. 10.]
|ΟΡΟΝΤΑ Forepart of winged boar; traces of incuse square. |
AR Tetrobol 43 grs.
For coins bearing the name of Orontas, with the forepart of a winged horse on the reverse, see infra, p. 597, and BMC Ionia, p. 326, where they are conjecturally assigned to Lampsacus.
The autonomous silver coinage of Clazomenae does not extend beyond the battle of Ipsus, and the victory of Seleucus and Lysimachus over Antigonus and Demetrius. During the whole of the third-century Alexandrine, Lysimachian, and Seleucid silver money superseded for the most part the autonomous local issues of former times.
After the defeat of Antiochus at Magnesia, the regal coinage, just referred to, began itself to assume local characteristics. Thus the gold staters of Philip’s types, issued at the Clazomenian mint, are distinguished by a local mint-mark, the forepart of a winged boar (Müller, 309), as are also tetradrachms of the Alexandrine types, some of which have, as mint-mark, the forepart of a ram or a ram’s head (Müller, 995-998). The bronze coins, the currency of which was more limited, are of a more strictly local and municipal character, and they usually bear the signature of the eponymous magistrate in the nom. case. The chief types are as follows:—
|Head of Zeus.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VII. 1.]
|ΚΛΑΖΟΜΕΝΙΩΝ Swan, often standing on caduceus. |
|Gorgon-head. [BMC Ionia, p. 27.]|| „ Similar type. |
|Forepart of winged boar. [BMC Ionia, Pl. VII. 2.]|| „ in four quarters of shallow incuse square. |
|Id. [BMC Ionia, Pl. VII. 3.]|| „ Caduceus. |
|Young male head.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VII. 4.]
| „ Philosopher Anaxagoras seated. |
|Head of Zeus. [BMC Ionia, p. 29.]|| „ Club. |
|Bust of Athena.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VII. 5.]
| „ Ram at rest or standing. |
Augustus to Gallienus. Magistrates’ names from Hadrian onwards, with title Strategos, sometimes preceded by επι. Chief types: ΡΩΜΗ and CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC Busts face to face; ΚΛΑΖΟΜЄΝΗ Bust of city; ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ ΚΤΙΣΤΗΣ Head of Augustus; ΘΕΑ ΛΙΒΙΑ Bust of Livia. Reverse types: Horseman; Asklepios; Owl; Athena; Ram; Kybele standing between lions; ΑΝΑΞΑ Bust of Anaxagoras (MacDonald Hunter, ii. Pl. L. 9); Anaxagoras standing holding globe (BMC Ionia, Pl. VII. 9); Sarapis seated; Dionysos holding kantharos over panther; Zeus Aëtophoros naked to front (Ibid., Pl. VII. 11); Naked warrior, armed, charging, and looking back (Ibid., Pl. VII. 12), perhaps Paralos or Parphoros (Imhoof, Gr. M. 111; Strab., 633; Paus., vii. 3, 8); Demeter standing; ЄΙΡΗΝΗ standing (Mion., iii. p. 71). 
Colophon. The old city of Colophon was situated about twenty miles north-west of Ephesus, and some miles from the coast. Its port, Notium, gradually absorbed the greater part of the population of the upper town, and most of the later coins were doubtless struck at this New Colophon. The earliest issues however belong to the old city.
|Head of Apollo to front, or, later, in profile. [Imhoof, Num. Chron., 1895, Pl. X. 10-20, and Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, p. 70.]||Incuse square, within which marks of value in monogram—ΗΜ, ΤΡΙ, or ΤΕ ( = ημιωβολιον, τριημιτεταρτημοριον, and τεταρτημοριον) and adjunct symbols. |
AR circ. 10 and 4½ grs.
1 Mionnét, iii. p. 254, mentions alliance coins with Smyrna, but these are probably misread; cf. BMC Ionia, p. 35, nos. 135, 136.
Somewhat later in the fifth century drachms of the Persic standard (circ. 84 grs.) were struck by the Colophonians. Inscr., ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ, usually retrograde, or ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΟΝ, on one or other face of the coin.
|Head of Apollo r. laureate, of archaic style.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 1.]
|Lyre in incuse square. |
AR 84.4 grs.
Early in the fourth century the Rhodian standard replaced the Persic:—
|Head of Apollo.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 2.]
|ΚΟΛΟΦΩ Lyre and magistrate’s name in nom. case. |
AR Dr. 55 grs.
|[BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 3.]|| „ Tripod. |
AR ½ Dr. 25 grs.
|Id.|| „ Lyre. |
AR Diobol. 16.7 grs.
The bronze coins which belong to the earlier half of the fourth century are the following, all with magistrates’ names:—
|Head of Apollo.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 4-6.]
|ΚΟ, ΚΟΛ, or ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ, Lyre or Forepart of horse. |
|Head of Apollo.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 7.]
|ΚΟΛ Armed horseman with spear couched. Magistrate’s name. |
|Id.||Horse walking. |
|Id.||Forepart of horse. |
The excellence of the Colophonian cavalry is said by Strabo (643) to have been so unrivaled that they were always victorious; hence, perhaps, the horseman as a coin-type.
At Clarus, in the territory of Colophon, stood the famous temple and oracle of Apollo (Paus., vii. 3, 1) whose head is represented on the coins.
The old town of Colophon was destroyed by Lysimachus, B.C. 299, but the name seems to have been transferred to its port, Notium, and it was upon this town that the Romans conferred freedom in B.C. 189 (‘Colophoniis qui in Notio habitant,’ Liv. xxxviii. 39).
Alexandrine tetradrachms (Müller, 1007-14); symbol, lyre, and inscr., ΚΟ or ΚΟΛΟ; also bronze coins (MacDonald Hunter, ii. p. 325, and Imhoof KM, p. 71):—
|Armed horseman with spear couched and dog beneath horse.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 8.]
|ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ Apollo Kitharoedos standing before tripod. Magistrate's name in nom. case. |
|Bust of Artemis.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 9.]
|ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ Pilei of the Dioskuri. Magistrate’s name in nom. case. |
|Homer seated with chin resting on hand and a scroll upon his knees. Magistrate’s name in nom. case.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 10.]
|ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ Apollo Kitharoedos standing as above, but no tripod. |
After a considerable interval the coinage of Colophon begins again about the time of Nero and continues down to that of Gallienus. Inscr., ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ. Magistrates’ names with επι and title Strategos. Chief types: Apollo ΚΛΑΡΙΟC seated; ΑΡΤΕΜΙC ΚΛΑΡΙΑ, Cultus-statue resembling Artemis Ephesia; Apollo Klarios seated between standing figures of Artemis and Nemesis; Homer seated holding half-open scroll; Naked boxer; The thirteen cities of the Ionian League standing in semicircle before the temple of Apollo Klarios, in front of which is a bull approaching a flaming altar,—inscr. ΤΟ ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΤΩΝ ΙΩΝΩΝ (BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 16); the Strategos on these coins is also sometimes entitled ΙЄΡЄΩC ΙΩΝΩΝ (MacDonald Hunter, ii. 325); Athena standing, &c. For an Alliance coin with Pergamum (Caracalla), see Mionnet, iii. 76; his description lacks verification.
Ephesus occupied the alluvial plain of the lower Cayster, but it owed its chief wealth and renown less to the produce of its soil than to the illustrious sanctuary of the old Asiatic nature-goddess, whom the Ionian Greeks (when, under Androclus, the son of Codrus, they effected a settlement in those parts) identified with the Greek Artemis. The Ephesian goddess is represented as a female figure, the body a mummy-like trunk with the feet placed close together. She is many-breasted, and from each of her hands hangs a long fillet with tassels at the extremities. On either side stands a stag raising its head to the image of the goddess. The usual symbols of the cultus of this nature-goddess are the Bee and the Stag, and it is noteworthy that the high-priest of the temple of Artemis was called Ηεσσην, ‘the king bee,’ while the virgin priestesses bore the name of Melissae or Honey-Bees. The coinage of Ephesus falls into the following periods:—
|ΑNΟSΜΙSΜΑ (φηνοσεμισημα) Stag to right with head lowered. [BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 8.] (Fig. 294.)||Three incuse sinkings, that in the center oblong, the others square. |
EL. Stater, 216.5 grs.
This is the most ancient inscribed coin at present known. Unfortunately it is unique, and the third letter of the first word is obscure. It may be either or N. The interpretation of the remarkable inscription has given rise to much controversial discussion, for a résumé of which see Babelon, Traité, ii. I, 62. The weight, the type, and the Ionian character of the incuse reverse, all indicate Ephesus as the place of mintage rather than Halicarnassus, to which Doric city P. Gardner once attributed it,
On various grounds, as Babelon (op. cit.) has pointed out, this attribution is unacceptable. The coin is certainly Ephesian, as the stag is he symbol of the great goddess of Ephesus. The relation of the inscription to the type is in so far certain that it seems to mean ‘I am the signet of Phanes’. The doubtful word in the genitive case Φαενος, Φαννος, or Φανος, has been differently explained. Newton (Num. Chron., 1870, p. 238) regarded it as referable only to the type and to the cultus of the goddess Artemis; and he suggested as a translation ‘I am the sign of the Bright one’. Such an interpretation of the inscription would imply that the coin was a hierarchical issue from the temple treasury. It is, however, far more probable that Φηνος or Φαννος is not an epithet of Artemis, but the name, in the genitive case, of some prominent citizen of Ephesus, it may be of a despot, or of a magistrate, or of a member of one of the wealthy Ephesian families of bankers and money-lenders (see Babelon, Traité, l. c.).
Among other early electrum coins of Ephesus are the following Thirds, Sixths, and Twelfths of the stater:—
|Bee in linear square.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 9, 10.]
|Oblong incuse divided into two squares. |
EL. Trite 71.2 grs.
|Forepart of stag, head turned back; in front [Ibid., Pl. III. 11.]||Incuse square. |
EL. Hecte 36 grs.
|Id. [Head, Ephesus, Pl. I. 4.]||Incuse square. |
EL. Hemihecton, 18 grs.
The following drachms seem to belong to the period of Persian dominion under Cyrus, Cambyses, and Darius I, down to the Ionian revolt, B.C. 494:—
[BMC Ionia, Pl. IX. 1.]
|Incuse square quartered. |
AR Drachm, 50.3 grs.
|Bee with curved wings; with volute in field to l. of its head.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. IX. 2.]
AR Drachm, 49.4 grs.
|Bee with curved wings; with volute on either side of head.|
[Imhoof KM, p. 49, 1.]
|ΕΦ and Eagle’s head r. within incuse square. |
AR 4 grs.
To the period between the Ionian revolt and the sack of Miletus, B.C. 494, and the battle of Eurymedon, B.C. 469, which marked the commencement of the Athenian hegemony, the following coins may be assigned:—
|ΕΦΕΣΙΟΝ or ΕΦ Bee with curved wings. [BMC Ionia, Pl. IX. 3, 4, and Head Ephesos, Pl. I. 11-14.]||Incuse square quartered.|
Whether coins of these types continued to be struck during the Athenian hegemony, B.C. 469-415, is doubtful.
In this period Ephesus, which had revolted from Athens after the Sicilian disaster, and had become dependent first upon the Persians and then upon the Spartans, struck silver with types similar to those of the preceding period, but on a somewhat heavier standard, identical with the so-called Rhodian standard. Didrachms 117 grs. and smaller denominations. These coins usually bear a magistrate’s name either on the obverse, beneath the bee, or on the bar which divides the incuse square (Head, Eph., Pl. I. 15-21).
In B.C. 394 the Athenian Conon expelled the Spartan oligarchies from most of the Asiatic coast-towns. Among other cities Ephesus and Samos are mentioned as having then shaken off the Spartan yoke. We have accordingly no difficulty in assigning to this period the federal (?) coins issued by Rhodes, Cnidus, Iasus, Samos, Ephesus, and Byzantium, each with its own distinctive type on the reverse of the coin, while on the obverse is the infant Herakles strangling two serpents, and the inscr. ΣΥΝ for Συνμαχικον. On this group of coins see Regling, Z. f. N., xxv, p. 207 ff.
|ΣΥΝ Infant Herakles strangling two serpents.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. IX. 6.]
|Ε Φ Bee with curved wings: beneath Π Ε (magistrate’s name). |
AR Rhodian tridrachm, 176.6 grs.
In addition to this federal (?) coinage Ephesus began, about B.C. 394, or possibly a little earlier, the issue of the long series of tetradrachms of Rhodian weight (236 grs.) which lasted for no less than a century.
|Ε Φ Bee. (Fig. 295.)|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. IX. 8.]
|Forepart of stag with head turned back; behind it, a palm-tree, and, in front, a magistrate’s name in nom. c ase. |
AR Tetradrachm, 236 grs.
Smaller denominations weighing 88 grs., and drachms of 57 grs., with similar types, as well as pieces of 14 grs. also occur (Head Ephesus, Pl. II. 6-10), together with bronze coins, obv. Bee, rev. Stag kneeling. tho magistrates’ names on some of which prove that they are contemporary with the tetradrachms (Head, l. c., Pl. II. 11-13; III. 12-13).
In B.C. 295 Lysimachus made himself master of Ephesus, the name of which he shortly afterwards changed to Arsinoeia (Ath. Mitth., xxv, 1900, p. 100 ff.) in honor of his wife.  This period is marked by the issue of regal money at Ephesus bearing the usual types of Lysimachus, symbol Bee, and inscr. ΕΦ or ΑΡ in monogram (Head, l. c., pp. 42-45). The series of autonomous tetradrachms now came to an end, but the pieces of 88 grs., with halves and quarters, continued to be struck, probably because they passed as thirds, &c., of the Attic tetradrachms of Lysimachus.
|Head of Artemis.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. X. 4.]
|ΕΦΕ Bow and quiver. Symbol: Bee. Magistrate’s name. |
AR 88 grs.
|Ε Φ Bee.||Stag standing. |
Æ Size .7
|Head of Queen Arsinoë, veiled.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. X. 5.]
|ΑΡΣΙ Id. |
AR 82.1 grs.
AR 42 grs.
AR 19 grs.
|Id. [BMC Ionia, Pl. X. 6.]|| „ Stag kneeling. |
Æ Size .7
|Id.|| „ Forepart of stag. |
Ephesus during this interval was probably left by the contending royal houses in the enjoyment of autonomy. The coinage consists of Attic octobols and bronze:—
|Head of Artemis.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. X. 8.]
|Ε Φ Forepart of stag and palm-tree. Magistrate’s name. |
AR 75 grs.
|Ε Φ Bee, often in wreath.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. X. 10.]
|Stag drinking. Magistrates’ names. |
Æ Size .7
1 At the same time he appears to have conferred upon Smyrna the name Eurydiceia in honor of his daughter Eurydice (see infra, p. 592).
During this period Ephesus was for the most part attached to the dominions of the Ptolemies. The coinage consists (α) of Ptolemaïc coins (cf. the gold octadrachm of Berenice II, BMC Ptolemies, Pl. XIII. 2, with the Ephesian Bee in the field); (β) of didrachms and drachms of reduced Rhodian weight (102 and 50 grs.);
|Bust of Artemis.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XI. 1.]
|Ε Φ Forepart of stag, without palm-tree. Magistrates’ names. |
AR 102 grs. and AR 50 grs.
and (γ) of bronze coins of similar types; size .6 (BMC Ionia, Pl. XI. 3). For Æ of Seleucus II, possibly struck at Ephesus, see Imhoof KM, p. 53.
In B.C. 202 Arados in Phoenicia began to strike Alexandrine tetradrachms (Müller, Cl. V) bearing dates in Greek characters. Similar coins without dates began to be issued at Ephesus about the same time. This coincidence seems to indicate that Ephesus and Arados, two great commercial cities of the coasts of Asia Minor and Phoenicia respectively, may have found it to their mutual advantage about this time to conclude a monetary treaty, according to which each city might secure a free circulation for her coins on the markets of the other. This, of course, is only a conjecture, but it is remarkable that, at both cities, the Alexandrine tetradrachms of Müller’s Class V merge into those of Class VI (Müller, Nos. 1018-1024) about B.C. 198, and that the autonomous drachms of Attic weight issued at Ephesus during the greater part of the second century are also identical in type with the drachms of Aradus dated 174-110 B.C.
|Ε Φ Bee. [BMC Ionia, Pl. XI. 4, 5.]||Stag standing before a palm-tree. Magistrates’ names. |
AR Attic drachm, 64 grs.
|Id. [BMC Ionia, Pl. XI. 6.]||Id. |
Æ Size .7
The Alexandrine tetradrachms of Class V (B.C. 202-196) and of Class VI (B.C. 196-189) were superseded by tetradrachms of Eumenes II of Pergamum, also struck at Ephesus B.C. 189-159 (Head Ephesos, pp. 55-60).
At this time, too, or perhaps earlier, the series of Ephesian cistophori begins. These are at first undated; but from the period of the constitution of the Roman Province of Asia (Sept. 134) they bear dates referring to that era, and are likewise distinguished by the subordinate symbol of a long torch in the field to the right of the serpents on the reverse. An exceptional coin, dated ΙΓ (= B.C. 121), bears the signature of a Roman official C · ASIN · C · F.  These dated cistophori extend in an
1 I have seen only a photograph of the coin, and I do not know into what collection it has now passed. The date and the early style of this cistophorus make it quite impossible to identify the magistrate whose name it bears with C·ASIN·C·F· (Gallus), Proconsul of Asia in B.C. 6-5 almost unbroken series from B.C. 133-67, when, after a short interval, a change takes place, the name of the Roman Proconsul being added from B.C. 58-48: viz. T. Ampius, B.C. 58-57; C. Fabius, B.C. 57-56: C. Claudius Pulcher, B.C. 55-53; and C. Fannius (Praetor), B.C. 49-48. Between B.C. 48, when the series of Proconsular cistophori dated from the provincial era, B.C. 134, comes to an end, and the inauguration of the new series of Imperial cistophori, there seems to have been an interval in the issue of cistophori. The revolt of the Province of Asia from Rome, B.C. 88-84, in the time of Mithradates, does not seem to have interrupted the output of cistophori, but this revolt is probably commemorated in the series of Ephesian coins by the exceptional issue of a small number of gold staters, &c., doubtless rendered necessary, at this particular time, for war expenses.
|Bust of Artemis.|
[Head Ephesus, Pl. V. 2-6.]
|ΕΦΕΣΙΩΝ or Ε Φ Cultus image of the Ephesian Artemis. Stag, bee or other symbols in the field. |
AV Stater, 132 grs.
|Id.||No inscription. |
Similar AV 84.5 grs.
In B.C. 48 Caesar visited Ephesus and reformed the constitution of the Province of Asia. From this time onwards there is no autonomous Ephesian silver money. The chief bronze coins which are known are:—
|Bust of Artemis.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XI. 7.]
|Ε Φ Long torch and forepart of stag. Magistrates’ names. |
Æ Size .9
|Id. [BMC Ionia, Pl. XI. 8.]||Ε Φ Long torch between two stags. Magistrates’ names. |
|Ε Φ Artemis huntress with hound.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XI. 9.]
|Cock with palm across wing; the whole in wreath. Magistrate’s name. |
From the time of the Triumvirate, B.C. 43, to that of Gallienus, the coinage extends in an unbroken series. The earlier issues down to the reign of Claudius bear the names of local magistrates, Grammateus, Archiereus, or Archiereus Gram., Hiereus, Episkopos (Z. f. N., vi. 15), but never Archon or Strategos, as do the coins of most other Asiatic cities. The names of Roman Proconsuls are also met with, viz. M’. Acilius Aviola, A.D. 65-66; Ρ. Calvisius Ruso; L. Caesennius Paetus; ... Rufus, under Domitian; and Cl. Julianus, A.D. 145-146. It is an unexplained fact that after the time of Claudius hardly any names of local magistrates occur on Ephesian coins. In Imperial times Ephesus was one of the few mints where AV and AR were issued, the AR with both Greek and Latin inscriptions, viz. Cistophori with DIANA EPHESIA, denarii of the Flavians, and didrachms and drachms of Nero (112 and 56 grs.) inscribed ΔΙΔΡΑΧΜΟΝ and ΔΡΧΜΗ. For AV see Imhoof Zur. gr. u. röm. Münzk., pp. 5 f., and for Æ of the earlier emperors Kl. M., pp. 55 ff. The ethnic ЄΦЄCΙΩΝ from the time of Trajan onwards is frequently, accompanied by an honorific title. e.g. Ο ΝЄΩ[κορος] ЄΦЄ[σιων] ΔΗ[μος]ЄΠЄΧΑΡ[αξατο], Trajan (BMC Ionia, p. 76); ΔΙC ΝΕΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Hadrian: ΔΙC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ ΑCΙΑC, Verus; ΠΡΩΤΩΝ ΑCΙΑC, S. Severus; ΤΡΙC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Caracalla; ΤΡΙC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΗC ΑΡΤЄΜΙΔΟC, Caracalla and Geta; Δ ΝΕΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Elagabalus; ΜΟΝΩΝ Α ΠΑCΩΝ ΤΕΤΡΑΚΙC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Elagabalus (see Pick, Corolla Num., p. 241); ΔΟΓΜΑΤΙ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΥ ЄΦЄCΙΩΝ ΟΥΤΟΙ ΝΑΟΙ, four temples, Elagabalus; ΜΟΝΩΝ ΠΡΩΤΩΝ ΑCΙΑC, Severus Alexander; Γ ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Maximinus; ΑCΥΛΟC, Otacilia; ΚΑΤΑ ΠΛΟΥC Α, Philip II (Eckhel, ii. 518); Γ or ΜΟΝΩΝ Δ ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Gallienus; Γ or Δ ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Salonina. At Ephesus the fourth Neocory (Δ) and the third (Γ) are indiscriminately used at one and the same time, and it has been conjectured that while the city of Ephesus was officially neocorate only for the second time, she styled herself τρις νεωκορος on account of her local temple of Artemis, and that when she became officially τρις νεωκορος των Σεβαστων, she claimed a fourth Neocory on behalf of her local temple; but the reversion from Δ to Γ may be due to the damnata memoria of Elagabalus (see Pick, op. cit.). Similar irregularities in numbering the successive Neocories occur also on coins of Nicomedeia and Sardes (Oesterr. Jahreshefte, vii. p. 30).
Remarkable inscriptions and types. ΘΕΟΓΜΙΑ, Heads of Claudius and Agrippina face to face; ΡΩΜΗ Bust of Roma, Nero; ΖЄΥΕ ΟΛΥΜΠΙΟC seated, Domitian; ΚΛΑCЄΑC and ΜΑΡΝΑC, River-gods, the latter recumbent against a shield, Domitian; ΝЄΙΚΗ ΔΟΜΙΤΙΑΝΟΥ, Domitian; ЄΦЄCΙΑ Cultus-statue of Artemis, Trajan; Captive Parthia seated, Trajan; ΑΡΤΕΜΙC ЄΦЄCΙΑ Cultus-statue, Hadrian; ΑΝΔΡΟΚΛΟC the Founder, with wild boar, in reference to the oracle which bade him found the city on the spot where he should meet a boar; Antinoüs; ΚΟΡΗCΟC and ΑΝΔΡΟΚΛΟC Two heroes joining hands; ΚΑΥCΤΡΟC, ΚЄΝΧΡЄΙΟC, Rivers recumbent separately or together with Artemis between them, Ant. Pius; ΠЄΙΩΝ in connexion with the type of Zeus υετιος enthroned above Mt. Pion, and pouring rain upon the city of Ephesus (Paus. vii. 5. 10; cf. Steph. s. v. Εφεσος). On other coins Mt. Pion appears recumbent, holding cultus-statue of Artemis beneath mountain on which runs a boar pierced by a spear (Imhoof, Jahrb. d. Inst., 1888, Pl. IX. 25); ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝ ΙΚЄCΙΟC and Greek Artemis standing face to face (BMC Ionia, Pl. XIII. 10); ΑΡΤЄΜΙC ЄΦЄCΙΑ between stags; Artemis ΠΑΝΙΩΝΙΟC (Imhoof KM, Pl. II. 22, and Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 65); ΛΗΤΩ fleeing with her children (Imhoof MG, 285); Leto standing with child on each arm and worshipers at her feet (Z. f. N., xvii, Pl. i. 18); Herakles ЄΠΙΝЄΙΚΙΟC; ΑΠΗΜΗ ΙЄΡΑ or ΙЄΡΑΠΗΜΗ (J. H. S., 1897, p. 87), the sacred mule-car (απηνη) used in processions; ΩΚЄΑΝΟC recumbent; ΗΡΛΚΛЄΙΤΟC the Ephesian Philosopher (see H. Diels, Herakleitos von. Ephesos, Berlin, 1901); ЄΙΡΗΝΗ; ΤΥΧΗ; ΡΩΜΑΙΩΝ ΝЄΙΚΗ; ΤΥΧΗ ЄΦЄCΙΩΝ (Imhoof KM, p. 61); ΔΙΚΑΙΟΕΥΝΗ; ΒΩΤΑ (= Vota) sacrifice of bull before temple of the Emperor (BMC Ionia, Pl. XIV. 4); ΝЄΟΙ ΗΛΙΟΙ beneath busts of Caracalla and Geta.
Games and agonistic types. ΟΛΥΜΠΙΛ ΟΙΚΟΥΜЄΝΙΚΑ ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΑCΙΑC; ΤΟ ΑΓΑΘΟΝ ЄΦЄCΙΩΝ Naked boxer (BMC Ionia, Pl. XIV. 15); [ΓΥΜ]ΝΑCΙΑΡΧΙΑ Gymnasiarch holding bowl (Invent. Waddington, 1639, cf. BMC Cilicia, p. xxxiv).
Alliance coins with Pergamum, Smyrna, Sardes, Tralles, Hierapolis, Laodiceia, Alexandreia, struck at Ephesus. Among other cities which struck money in alliance with Ephesus are Adramyteum, Cyzicus, Pergamum, Magnesia (Ion.), Miletus, Aphrodisias, Nysa, Philadelphia, Sardes, Apameia, Cibyra, Cotiaeum, Hierapolis, Laodiceia, Perga (Imhoof KM, 158), etc.
Tesserae. To early Imperial times may be assigned the curious Ephesian bronze tesserae bearing on the obv. a kneeling stag, beneath which, CΚΩΠΙ, and on the rev. a Bee, around which is the unexplained legend ΚΗΡΙΛΙC (or ΚΗΡΙΛΛΙC) WΔЄ ΠΡΟC ΠΑΛΥΡΙΝ (ΠΑΛΥΡΝ or ΠΑΛΥΡΡΙΝ) Æ .75. These tesserae are supposed by Eckhel to have been apothecaries’ advertisement tickets; by Babelon (Traité, I, i, p. 680) to have been charms inscribed with magic formulae (‘Εφεσια γραμματα); and by me, to have been also possibly intended for Bee-charms (Num. Chron., 1908, pp. 281 sqq.).
Erythrae. This ancient Ionian city stood on a peninsula opposite the island of Chios. Its earliest coins are, perhaps, some uninscribed electrum pieces of the seventh century B.C. and later, the obverse type of which is the star-like flower, which recurs at a later period on the inscribed silver coins (BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 12-14, and Pl. XV. 2-6). The largest denomination is a half stater of 109 grs. Electrum hectae are also attributed to Erythrae, obv. Archaic head of Herakles in lion-skin (BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 15).
The earliest silver coins, presumably of Erythrae, are of the same weight as the electrum coins, viz. didrachms of the Milesian standard.
|Naked horseman (Erythros ?) prancing.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XV. 1.]
|Quadripartite incuse square. |
AR Didrachm 109 grs.
AR Tetrobol 36 grs.
|Naked man holding prancing horse by the rein.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XV. 2-7.]
|Ε Ρ V Θ in the four corners of an incuse square within which a star-like flower. |
AR Dr. 72 grs. Smaller coins 22.2, 17.5, 13.8, 4.8, and 3.2 grs. (Cf. Imhoof KM, p. 62.)
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XV. 9, 10.]
|ΕΡΥ Club, and bow in case; in field, small owl and magistrates’ names. |
AR Tetradr. 231 grs., Dr. 57.6 grs.,
and also Æ.
Next in order of date follow certain tetradrachms of Lysimachus; symbols, club, and bow in case (Müller, 409-19).
During this period the silver money of Erythrae is, to a great extent, replaced by bronze coins, chiefly of similar types, which yield a large number of magistrates’ names in nom. case usually with patronymic. The duration of this coinage is uncertain. To about B.C. 190, after the defeat of Antiochus at Magnesia, may be assigned some tetradrachms of Alexander the Great’s types (Müller, Class VI, Nos. 999-1004; symbols, club, and bow in case).
During the short period of the revolt of the province of Asia from Rome, under Mithradates, Erythrae, like Ephesus, appears to have struck a few gold coins, for war expenses, of the following types:—
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XVI. 4.]
|ΕΡΥ Female divinity in short chiton, standing to front, wearing kalathos and holding spear and globe (?); magistrate’s name. |
AV 43.5 grs.
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coinage. Augustus to Gallienus. Inscr., ЄΡΥΘΡΑΙΩΝ. Magistrates’ names at first in nom. with patronymic; from Trajan onwards in gen., usually with επι and title Strategos. Chief types: Busts of ΘЄΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΔΗΜΟC Athena, Demeter Horia veiled, with cornucopia (BMC Ionia, Pl. XVI. 16). Reverses: ЄΡVΘΡΟC ΚΤΙCΤΗC armed, with foot on prow; Two warriors face to face, each with foot on prow (Erythros and Knopos (?), cf. Strab. 633); ΑΞΟC and ΑΛЄΩΝ, River-gods (Imhoof KM, Pl. II. 27); ΘЄΑ CΙΒΥΛΛΑ the Sibyl Herophile seated on a rock (Paus. x. 12. 7; Imh., Gr. M., Pl. VIII. 26, 27); Temple and statue of Herakles Ipoktonos, so called as the slayer of the Ips, an insect, which was elsewhere very destructive of the vine, but did not exist in the territory of the Erythraeans (Strab., 613). The ancient cultus-image of this god is described by Pausanias (vii. 5) (see N. Z. 1891, p. 12), who tells how it floated on a raft from Tyre, and how the Erythraeans obtained possession of it; Demeter standing; Demeter as the city-goddess turreted, in serpent-car (Imh. Gr. M., Pl. XIII. 19), Herakles and Demeter, face to face; Fire-beacon; Prow; Asklepios; Tyche; Cista mystica; etc.
Alliance coins with Chios, time of Philip and Valerian (BMC Ionia, 150).
Eurydiceia. See Smyrna, infra, p. 592.
Heracleia ad Latmum, at the head of the Latmic gulf, about 15 miles E. of Miletus, appears to have issued coins only during a short period after the battle of Magnesia, B.C. 190.
|Head of Athena in crested Athenian helmet adorned with the foreparts of horses, a flying Pegasos, &c.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XVII. 1.]
|ΗΡΑΚΛΕΩΤΩΝ Club in oak-wreath; symbol, Nike. Two monograms. |
AR Tetradr. 250 grs.
|Head of Athena in crested Corinthian helmet.|
[Numismatic Chronicle, 1899, Pl. VIII. 5.]
|ΗΡΑΚΛΕΩΤΩΝ Club in laurel-wreath. |
AR Octobol, 79.2 grs.
|Id. [Numismatic Chronicle, 1886, Pl. XI. 12.]||Id. |
AR Tetrobol, 38.2 grs.
To this city and to this period may also, perhaps, be attributed a few tetradrachms of Alexander’s types (Müller, Class VI, 1058-1067) with the club as an adjunct symbol. There are, moreover, autonomous bronze coins referring to the cultus of Herakles, Dionysos, Athena, &c., which belong to about the same time.Larisa. The site of this town is fixed by Buresch (Aus Lydien, p. 213) in the Cayster valley, about 25 miles above Ephesus and 4 miles N.N.W. of the railway station Tire. The very few coins which it struck are of Colophonian types, and appear to have been issued about B.C. 300 or possibly somewhat later.
|Head of Apollo Larisenos; hair in formal curls.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XVII. 6.]
|ΛΑ Horseman prancing with spear couched. |
Æ Size .75
|Head of Apollo.|
[Imhoof KM, Pl. II. 36.]
|ΛΑ Forepart of horse. |
Lebedus (Ptolemaïs) was an old Ionian coast-town, about 25 miles W. of Ephesus. The earliest coins assigned to it belong to the middle of the third century B.C., when, under Ptolemaïc influence, it appears to have temporarily borne the name of Ptolemaïs (Journ. int. d'arch. num., 1902, p. 45 and p. 61 ff., and 1903, p. 171).
|Head of Ptolemy II (?).|
[Journ. Int., 1902, Pl. IV. 5-9.]
|ΠΤΟ Athena standing with spear and spindle; magistrate’s name. |
Æ Size .7
|Head of Arsinoë II (?).|
[Ibid., Pl. IV. 10-13.]
|ΠΤΟ Male divinity (Triptolemos?) seated holding ears of corn(?) and sceptre; magistrate’s name. |
|Head of Apollo.|
[Ibid., Pl. IV. 18, 19.]
|ΠΤΟ ΛΕ Amphora. Symbol, double cornucopia. |
|Head of Apollo.|
[Ibid., Pl. IV. 16, 17.]
|ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΕΩΝ Amphora and Ptolemaic eagle, or Amphora alone. |
The bronze coins of Lebedus issued in its original name follow next in order, and one or two names of magistrates are identical on this and on the previous series. The silver coinage dates probably from the defeat of Antiochus at Magnesia.
|Head of Athena in three-crested Athenian helmet bound with olive wreath.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XVII. 7.]
|ΛΕΒΕΔΙΩΝ Owl on club between two cornucopia; magistrate’s name; the whole in olive-wreath. |
AR Tetradrachm, 255.5 grs.
|Head of Athena in Corinthian helmet.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XVII. 8.]
|ΛΕ Owl; symbol, prow; magistrate's name. |
The bronze coins of the second and first centuries bear usually a head or bust of Athena, generally facing, on the obverse; and, on the reverse, ΛΕ and a Prow, Owl, or Figure of Dionysos. For other varieties and magistrates’ names see BMC Ionia and Imhoof, Kl. M.
Tiberius to Geta. Inscription ΛЄΒЄΔΙΩΝ. Chief types: ΘΕΛ ΡΩΜΗ, Turreted bust; ΘΕΑΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ, Head of Senate; Dionysos; Athena; Isis; Tyche; Owl; &c. Magistrates’ names in gen. with or without επι, or in nom. with patronymic (Imhoof KM, p. 74, 15).
Leuce or Leucae, on the north side of the Gulf of Smyrna, opposite Clazomenae, was founded B.C. 352 by the Persian admiral Tachos (Diod. xv. 18), and it soon afterwards fell into the hands of the Clazomenians, to whose influence the Swan type bears witness.
|Λ Head of Aphrodite or Artemis; Symbol, crescent.|
[Imhoof MG, Pl. E. 34.]
|Λ Swan; symbol, crescent. |
|ΛΕΥ Head of Zeus.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XVII. 13.]
|Forepart or head of boar. |
AR 7.4 grs.
|Head of Apollo of fine style.|
[Imhoof KM, 75.]
|ΛΕΟΚΑΤΩΝ or ΛΕΟ Swan. |
|Head of Athena facing.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XVII. 15.]
|ΛΕΥ Lion standing. |
|Head of Apollo.|
[Imhoof KM, Pl. II. 38.]
|ΛΕΥΚΛΙΕΩΝ Swan before tripod. |
|Id.||ΛΕΥ Swan. Magistrate’s name. |
Magnesia ad Maeandrum, founded originally by Magnetes from Thessaly, was from early times a city of considerable importance. When Themistocles was exiled from Athens he retired to Magnesia, which was then assigned to him by the king of Persia. To the period of his rule the following highly interesting coin belongs.
|ΘΕΜΙΣΤΟΚΛΕΟΣ Apollo naked, but for chlamys, standing, leaning on long staff, from which a laurel branch springs; on one specimen he lets fly a bird from his extended r. hand.|
[Waddington, Mélanges, Pl. I. 2.]
|ΜΑ Eagle, with spread wings, in incuse square. |
AR Attic Didrachm, 132 grs.
Three specimens of these didrachms are known, all from different dies. The one in the British Museum is plated,—a fact which has been cited as confirming the reputation for trickery with which the name of Themistocles was associated; and a plated drachm is also said to exist in a private collection at Aid in. These plated coins were, however, perhaps not issued officially (see R. Weil in Corolla Num., p. 307, where all these pieces are discussed).
For the space of at least a century after this no coins of Magnesia are known, but after the middle of the fourth century the silver coinage becomes plentiful. Lists of the magistrates’ names and other coin legends are given by O. Kern, Inschriften von Magnesia am Maeander, Berlin, 1900, pp. xxi ff.
|Armed horseman with flying chlamys and couched spear.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XVIII. 1.]
|ΜΑΓΝ Humped bull rushing; behind, usually, ear of corn; magistrate's name in nom. case; the whole in Maeander circle.|
|Head of Apollo.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XVIII. 5.]
|ΜΑΓΝ Forepart of butting bull. |
AR 15 grs.
|Head of Athena.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XVIII. 6.]
|ΜΑ Trident in Maeander circle. |
AR 12 grs.
Regal tetradrachms of Lysimachus. Symbol, Maeander pattern (Müller, Nos. 438, 439); also Attic octobols and tetrobols, circ. 86 and 40 grs., of the Horseman and Rushing bull as above.
Gold Philippi with Maeander symbol and monograms (BMC Caria, p. cviii).
Tetradrachms of Alexander’s types. Symbols, Maeander pattern and ΜΑ, rushing bull, or springing horse (Müller, Nos. 1068-1079); also spread tetradrachms of Attic weight with autonomous types:—
|Head of Artemis with bow and quiver at shoulder (Fig. 296).|
[BMC Caria, Pl. XVIII. 9-11.]
|ΜΑΓΝΗΤΩΝ Apollo naked on Maeander pattern, holding filleted branch and resting against tripod, which supports his quiver; magistrate’s name with patronymic. |
AR Attic Tetradrachm
Among the magistrates’ names on these tetradrachms are the following:—ΕΥΦΗΜΟΣ ΠΑΥΣΑΝΙΟΥ, ΠΑΥΑΝΙΑΣ ΠΑΥΣΑΝΙΟΥ, ΠΑΥΣΑΝΙΑΣ ΕΥΦΗΜΟΥ, ΑΠΟΛΛΟΔΩΡΟΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΚΡΑΤΟΥΣ, ΕΡΑΣΙΠΠΟΣ ΑΡΙΣΤΕΟΥ, ΗΡΟΓΝΗΤΟΣ ΖΩΠΥΡΙΩΙΝΟΣ.
The autonomous bronze coinage of Magnesia extends from the middle of the fourth century (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, p. 71) down to Roman times. Inscr., ΜΑΓ., ΜΑΓΝ. or ΜΑΓΝΗΤΩΝ.The types of the earlier issues resemble those of the silver coins. The chief types after B.C. 190 are Bust of Artemis with bow and quiver at shoulder, sometimes radiate like Helios; Bust of Athena; Horseman; Humped bull; Cultus-statue of Artemis Leukophryene; Stag; Free horse; Nike; &c.; with magistrates’ names (cf. Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, p. 71).
Augustus to Gallienus. Inscr., ΜΑΓΝΗΤΩΝ with occasional addition, after Severus Alexander, of ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ ΤΗC ΑΡΤЄΜΙΔΟC, ‘Wardens of the local temple of Artemis Leukophryene,’ and in Gordian’s reign of ЄΒΔΟΜΗ ΤΗC ΑCΙΑC ‘seventh city of Asia’ (Eckhel, D. N. V., ii. 527). Magistrates’ names at first in nom. case, but from Ant. Pius in gen. with επι and often with title Grammateus. Chief types: ΖЄVC Nikephoros seated; ΖЄVC ΑΚΡΑΙΟC standing (Imhoof KM 79); ΛЄVΚΟΦΡVC and ΛΕVΚΟΦΡVΗΝΗ or ΛΕVΚΟΦΡVΝΗ, Cultus-statue, sometimes crowned by two small figures of Nike, and with two eagles at her feet, or a River- and a Mountain-god (Maeander and Thorax ?) recumbent (Imhoof KM, Pl. III. 5); ΑVΛΑЄΙΤΗC or ΑVΛΑΙΤΗC Apollo Kitharistes; ΑΦΡΟ. ΝΗΛЄΙΑ, Aphrodite Neleia standing with Eros behind her (Imh., Zur gr. u. röm. Münzkunde, p. 72); Artemis on prow, holding torches (Imhoof KM 77); Rape of Persephone; ΚΟΡΗ standing; CЄΡΑΠΙC Head of Sarapis, rev. Isis; Helios-Sarapis standing; Demeter in Serpent Car; Herdsman (Eurytion ?) driving bull into cavern; Devotee of Apollo carrying an uprooted tree of Hylae: see Num. Chron., 1892, p. 89 (cf. Paus. x. 32); Ram before altar (MacDonald Hunter, ii. Pl. LI. 8); Mên standing between two torches(?) round one of which a snake is twined; Selene in biga of bulls; Leto with her two children; Adrasteia (?) carrying infant Zeus; Infant Dionysos seated on cista or in cradle; Infant Dionysos in shrine, one of the Korybantes dancing before him; Dionysos standing, Maenad beating cymbals before him; Athena standing, with Giant at her feet holding her shield (Imhoof MG 120); Asklepios standing, with serpent behind him (Imh., Zur gr. u. röm. Münzkunde, p. 72); Hephaestos forging helmet before Athena; Statue of Hephaestos seated and borne on the shoulders of four men; ΘЄΜΙC ΤΟΚΛΗC as a hero (P. Gardner in Corolla Num., p. 109); ΚΟΛΠΟΙ, personifications of the valleys of Magnesia as three water nymphs surrounding a naked male figure seated on a rock (Kern, op. cit., xxv); Three Nymphs or Charites (Imhoof, Nymphen u. Chariten, p. 192); Female figure on galloping horse beneath which hound, upper half of female figure (Ge ?) emerging from ground, and flower basket (?); ΜΑΓΝΗCΙΑ bust of City; ΠΟΛЄΙC (sic) bust of city; ΤΥΧΗ standing; ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ; &c.
Alliance coins with Ephesus, time of Caracalla—Temples of Artemis Leukophryene and Artemis Ephesia. (On the history, etc., of Magnesia, see O. Kern, op. cit., and Gründungsgeschichte von Magnesia, 1894.)
Magnesia Ioniae. Severus Alexander. Rev. ΖЄVC CΩCΙΠΟΛΙC, Zeus seated, holding Nike (Brit. Mus.).
Metropolis, between Ephesus and Smyrna, began to coin bronze money during the first century B.C. Obv. Head of Kybele turreted o r Male head helmeted. Rev. ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ often written in monogram:—Fulmen; Ares (?) or hero standing; Thyrsos-head. Magistrate's name in nom. case (BMC Caria; Imhoof MG, 292; Imhoof KM, 82; Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 73).
Imperial. Augustus to Saloninus. Inscription, ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ with frequent addition of ΤΩΝ ЄΝ ΙΩΝΙΑ. Magistrate’s name in nom. on coins of Augustus, and later in gen. with επι and title Strategos. Chief types: Kybele enthroned, sometimes fondling lion; Snake-entwined staff; Armed hero and Boule joining hands; Emperor between two armed heroes standing; Demeter standing; Zeus seated; ΑCΤΡΑΙΟC River-god; Tyche holding statue of armed hero; Agonistic crown containing palms referring to the Games CЄΒΑCΤΑ ΚΑΙCΑΡЄΑ; Artemis Ephesia; etc.
Alliance coins with Ephesus.
It is often difficult to distinguish the coins of this city from those of Metropolis in Phrygia.
Miletus. This once great and commercial city was, with the exception perhaps of Sardes, the earliest place of mintage of the ancient world. We have the authority of Herodotus (i. 94) for attributing to the Lydians the invention of coining money, but the priority of the Lydian s can have been very brief, for it is to Miletus that a number of electrum coins of primitive style must be assigned, more especially those which bear the type of a lion with his head turned backwards, this being the characteristic type of the later coinage of Miletus. The normal weight of the Milesian electrum stater appears to have been about 220 grs. (so-called Phoenician standard). In addition to the following there are many other early electrum coins of various types which were probably struck at the Milesian mint.
|Lion recumbent with head turned back.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 4-6.]
|Three incuse countermarks, that in the center oblong, the others square, usually containing stag’s head, running fox and|
These countermarks occur also on primitive electrum coins described infra under Sardes, and the issues of the two cities can be only conjecturally separated.
|Two lions’ heads to front in opposite directions.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. I. 1.]
|Three incuse countermarks as above, but not containing symbols. |
EL. Stater, 219.5 grs.
|Lion recumbent with head turned back.|
[Ivanoff Sale, Lot 264.]
|Two incuse squares, one containing |
EL. Trite, 71 grs.
|Similar. [Paris.]||Two incuse squares containing and |
EL. Trite, 72 grs.
For smaller denominations which hardly admit of description, see the Plates in B. M. C., Ionia.
Of this early period there are no silver coins which can be assigned to Miletus. The oldest silver money conjecturally attributed to the city in the B. M. C., Ion., consists of staters of the Aeginetic standard:—
|Forepart of lion with head turned back; in field sometimes ΟVΛ.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXI. 1.]
|Incuse square quartered. |
AR Stater, 185.5 grs.
|Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXI. 2.]||Incuse square containing ornamental star. |
AR Stater, 183.8 grs.
The smaller denominations are coins of 32.4 and 19.3 grs. (Ibid., Pl. XXI. 3, 4).
With regard to these coins, here doubtfully assigned to Miletus, and as to the unexplained inscription ΟVΛ, see B. M. C., Ion., p. xxxv, and Babelon, Traité, p. 451, where they are classed among uncertain coins of one of the southern Aegaean islands.
In the Milesian territory, at a place called Didyma or Didymi, was the world-renowned oracle of Apollo Διδμευς or Διδμαιος. The emblems of this god were the lion and the sun, and it is quite possible that the earliest coins of Miletus which bore these sacred symbols may have been issued under the auspices of the Branchidae, as the priests of the Didymean Apollo were called. The temple was burnt by Darius in B.C. 494 (Hdt. vi. 19), and lay in ruins till the reign of Alexander the Great. After the siege of B.C. 334 the restored democracy determined to rebuild it: see Haussoullier, Milet et le Didymeion, Paris, 1902. It may well have been in connexion with the rebuilding of the temple that the following coin was issued:—
|Head of Apollo Didymeus facing.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXI. 8.]
|ΕΓ ΔΙΔΥΜΩΝ ΙΕΡΗ Lion standing, looking back at star. |
AR 27.3 grs.
The remarkable inscription on this coin, which is of the weight of the ordinary (so-called) Phoenician ½ drachm, is hard to explain. The weight renders it difficult to suppose that ΔΡΑΧΜΗ is to be supplied with ΙΕΡΗ.
For the subsequent vicissitudes in the history of Miletus see Haussoullier, op. cit. The details are insufficient to furnish a satisfactory clue to the arrangement of the coinage. The remaining silver is consequently somewhat difficult to classify, owing chiefly to its uniformity in type and style. Guided mainly by the weights, we may group the coins in four chronological periods, as follows:—
|Head of Apollo l. laureate [BMC Ionia, Pls. XXI, XXII.]||Lion standing, looking back at star; beneath, magistrate’s name in nom. case.|
(i) B.C. 350-300. Phoenician Drachms 56 grs., and ½ Drachms 28 grs. (maximum). (ii) B.C. 300-250. Rhodian Didrachms, 102 grs. (iii) B.C. 250-190. Persic Didrachms, 160 grs.: Drachms, 80 grs.; ½ Drachms, 40 grs.(iv) B.C. 190-133. Attic spread Tetradrachms of Alexander’s types (Müller, Nos. 1033-1057). Attic Tetradrachms of the Milesian type. 1 ½ Drachms of Cistophoric standard, 75.3 grs., and Drachms of 40 grs.; also gold Staters of 130 grs.
The rare gold staters of Miletus now in the British Museum seem to fall into the period which followed the defeat of Antiochus at Magnesia.
|Head of Apollo facing.|| Lion standing, looking back at star; magistrate’s name and monogram. |
AV 129.8 grs.
|Head of Apollo r. with bow and quiver at shoulder.||Id. |
AV 130.3 grs.
|Head of Apollo r., hair in formal curls, bow and quiver at shoulder.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXII. 1-3.]
AV 130 grs.
The autonomous bronze money of Miletus, which ranges over the whole period from the earlier half of the fourth century down to Roman times, resembles for the most part the silver and furnishes us with a number of additional magistrates’ names. Among the few types which do not occur on the silver coins is the following:—
| Naked archaic statue of Apollo to r., holding in his hands stag and bow: border of dots.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXII. 9.]
| or ΜΙΛΗCWΝ Lion recumbent, looking back at star: magistrates’ names. |
The obverse type of this coin is a copy of the bronze cultus-statue of the Didymean Apollo by Canachus (Overbeck, Gr. Plastik, 3rd ed., i. 109; Haussoullier, op. cit., p. 43).
Augustus to Salonina. Inscr., ΜΙΛΗCΙΩΝ, after Elagabalus, sometimes with addition of ΝЄΟΚΟΡΩΝ, ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ, or Β ΝΕΩΚΟΡΩΝ ΤΩΝ CЄΒΑCΤΩΝ. Magistrates’ names in gen. with επι and frequently with title, Archon or Archiprytanis. Chief types: ΔΙΔΥΜЄΥΣ, Statue or bust of Apollo Didymeus; ΣΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΣ, Bust of Senate; Cultus-statue of Artemis with stag (B. M. C., Ion., Pl. XXII. 11); Leto carrying her two children; Zeus standing holding fulmen; Apollo Didymeus and Artemis standing side by side; Apollo Didymeus and Asklepios side by side; River-god; Apollo naked, seated before cippus or altar, round which, serpent. Temple containing statue of Apollo Didymeus; on either side is a naked man in striding attitude holding a reversed torch. Games: ΔΙΔΥΜЄΙΛ ΚΟΜΟΔЄΙΛ; ΔΙΔΥΜЄΙΑ; ΟΛΥΜΠΙΛ ΠΥΘΙΑ; ΠΑΝΙΩΝΙΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ.
Alliance coins with Ephesus, Smyrna, Cos, and with Amisus Ponti struck at Amisus.
Myus or Myes, the smallest town of the Ionian League, stood on the left bank of the Maeander, near the northern shore of the Latmian gulf,
|Head of Apollo.|
[Imhoof KM, Pl. III. 13.]
|ΜΥΗ Goose in circle formed by Maeander pattern. |
[Ibid., Pl. III. 14.]
|ΜΥ Bow and arrow. |
|Id. [ Ibid., p. 90.]||ΜΥ Dolphin and trident. |
|Head of Poseidon.|
[Ibid., Pl. III. 15.]
|ΜΥ Id. |
Naulochus, between Myus and Priene, was a small port or harbour which seems to have enjoyed a very short period of independence some time during the fourth century B.C.
|Head of Athena in crested Athenian helmet.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXII. 14.]
|ΝΑΥ Dolphin in circle formed by Maeander pattern. |
Neapolis, a few miles south of Ephesus (Strabo xiv. 639), was, if the following coins are correctly attributed, distinguished from other cities of the same name by the addition of the title Aurelia or Hadriana Aurelia. Antoninus Pius is called Κτιστης on the earliest coins at present known, and the title Hadriana is dropped after his time.
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins. Ant. Pius to Maximinus. Inscr., ΑΔΡ. ΑVΡΗ. ΝЄΑΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ, ΑVΡΗΛΙЄΩΝ ΝЄΑΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ or ΑVΡ. ΝЄΑΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ. Magistrate’s name with επι and title Grammateus. Types: ΒΟVΛΗ; Apollo Kitharoedos; Apollo holding branch and leaning on stele; Artemis Ephesia; Temple of Apollo containing statue (a coin reading ανεθηκα, Severus Alexander, BMC Caria, p. lxvi); Dionysos standing; Demeter standing (Imh., Kl. M., 90).
Phocaea. This ancient city, some 40 miles north of Smyrna, seems to have risen to great importance after the destruction of the latter by the Lydians, and it was through this port that the products of the interior henceforth found an outlet across the sea (Herod. i. 163). As a maritime city Phocaea was, after Miletus, one of the first coast towns to adopt the new invention of coining money.
The early electrum staters of the Phocaïc standard are distinguishable from the Milesian by their heavier weight, 256-248 grs., as against the Sardian and Milesian, weighing only 220-215 grs., and by their richer color, which is due to their containing a higher percentage of pure gold (Num. Chron., 1887, 304 sqq.). The extension of this standard seems to coincide with the period during which the Phocaeans are said to have been supreme upon the sea (θαλαττοκρατειν), B.C. 602-560 (Num. Chron., 1875, p. 282). To the town of Phocaea itself there is at present only one type of stater which can be certainly attributed:—
|Seal (phoca) to r.; beneath Θ (= Φ).|
[Babelon, Traité, Pl. IV. 3, 5.]
|Two rough incuse squares of different sizes. |
EL. Stater, 255 grs.
The specific gravity of the specimen in the British Museum is 13.7, and it should therefore contain about 51 percent of pure gold. For smaller denominations with seal or seal’s head see Babelon, l. c. The following stater may also have been struck at Phocaea, though the type, a Griffin’s head, is equally appropriate to Teos, as may also be the inscription (see Babelon, Traité, II. i. 122).
|Griffin’s head l.; behind, unexplained legend, apparently ΖIΟΜ (?). [Babelon, Traité, Pl. V. 2.]||Small deep incuse square. |
EL. Stater, 256 grs.
The Persian conquest and the emigration of the greater part of the population of Phocaea (B.C. 544) account for the extreme rarity of its staters. From the latter part of the sixth century onwards the electrum coinage seems to have been limited to hectae and smaller divisions (see infra). There are a few silver coins, however, which clearly belong to the period before B.C. 544. These follow the Phoenician standard.
|Seal (phoca) to r.||Incuse square quartered. |
AR Dr. 58.5 grs.
|Head of seal to l.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXIII. 1, 2.]
|Griffin with rounded wings walking l.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXIII. 3.]
|Incuse square quartered. |
AR Tetradrachm, 193 grs. (much worn).
|Forepart of Griffin r.|
[Imhoof KM, Pl. III. 16.]
AR Didrachm. 97 grs.
|Head of Griffin.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXIII. 4, 5.]
AR Drachm, ½ Dr. 25.2 grs., and numerous fractions down to 1 gr.
|FIG. 297.||FIG. 298.||FIG. 299.|
The abundant series of electrum hectae and divisions, of various types, but all distinguished by a small seal as an adjunct symbol, range from the archaic to the finest style of art. The earlier types are for the most part heads of animals or animal forms (seals, griffins, lions, bulls, boars, rams); the later, human heads of various divinities, &c., both male and female (BMC Ionia, Pls. IV and V, and MacDonald, Coin Types, p. 49 f.). It is remarkable that not a single stater has yet been discovered of a later date than that with the seal, described above, although we know from Thucydides (iv. 52 δισχιλιους στατηρας Φωκαιτας), writing of the events of B.C. 425, and from Demosthenes (xl. 36 τριακοσιους στατηρας Φωκηις) that large numbers of Phocaean staters must have circulated side by side with the hectae. Staters and hectae of Phocaea are also mentioned in Attic inscriptions dating from B.C. 429 (I. G., ed. Kirchhoff, i. 199 and 207) Φωκαιδες εκται χρυσιου, and from B.C. 397 (I. G., 652, l. 42) Φωκαικω στατηρε : II : εκται Φωκαιδες ... (l. 44) εκταε Φωκαις, &c.
It was, moreover, precisely in the latter part of the fifth century that the towns of Phocaea and Mytilene concluded the monetary convention, according to the stipulations of which it was decreed that the two cities should strike coins of identical weight and fineness, each minting in turn for the space of one year, it being decided by lot that Mytilene should begin, see Mytilene, supra, p. 558 (Hicks and Hill, Gr. Hist. Inscr., 1901, p. 181).
There can be no doubt that the coins (χρυσιου) mentioned on the stone are the hectae of which such large quantities have come down to us, and that both staters and hectae of Phocaea and Mytilene, as well as of other towns, formed, with the Cyzicenes, the principal local currency of the coast towns of western Asia Minor down to the age of Alexander the Great.
At first sight it may seem somewhat surprising that an important mint, such as Phocaea undoubtedly was in the fifth and fourth centuries, struck so small a number of silver and bronze coins. The explanation is that the electrum money was a common currency issued according to agreement with neighboring cities to meet the necessities of general maritime commerce, whereas silver and bronze coins were current only within the restricted territory of the town itself, which was a mere rocky promontory jutting out into the sea. The following small coins are the chief specimens with which I am acquainted:—
|Head of Athena in Attic helmet l.; beneath, seal. [Invent. Wadd., Pl. IX. 8; cf. Imh., Kl. M., p. 92, No. 2.]||ΦΩ Griffin’s head l. |
AR ½ Dr. 29 grs.
|Head of nymph Phokaea in sphendone.|
[B. M. C., Ion., Pl. XXIII. 6.]
|Griffin’s head. |
|Head of Hermes, or of Athena.|
[BMC Ionia, 217; Imhoof KM 92; Invent. Wadd., 1895-8.]
|ΦΩ, sometimes in monogram, ΦΩΚΑΕΩΝ or ΦΩΚΑΙΕΩΝ Forepart or head of griffin, or Griffin walking or seated, sometimes with magistrates’ names in nom. case. |
Seleucid tetradrachms were struck at Phocaea about the beginning of the reign of Antiochus Theos (circ. B.C. 261), probably under a contention with Cyme and Myrina: see MacDonald, J. H. S., xxvii, pp. 145 ff. Again, in the early part of the second century Alexandrine tetradrachm s and drachms bearing the badges of Phocaea, the seal, the griffin, or the letters ΦΩ, were issued from the Phocaean mint (Müller, Nos. 983-990).
Augustus to Philip. Inscr., ΦΩ, ΦΩΚΑΙЄΩΝ, ΦΩΚΑЄΩΝ, and under M. Aurelius, dedicatory coins with ΦΩΚΑΙЄΥCΙΝ ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄ (Invent. Wadd., 1902; BMC Ionia, p. 222 sq.). Magistrates’ names at first in nom., later in gen. with επι and title Strategos. Chief types—Busts of ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΦΩΚЄΑ, &c.; Reverses—The Dioskuri; Prow or Galley surmounted by caps of the Dioskuri; Poseidon with foot on prow; Contest of Athena and Poseidon; River-god CΜΑΡΔΟC recumbent with water-fowl in his stream; Dog attacking dolphin, an unexplained type, possibly symbolizing the River Smardos as a dog rushing down into the sea; Kybele and Phokaia side by side; Athena; Asklepios; Homonoia; Isis Pharia; Sarapis; Griffin; &c.
Alliance coins with Lampsacus (BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXIX. 2).
Phygela. A small coast-town between Ephesus and Priene, where was a temple of Artemis Munychia (Strab., 639). It seems to have been autonomous for a short period only, about the middle of the fourth century B.C., like the other small cities Naulochus and Myus some 30 miles south and nearer to Priene.
|Head of Artemis Munychia facing, of fine style; circle of dots.|
[Invent. Wadd., Pl. IV. 12.]
|ΦΥΓΕΛΕΩΝ Rushing bull; behind, palm-tree; in ex., magistrate’s name in nom. case. |
AR Tetradr. 216 grs.
|Similar head, but wearing stephanos.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXIV. 2.]
|ΦΥΓ Similar, but palm-tree in front of bull. |
|Head of Artemis in profile, wearing stephanos.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXIV. 1.]
|ΦΥΓ Rushing bull. |
It is noticeable that the Palm-tree is apparently adopted from the contemporary coins of Ephesus.
Priene, on the southern slope of Mt. Mycale and facing south towards Miletus, some 10 miles distant across the gulf (which is now a level plain), was one of the original twelve Ionian cities, and it is somewhat surprising that nearly all the coins are subsequent to the time of Alexander the Great. The famous temple of Athena Polias at Priene was dedicated by Alexander himself, B.C. 334, and bore the inscription (now in the British Museum, Hicks, Gr. Inscr. in the B. M., No. 399) Βασιλευς ‘Αλεξανδρος ανεθηκε τον ναον ‘Αθηναιη Πολιαδι. On the cultus-statue at Priene, in relation to the coins, see Dressel in Sitzungsber. d. preuss. Akad., 1905, xxiii, p. 467.
|Head of Athena l.|
[Imhoof KM, Pl. III. 19.]
|ΠΡ[ΙΗ]? Dolphin in circle formed by Maeander pattern. |
Compare the contemporary coin of Naulochus.
|Head of Athena Polias l. in round helmet with triple crest.|
helmet with triple crest.
|ΠΡΙΗ Trident and magistrate’s name within a circle of Maeander pattern.|
|Head of Athena in profile.|
[Ibid., Pl. XXIV. 7.]
|ΓΡΙΗΝΕΩΝ Tripod in Maeander circle. |
|Head of Poseidon Helikonios r. (Strab., 384.) [Ibid., Pl. XXIV. 8.]|| „ Owl on olive-branch. |
|Head of Athena in profile, or facing.|
[Ibid., Pl. XXIV. 9, 10.]
|ΓΡΙΗ Magistrate’s name in Maeander circle. |
|Head of Athena in profile.|
[Ibid., Pl. XXIV. 11.]
|ΠΡΙΗ Owl on amphora; magistrates’ names in nom. case and adjunct symbols; the whole in olive-wreath. |
After these issues there is an interval in the coinage, noticeable also at many other Asiatic cities, until early Imperial times.
Early Imperial times to Valerian. Inscr., ΠΡΙΗ ΝЄΩΝ. Magistrates’ names with επι and titles Archon and Archiprytanis. Chief types—Bust of Athena, rev. Bust of Nike (Imh., Kl. M., Pl. III. 20) or figure of Bias, one of the seven sages and a native of Priene, standing in front of tripod (Ibid., Pl. III, 21); BIAC Bust of Bias, rev. Mên standing; Bust of Persephone, rev. Veiled female bust; ΚΟΡΗ Persephone veiled standing (Imh., Mon. gr., 296); Statue of Athena Polias (BMC Ionia, Pl. XXIV. 13); Dionysos standing, &c.
Smyrna. As the old town of Smyrna was not destroyed by Alyattes until about B.C. 585, it seems almost certain that it must have taken part in the coinage of electrum; and it is probable that its coins would follow the heavier standard (known as Phocaïc) rather than the lighter standard which prevailed in Southern Ionia. I would conjecturally attribute the following stater and hecte to old Smyrna.
|Lion’s head with open jaws.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. II. 1.]
|Rough incuse square. |
EL. Stater, 248.2 grs.
|Lion’s head l. on round shield or disk.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. II. 4.]
|Rough incuse square. |
EL. Hecte, 42.5 grs.
The specific gravity of the stater is 14.36 and its gold contents therefore about 59 percent.
The following tetradrachm of Rhodian weight belongs in style to the first half of the fourth century B.C.
|Head of Apollo l. laureate. [Corolla Num., Pl. XV. 6.]||ΣΜΥΡΤΙΩΝ Lyre in slightly concave field. |
AR Tetradrachm 232 grs.
This remarkable coin proves, apparently, that Smyrna, about a hundred years after its destruction by Alyattes, had again risen to some importance, although there is no record of its restoration before the time of Antigonus and Lysimachus.
The earliest coins of the newly restored city are tetradrachms of Lysimachus (Müller, 408); symbol, Head of Kybele. The attribution to Smyrna of these pieces is by no means certain. It is, however, probable that the following bronze coins were struck there in the time of Lysimachus, who seems to have conferred upon the restored city the name of Eurydiceia in honor of his daughter Eurydice, just as, at the same time, he bestowed the title Arsinoeia upon Ephesus (see supra, p. 574). (Imhoof, Jahreshefte des oesterr. arch. Inst., Bd. viii. 229.)
|Head of Eurydice r., veiled.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. X. 7.]
|ΕΥΡΥΔΙΚΕΩΝ Tripod. (Symbol, on one specimen, Bee). |
To the third century B.C., after the death of Lysimachus, belong also, among others, the following:—
|Head of Apollo r. laur.|
[Imhoof, op. cit., p. 230.]
|ΣΜΥΡΝΑΙΩΝ Tripod (as on coins of Eurydiceia); magistrate’s name ΑΡΙΔΕΙΚΗ[Σ]. (Symbol on other specimens, sometimes, Bee). |
|Id. [BMC Ionia, Pl. XXV. 2.]||ΣΜΥΡΝΑΙΩΝ Lyre. |
|Head of Kybele r.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXV. 3.]
|ΣΜΥΡ krater surmounted by vessel containing fire; magistrate’s names. |
The silver coins of the second century consist (i) of Alexandrine tetradrachms (Müller, Cl. VI, 991-994); symbol, Head of Kybele, the attribution of which is somewhat doubtful; (ii) of Cistophori, reading ΖΜΥΡ; symbol, Head of Kybele; and (iii) of autonomous tetradrachms and drachms of the flat spread fabric:—
|Head of Kybele turreted.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXV. 5, 6.]
|ΖΜΥΡΝΑΙΩΝ in oak-wreath with magistrate’s name in mon. (Fig. 300), or Lion in oak-wreath, with magistrate’s name at full length in nom. case. |
AR Tetradrachm. 260 grs.
|Head of Apollo.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXV. 7.]
|ΖΜΥΡΝΑΙΩΝ Homer seated holding scroll; magistrate’s name. |
AR Dr. 63 grs.
|Head of Kybele. [Paris.]||ΖΜΥΡΝΑΙΩΝ ΠΡΥΤΑΝΕΙΣ Aphrodite Stratonikis veiled and wearing polos, leaning on column and holding Nike. |
Stater, AV 130 grs.
|Head of Mithradates diademed.||ΖΜΥΡΝΑΙΩΝ Nike with wreath and palm. |
The above described gold stater, at present unique, was issued in the name of the whole body of the Prytaneis, and probably on some special occasion for war expenses; cf. the gold coins of Miletus and Ephesus.
At Smyrna, as at most other cities in the Province of Asia, there appears to have been an interval in the issue of coins between about 84 B.C. and early Imperial times.
Augustus to Gallienus. Inscr., ΖΜΥΡΝΑΙΩΝ till Hadrian’s time, later CΜΥΡΝΑΙΩΝ, often abbreviated. Honorary titles—ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ, conferred in Trajan’s time, in virtue of a temple previously erected to Tiberius, Livia, and the Senate; Β. ΝЄ. and Γ. ΝЄ., in virtue of temples to Hadrian and the family of Severus respectively (BMC Ionia, p. 263 note); also ΠΡΩΤΩΝ ΑCΙΑC, ΠΡΩΤΩΝ ΑCΙΑC Γ ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ ΤΩΝ CЄΒΑCΤΩΝ ΚΑΛΛЄΙ ΚΑΙ ΜЄΓЄΘΙ, &c. Magistrates. Proconsul, ΑΝΘΥΠΑΤΟC with or without title, in gen. with επι, or in dat., P. Petronius, A.D. 29-35; C. Calpurnius Aviola, A.D. 38-39; M. Suillius Nerulinus, A.D. 69-70; Vettius Bolanus, circ. A.D. 76; T. Catius C. Silius Italicus, circ. A.D. 77; L. Mestrius Florus, A.D. 83-84; Sextus Julius Frontinus, circ. A. D. 84; Fuscus, between A.D. 98 and 102; L. Venuleius Apronianus, A. D. 138-139. The municipal magistrate from the time of the Antonines onwards, if not from earlier times, was the Strategos, whose name appears under the earlier Emperors generally in nom. and without title; afterwards, usually, in gen. with επι, except on dedicatory issues with ΑΝЄΒΗΚЄ. When the eponymous Strategos had a right to some additional honorary title, e.g. Philopatris, Stephanephoros, Asiarches, Tamias, Hippikos, Sophistes, Grammateus, &c., the extra title is either added to or substituted for that of Strategos. From the occasional use of επι with some other title than that of Strategos it has been argued that the eponymous magistrate was not always the Strategos, for, in the reign of Domitian, there are coins which show that an important, if not the eponymous, magistracy was sometimes conferred upon a lady, who, in this particular case, enjoyed the titles of ‘Stephanephoros' and ‘Daughter of the People', ЄΠΙ CΤЄ. ΜΥΡΤΟΥ ΘΥΓΑΤΡΟC ΤΟΥ ΔΗΜΟΥ (cf. C. I. G., 3173). Some of the coins of this Lady, Myrtos, are signed, in the nom. case, by a Strategos (ЄΠΙ ΜΥΡΤΟΥ, CΤΡΑ. ΡΗΓЄΙΝΟC).
Chief types—Busts, etc., with inscriptions ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; CЄΒΑCΤΗ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΘЄΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ; ΘЄΑΝ ΡΩΜΗΝ; ΘЄΑC ΡΩΜΗC; CΜΥΡΝΑ; ΑΔΡΙΑΝΗ CΜΥΡΝΑ; ΤΥΧΗ; CΙΠΥΛΗΝΗ; ΖЄΥC ΑΚΡΑΙΟC; Herakles ΟΠΛΟΦΥΛΑΞ (C. I. G., 3162) and ΠΡΟΦΥΛΑΞ (MacDonald Hunter, ii. Pl. LII. 9); Demeter Horia veiled; inscr., ΖΜΥΡΝΑΙΟΙΤΗΝΩΡΙΑΝ (Z. f. N., iv. 315); Kybele; Dionysos; figures of Nemesis, or two Nemeses, the latter being (like Artemis Ephesia at Ephesus) specially characteristic of Smyrna on alliance coins; Zeus Akraios seated; ΖЄVC ΟΑΥΜΠΙΟC seated; Semele seated with Dionysos embracing her; ΟΜΗΡΟC Homer seated, coins of this type being known as Ομηρεια (Strab., 646); Artemis ΠΑΝΙΩΝΙΑ standing; Amazon Smyrna; Aphrodite Stratonikis; Eirene; Demeter Horia standing; Persephone seated; Kybele seated; ΠЄΛΟΨ and Hippodameia in biga; Herakles, standing, crowned by Aphrodite; the two Nemeses appearing in a vision to Alexander asleep under a plane-tree, and exhorting him to found the city of Smyrna (cf. Paus. vii. 5. 2, 3); the Nemeses in a chariot drawn by griffins. The Griffin as a frequent Smyrnaean type symbolizes the cultus of the Nemeses (Eckhel, ii. 552), and is often represented with his paw upon a wheel; the Lion, on the other hand, refers to the worship of Kybele, and places his paw upon the tympanum, the wheel and the tympanum being severally emblematical of these two cults. Other types— Bull; Crab; Ram; Prow of Galley; Leopard holding thyrsos; some of these on large medallions, inscribed ΑΝΤΙΝΟΟC ΗΡΩC and ΠΟΛЄΜΩΝ ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄ CΜVΡΝΑΙΟΙC The dedicator of these coins was M. Antonius Polemon (Ramsay, C. and B. Phryg. i. 44), through whose instrumentality Hadrian bestowed a magnificent donation upon Smyrna when the city was made δις νεωκορος (B. M. C., Ion., p. 277 note). River-gods: ЄΡΜΟC; ΜЄΛΗC, and ΚΑΛЄΩΝ or ΚΑΛΛΩΝ. Temples: Temple of Tyche; Temple of the Nemeses; Two or three temples of Roma, Tiberius, and Hadrian (B. M. C., Ion., p. 288). Games: ΠΡΩΤΑ ΑCΙΑC; ΠΡΩΤΑ ΚΟΙΝΑ ΑCΙΑC; ΠΡΩΤΑ ΚΟΙΝΑ ΑCΙΑC ЄΝ CΜΥΡΝΗ.
Alliance coins. The cities with which Smyrna struck alliance coins, or which struck alliance coins with her, are very numerous. The most interesting combinations are those of Smyrna with Laodiceia, dedicated by P. Claudius Attalos, the son of M. Antonius Polemon, and a member of the wealthy Zenonian family whose influence was considerable throughout Asia Minor (Ramsay, C. and B. i. 46). This Attalos, like his father Polemon, was a citizen both of Smyrna and Laodiceia, and was a famous orator or rhetor (σοφιστης). His dedicatory alliance coins are inscribed ΑΤΤΑΛΟC CΟΦΙCΤΗC ΤΑΙC ΠΑΤΡΙCΙ CΜΥΡ. ΛΑΟ. The alliance coins of other cities with Smyrna, even when their names stand first in order, were, with a few exceptions, struck at Smyrna. In alphabetical order they are as follows:—Ancyra, Athens, Caesareia Cappadociae, Clazomenae, Cyzicus, Ephesus, Hierapolis, Lacedaemon, Laodiceia, Magnesia ad Sipylum, Miletus, Mytilene, Nicomedeia, Pergamum, Perinthus, Philadelphia, Sardes, Thyatira, Tralles, and the Κοινον of the Province of Asia, ACIA, CΜΥΡΝΑ, ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ (MacDonald Hunter, ii. Pl. LII. 20).
Teos, a once flourishing seaport some 15 miles west of Lebedus. The majority of the citizens left their homes in B.C. 544, refusing to submit to the Persians, and migrated to Abdera on the coast of Thrace, whose earliest coins bear a very close resemblance to those of the mother-city. See supra, p. 253. The town was not, however, entirely abandoned, as the continuance of its coinage amply testifies. Some early electrum pieces with a Griffin’s head, a type common both to Teos and to Phocaea, are mentioned under Phocaea, and may have been struck there, as Phocaea, with Mytilene and Cyzicus, continued to be the three chief mints of the electrum currency down to the middle of the fourth century.
The early silver coins of Teos from the sixth century B.C. down to about B.C. 400 are apparently adjusted to the Aeginetic standard, the stater weighing about 184 grs. max. The earliest uninscribed specimens probably belong to the period before B.C. 544.
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXX. 1.]
|Rough incuse square. |
AR Drachm, 90.4 grs.
AR ½ Dr. 45.7 grs.
AR ¼ Dr. 22.8 grs.
|Griffin seated. Various Adjunct symbols, and inscription ΤΗΙΟΝ, abbreviated, on the later specimens.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXX. 2-6, and MacDonald Hunter, ii. Pl. LIII. 1.]
|Quadripartite incuse square, surface usually rough or granulated. |
AR Stater, 184.4 grs.
AR ½ Dr. 41.1 grs.
AR ¼ Dr. 22.9 grs.
|Τ Griffin seated.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXX. 9.]
|Incuse square quartered, within which magistrate’s name. |
AR Obol, 15.4 grs.
For some special purpose during this period Teos appears to have struck a few small coins in gold.
|Griffin seated.||Circular incuse divided by cross on the limbs of which ΤΗΙ/////// and magistrate’s name. |
(B. M.) AV 28.7 grs.
(Lawson.) AV 14.6 grs.
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXX. 10.]
|Incuse square divided by cross, on the limbs of which ΤΗΙΩΝ and magistrate’s name. |
AR Dr. 55.7 grs.
|Head of young Dionysos with thyrsos behind. [Ibid., Pl. XXX. 11.]||ΤΗΙΩΝ Lyre. |
AR ½ Dr. 25.6 grs.
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXX. 12.]
|ΤΗΙ kantharos and magistrate’s name. |
AR ½ Dr. 24.6 grs.
From the end of the fourth century until the beginning of the second it would seem that Teos struck no coins. It is to about B.C. 190 that the Alexandrine tetradrachms (Müller, 1005-6) with ΤΗΙ and a Griffin, a Kantharos, or a draped Statue of Dionysos, belong. To this age also I would ascribe the latest silver autonomous coins of the town:—
|Griffin seated.||ΤΗΙ kantharos and magistrate’s name. |
AR Dr. 47 grs.
|Griffin running.|| „ Id. |
AR ½ Dr. 23.7 grs.
|Griffin seated. [MacDonald Hunter, ii. Pl. LIII. 2.]|| „ Lyre. |
AR Diob. 15.8 grs.
The frequency with which Dionysiac symbols occur on the money of Teos recalls the fact that the temple of Dionysos in that city was one of the finest specimens of the Ionic style of architecture in the ancient world.
The autonomous bronze coins of Teos range from the latter part of the fourth century down to Roman times; but they are of no special interest. The usual types are—obv. Griffin, and rev. Kantharos, Ivy-wreath, or Lyre, with inscr. ΤΗΙΩΝ and magistrate’s name in nom. case.
Augustus to Salonina. Inscr., ΤΗΙΩΝ or ΤΗΙΩΝ ЄΙΩΝΩΝ. Magistrate, Strategos. Chief types: ΤЄΩC Bust of young Dionysos as city god; Hero (Athamas(?)), standing with foot on prow; the Dioskuri standing; ΑΝΑΚΡЄΩΝ standing, holding lyre; Anacreon seated; Heads of Dionysos, Asklepios, &c.; also Bacchic mask of Seilenos; Cista mystica; Hermes carrying infant Dionysos, and other Bacchic types; Aphrodite standing (BMC Ionia, Pl. XXX. 18); ΘЄΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ; &c.
Themistocles, Despot of Magnesia ad Maeandrum, B.C. 465-449. See Magnesia, supra, p. 581.
Gorgion, Despot of Gambrium, circ. B.C. 399.
|Head of Apollo.|
[Babelon, Achém., Pl. IX. 11.]
|ΓΟΡΓΙ Forepart of rushing bull. |
AR 52 grs
|Head of Apollo.|
[Ibid., p. lxx.]
|ΤΕΥ Beardless bead in Satrapal tiara. |
AR 25 grs.
Æ Size .4
Tissaphernes (?), Satrap of Sardes (ob. B.C. 395). The following remarkable coins have been attributed to this Satrap. The first three of them are assigned by Babelon (op. cit., p. xxxii) to the mint of Aspendus, and to circ. B.C. 411, while Tissaphernes was in command of the Phoenician fleet at that port; the fourth, to the mint of Iasus in Caria, where he collected his forces against Dercylidas, B.C. 395.
|Bearded head in satrapal tiara.|
[Babelon, Achém., p. xxxii.]
|ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ Persian king in kneeling or running posture, symbol, galley with rowers; all in incuse square. |
AR Tetradrachm. 230 grs.
|Id. [BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXI. 7.]||ΒΑΣΙ Id. |
AR Dr. 52.8 grs.
|Id. [Babelon, Achém., Pl. IV. 4.]||ΒΑ Id. |
AR ½ Dr. 29 grs.
|Bearded head in satrapal tiara.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXI. 6.]
|ΒΑΣΙΛ Lyre. (Fig. 301) |
AR Tetradrachm. 236.2 grs.
Pharnabazus. Satrap of Dascylium, &c., circ. B.C. 413-370. The following coin, certainly struck at Cyzicus, is thought by Babelon to have been issued in B.C. 410.
|ΦΑΡΝΑΒΑ Bearded head in satrapal tiara.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXI. 5.]
|Prow of galley ending in front in a swan’s neck; on its side, a griffin; in front and behind, a dolphin; and beneath, a tunny, the mint-mark of Cyzicus. |
AR Tetradrachm. 228.6 grs.
Orontas, Satrap of Mysia (or Dascylium), circ. B.C. 362. This Satrap, while in revolt against Artaxerxes Mnemon, struck gold, silver, and bronze coins at Lampsacus, at Clazomenae, and perhaps at Cisthene.
|Bearded head in satrapal tiara.|
[MacDonald Hunter, II. Pl. XLVIII. 2.]
|Forepart of hippocamp. |
AV Stater, 130.1 grs.
|Head of Athena l.|
BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXI. 8.]
|ΟΡΟΤΑ Forepart of hippocamp. |
AR 39.5 grs
|Head of Zeus. [BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXI. 9; Babelon, Achém., Pl. IX. 12.]||ΟΡΟΝΤΑ Id. |
Æ Size .45
|Head of Athena.|
[Ibid., Pl. IX. 13.]
|[ΟΡΟΝ]ΤΑ Id.; symbol, lion’s head. |
Æ Size .6
|Bearded head in (royal ?) tiara (kidaris).|
[Ibid., Pl. IX. 14.]
|Same type. |
Æ Size .4
|Beardless head in satrapal tiara.|
[Ibid., Pl. IX. 15.] 
|Same type. |
Æ Size .4
|Greek hoplite kneeling on one knee, protecting himself with shield, and holding spear in his r.; between his legs, Τ.|
[B. M. C., Ion., Pl. XXXI. 10.
|ΟΡΟΝΤΑ Forepart of winged boar r. |
AR 43 grs.
|Bearded head in satrapal tiara. [Imhoof KM, Pl. VI. 27; Babelon, Achém., lxxiv.]||ΚΙΣΘΛ Galloping horseman. |
Æ Size .45
Spithridates, Satrap of Lydia and Ionia under Darius III, Codomannus, ob., B.C. 334, at the battle of the Granicus. The coins bearing the name of this Satrap have the types of Lampsacus and of Cyme
|Bearded head in satrapal tiara.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXI. 11.]
|ΣΠΙΘΡΙ Forepart of hippocamp. |
AR 44.4 grs.
|Bearded head l. in satrapal tiara.|
[Num. Chron., 1900. Pl. XIV. 6.]
|ΣΠΙΘΡΙ Forepart of horse. |
AR 44.7 grs.
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXI. 12.]
|ΣΠΙ Id.; behind . |
Æ Size .45
Oata. Uncertain Satrap. 
|Beardless head in satrapal tiara.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXI. 13.]
|ΟΑΤΑ Head of bridled horse l., beneath . |
AR 15.4 grs.
Eurysthenes (?), Dynast of Pergamum, circ. B.C. 339:—
|Head of Athena.|
[Babelon, op. cit., Pl. IX. 9.]
|Bearded head in satrapal tiara. |
EL. Hecte, 39 grs.
|Head of Apollo.|
[Ibid., Pl. IX. 10.]
|ΠΕΡΓ Similar. |
AR 24 grs.
For other Satrapal coins of uncertain attribution see infra under Persia.
1 Six (N. C., 1894, 311) attributes these to Mithradates, dynast of Cius and Carene, B.C. 337-302.
2 It has been suggested by Imhoof and Six (Num. Chron., 1894. 329) that Oata might be completed as ‘Οαταφραδατου (= Autophradates) Satrap of Lydia (Theopomp. xii. fr. iii).
Chios. This great island is divided from the mainland by a strait about five miles in width at its narrowest part. The chief town, which gave its name to the whole island, stood on the eastern coast opposite Erythrae.
The early coinage of Chios, which may be safely attributed to the sixth century B.C. (some specimens may even belong to the previous century), consists in the main of silver didrachms. One very archaic specimen, weighing 130 grs., found in Egypt, and now in the British Museum, proves that the Euboïc standard was sometimes used at Chios. Another, perhaps still earlier, coin (Num. Chron., 1890, Pl. II. 15) corresponds in style and fabric with the earliest coins of the Cyclades, and follows the Aeginetic standard (wt. 188 grs.). From the sixth century onwards, the Chian didrachms weigh from 123-120 grs. It would seem therefore that henceforth the Chian standard was the Euboïc reduced from 130 to about 120 grs., and that the Aeginetic standard was definitely abandoned in very remote times.
|Sphinx seated; amphora and vine (?) in front.|
[Num. Chron., 1900, Pl. II. 15.]
|Two incuse squares, large and small. |
AR Aeginetic stater, 188 grs. 
|Sphinx seated; volute or plume on back of head; in front, rosette.|
|Incuse square quartered. |
AR Euboïc stater, 130 grs.
[Zeit. f. Num., 1900, Pl. VIII. 6, 7.]
AR Chian didrachm, 122 grs.
|Sphinx seated, with or without head-plume.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. I. 19.]
|Sphinx seated; in front, amphora.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXII. 1.]
|Incuse square quartered. |
AR Didrachm, 123 grs.
During this period the weight of the electrum staters of the Chian type was raised and brought into conformity with that of the more
1 The attribution to Chios of this stater is questioned by Babelon (Traité, p. 630), on account of its weight and fabric.
The silver coinage of Chios, while the island was a subject ally of Athens, is distinguishable only by style from that of earlier times. The type and weight remained almost unchanged. The denominations of the silver coins in this period are the tetradrachm (235.6 grs., BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXII. 2); the didrachm (121.5 grs., ibid., Pl. XXXII. 3, 4); the tetrobol (40.5 grs., ibid., Pl. XXXII. 5); and, of somewhat later style, the drachm and ½ drachm (56.6 grs. and 28.9 grs., ibid., Pl. XXXII. 6, 7). The Sphinx on these coins faces an amphora over which is a bunch of grapes, the whole on a convex round shield.
The frequent combination of the wine-jar and grapes with the Sphinx suggests that the Sphinx at Chios was probably symbolical of the cultus of Dionysos.
|Sphinx seated before amphora and grapes, as in previous period.|
[BMC Ionia, , p. 331 sqq., Pl. XXXII. 8; Ibid., Pl. XXXII. 9,10.]
|Striated or granulated incuse square quartered by broad bands, on one of which, magistrate’s name in nom. case. |
AR Tetradr. 236 grs.
AR Drachm, 57 grs.
In the time of the Peloponnesian war there was a coin of Chios called a ‘Fortieth'—λαβοντες παρα των Χιων τρεις τεσσαρακοστες εκαστος Χιας (Thuc. viii. 101). It is probable that the coins here mentioned are the tetradrachms of 240 grs. max., forty of which would be exactly equivalent to an Aeginetic mina of 9,600 grs. max.) at that time (B.C. 411) the most widely current silver standard. Xenophon (Hellen. i. 6, 12), writing of events in 406, applies the name πεντεδραχμια to a coin of Chios, which is doubtless the same piece as the τεσσαρακοστη or ‘Fortieth', it being equivalent to 5 coins of 48 grs. (max.), which may well have been often called drachms. Reckoned, however, in Chian money the coin of 240 grs. max. (an Aeginetic ‘Fortieth’ or ‘Pentadrachm’) would not have been a pentadrachm, but a tetradrachm.
During this period Chios does not seem to have coined any money except perhaps some insignificant bronze coins (see BMC Ionia, Nos. 40-45), and possibly Alexandrine tetradrachms.
When the Romans, after the defeat of Antiochus, rewarded the Chians by a grant of land for their fidelity to them during the war, the Chians, following the fashion of the age, struck in large quantities tetradrachms of the Alexandrine type (Müller, Nos. 1080-1125). These coins all bear the Sphinx of Chios as an adjunct symbol, and the later specimens (Müller, Cl. VI) have a magistrate’s name in addition. Whether this Alexandrine coinage began before 190, or only then, and how long it continued it is hard to say, but a comparison of the names of the
In B.C. 84 Chios was declared by Sulla a free ally of Rome, and as such it seems to have regained its right of coining, which it retained down to and throughout Imperial times, never placing the Emperor's head on its money. The silver coins are Attic drachms of reduced weight (60 grs.).
|Sphinx and grapes.|
[vPl. XXXII. 11,12.]
|ΧΙΟΣ Amphora in ivy-wreath or circle of dots; in field, various symbols and magistrate’s name in nom. case. |
AR Dr. 60 grs.
|Id. [BMC Ionia, 13-15.]||Id. |
Æ Size .8-.35
That Chios continued to issue silver drachms down to Imperial times is proved by the inscr. ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ above the Sphinx on some of the later specimens, and by the still more remarkable legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΙΟΧΟΥ ΔΩΡΟΝ beside the amphora on others, indicating that they represented a gift of money from King Antiochus IV of Commagene, A.D. 38-72 (Imhoof, Gr. M., p. 133). Many of the bronze coins of this period are countermarked with a tripod.
Bronze coins. Inscr. ΧΙΩΝ, without Emperor’s head, and usually bearing designations of values in full.
|ΑΒΑΡΙΑ ΤΡΙΑ||equivalent to||12 Chalki||= 1½ obol.|
|ΑCCΑΡΙΑ ΔΥΩ||„ „||8 Chalki||} = 1 obol.|
|ΟΒΟΛΟC||„ „||8 Chalki|
|ΑCCΑΡΙΟΝ ΗΜΥCΥ(=1½) „||6 Chalki||= ¾ obol.|
|ΑCΑΡΙΟΝ||equivalent to||4 Chalki||} = ½ obol.|
|ΤΕΤΡΑΧΑΛΚΟΝ||„ „||4 Chalki|
|ΤΡΙΧΑΛΚΟΝ||„ „||3 Chalki||= 3/8 obol.|
|ΔΙΧΑΛΚΟΝ||„ „||2 Chalki||} = ¼ obol.|
|HMIACCAPION||„ „||2 Chalki|
The Chian drachm would seem to have been exchangeable for 6 obols, or 12 Assaria, or 48 Chalki. The sizes and weights of the various denominations differ considerably, the specimens which, from their style, belong to the earlier Imperial period, being about double the weight of those of the same denomination, which certainly belong to the later period. This reduction of one-half in the weight of the coins probably took place before the middle of the third century A.D.
The chief types of these coins are, on the obverse of the obolos a seated sphinx, and on the reverse an amphora or a standing figure of some local hero. The corresponding piece of 2 assaria bears the same figure, while the pieces of 3 assaria bear either an amphora or two standing figures, Dionysos and Apollo (?) with an altar between them. The piece of 1 ½ assaria has on the reverse two thyrsi crossed. The type of Homer seated, accompanied by his name ΟΜΗΡΟC occurs on small coins. A
Alliance coins with Erythrae (MacDonald Hunter, Pl. LIII. 16) and Smyrna (struck at the latter city).
Icaria. A small island west of Samos. Its chief town Oenoe appears to have struck in its own name, and not under that of the island (Imhoof, Gr. M., p. 661, Monn. gr., p. 299; Prokesch, Ined., 1854, p. 55, and Pl. IV. 18, 19; Invent. Wadd., 2022 sq.).
|Head of Artemis facing.|
[Invent. Wadd., 2022.]
|ΟΙΝΑΙ Rushing bull. |
AR Dr. 50 grs.
|Id. in profile. [BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXIV. 1.]||ΟΙΝΑΙΩΝ Id. |
|Head of young Dionysos.|
[BMC Ionia, 2.]
|ΟΙΝΑΙΩΝ Grapes. |
|Head of Artemis.||ΟΙ Ram. |
|Forepart of rushing bull.|
[Rev. Num., 1843, Pl. XVI. 2, 3.]
|ΟΙ Ram. |
Samos. The numismatic history of this island was first discussed in detail by P. Gardner (Num. Chron., 1882). Before the Persian conquest, B.C. 494, the coins assigned to Samos, chiefly because they have been found there, are for the most part uninscribed early electrum pieces of the Euboïc and Milesian standards of various rude and unrecognizable types, although the more distinctive coin-types, the lion’s scalp and the forepart of a bull, also occur during this period. The time of Polycrates (532-522), when Samos was the first maritime power in the Aegean, is that to which most of them seem to belong, though some are distinctly earlier. For fuller details and illustrations see Babelon, Traité, ii. 1, p. 200 sqq.
|Uncertain type. [Müller Afrique, p. 9, Paris, 263 grs.|
BMC Ionia, 268.3 grs.]
|Two oblong incuses. |
EL. Distater, 268.3 grs.
|Id. [Müller, Suppl., Pl. I. 1A.]||One oblong and one square incuse. |
EL. Stater, 133 grs.
|Lion’s scalp (very archaic).|
BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 20.]
|One oblong and one triangular incuse. |
EL. Stater, 133.3 grs.
|Lion’s scalp (?).|
[Ibid., No. 21.]
|Incuse square. |
EL. ½ Stater, 66 grs.
|Lion’s scalp in triangular incuse.|
[Gardner, Samos, Pl. I. 2.]
|Two incuse squares side by side. |
EL. (Milesian standard) Trite, 72.7 grs.
A stater described under Miletus (BMC Ionia, Pl. I. 1) is very similar in style to this Trite. It is quite possible that both these coins may be Samian.
For other uncertain smaller divisions see BMC Ionia; Gardner, Samos; Head, N. C. 1875.
There are also numerous smaller divisions of the stater with uncertain types acquired by the British Museum in 1894 from a find in Samos.
|Forepart of bull looking back.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 24.]
|Incuse square quartered. |
EL. Stater, 216.7 gr.
This stater probably belongs to the time of the Ionian Revolt, see supra under Chios.
The uninscribed archaic silver coins, attributed to Samos (Types: Lion’s scalp, Forepart of bull or bull’s head, rev. Incuse square) belong to the Euboïc standard. See BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXIV. 3-7. There are also tetradrachms of Samian types and Attic weight, which may have been struck at Rhegium or Messana, see supra, pp. 108 and 153.
Early in the fifth century the Samian silver coins were reduced in value, the didrachm, subsequently distinguished from coins of the Attic standard as the στατηρ πατριος, weighing only about 104 grs. (max.) (See Wiegand and Wilamowitz-Moellendorff in Sitzungsberichte der k. Preuss. Akad., 1904, pp. 917 ff.)
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXIV. 8, 9.]
|Head and shoulders of bull in incuse square. |
AR Tetradrachm 202 grs.
|Forepart of bull.|
[Ibid., Pl. XXXIV. 10.]
|Lion’s head r. in incuse square. |
AR Didrachm 101 grs.
The smaller divisions consist of Tetrobols, Diobols, and Trihemiobols. with similar types varied. (Ibid., Nos. 11-13).
The later tetradrachms of this period usually bear the letters ΣΑ and a changing symbol on the reverse. Among these symbols may be mentioned the prow of the Samaina, BMC Ionia, No. 30, which may be compared with No. 38 on which the prow is simply suggested in the form of the eye with which prows of galleys were decorated. The smaller coins exhibit several new types, borrowed apparently from other cities, e. g. the Forepart of a winged boar; Seated Griffin; Ram’s head (Ibid., Pl. XXXIV. 16-23).
As in the case of contemporary Athenian coins there is frequently no trace of the incuse square on the reverse. The tetradrachms of this period are somewhat globular in fabric, and though bold in style are roughly executed.
In 439 Samos, hitherto an independent ally of Athens, was brought by Pericles into complete subjection. The tetradrachms of this period bear an olive-branch, the emblem of Athens, behind the bull (BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXV. 1, 2, 11). These are of finer work than the more ancient specimens, and the reverse-type is enclosed in a well defined incuse square. The inscription on the reverse is ΣΑ. The later tetradrachms of this time fall into a series marked with the consecutive letters Β-Ξ, possibly dates ranging from B.C. 421-409? From Β-Θ
Among the smaller silver coins the following may be noted:—
|Lion’s scalp.||ΣΑ Head and shoulders of bull. |
AR Tetrobol, 32 grs.
|Head and shoulders of bull.||Id. |
AR Tetrobol, 32 grs.
|Forepart of winged boar.||ΣΑ Lion’s head r. in incuse square. |
AR Triobol, 20 grs.
|Head of lioness l.||ΣΑ Ram’s head in incuse square. |
AR Diobol, 13.2 grs.
|Prow of Samaina.||ΣΑ Amphora in incuse square. |
AR Trihemiobols, 11 grs.
The full weight of the Samian obol must have been about 8 ½ grs.
In B.C. 408, when the city of Rhodes was founded as the capital of that island, the new Rhodian tetradrachms were adjusted to the Attic standard, circ. 260 grs.; and it would appear that Samos immediately followed the example of Rhodes, and that it raised the weight of its tetradrachms from about 204 to 260 grs., and moreover that, a few years later, both Rhodes and Samos considerably reduced the weight of their tetradrachms, perhaps to bring them into harmony with those of Chios (240 grs.). The long series of Ephesian tetradrachms also followed this standard, originally Chian, which however is commonly known as Rhodian.
The Samian coins of Attic weight which seem to belong to this period are as follows:—
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXV. 11.]
|ΣΑΜΙ Forepart of bull; symbol, olive-branch; in field, monogram. |
AR Tetradrachm, 260.3 grs.
|[Ibid., Ion. 12.]|
AR Drachm, 64.3 grs.
After Conon’s victory at Cnidus in 394, Samos, Ephesus, Rhodus, Cnidus, Iasus, and Byzantium apparently combined to issue a sort of federal coinage which is the only record of an anti-Laconian Symmachy among these states (Waddington, Rev. Num., 1863, p. 223, and Regling, Z. f. N., xxv, p. 210).
|ΣΥΝ Infant Herakles strangling serpents.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXV. 13.]
|ΣΑ Lion’s scalp (Fig. 302). |
AR Tridrachm. 1.78 grs.
The word ΣΥΝ[μαχικον] indicates the federal character of the currency.
[Gardner, l. c., Pl. III. 3, and BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXV. 14-17.]
|ΣΑ Forepart of bull; symbol, olive-branch; magistrate’s name in nom. case, sometimes with patronymic as ΕΠΙΚΡΑΤΗΣ ΑΧΕΛΩΙΟ. |
AR Tetradrachm, 238-233 grs.
AR Drachms, 59 grs.
AR ½ Drachms, 29 grs.
|Id.||ΣΑ Prow of Samaina. |
AR Diobol, 16.2 grs.
In this period the bronze coinage of Samos begins:—
|Head of Hera wearing stephane.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXV. 18.]
|ΣΑ Lion’s scalp. |
Æ Size .6
In 365 the greater part of the population of Samos was expelled by the Athenians, and the island was occupied by Athenian Kleruchi. From this time until 322, when the Samians were reinstated by Perdiccas, it is improbable that coins were struck in the island.
This was for the Samians a period of autonomy hardly broken by intervals of dependence upon one or other of the Diadochi. The silver coins of Samos are henceforth chiefly didrachms of the old local Samian standard, στατηρες πατριοι (see supra), equivalent to didrachms of reduced Rhodian weight (104 grs.). The old types are retained, but a very considerable falling off is noticeable in style and lettering. The series of magistrates’ names is not so extensive as on the contemporary didrachms of Ephesus. The bronze coins bear a head of Hera, and, on the reverse, a lion’s scalp and a magistrate’s name (BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXVI).
In B.C. 205 Samos was captured by King Philip V of Macedon; but, after the victory of Flamininus over the Macedonian king, it regained its independence. It was probably, however, not until after the battle of Magnesia, B.C. 190, that, like most of the other Ionian towns, Samos began to issue tetradrachms bearing the name and types of Alexander with the mint-mark of Samos, the prow of the Samian galley, in the field (Müller, Nos. 1126-7). The smaller coins consist of pieces of 70, 46, and 23 grs., probably Trihemidrachms, Drachms, and Hemidrachms of the contemporary, Cistophoric Standard, and of small bronze coins. The types are similar to those of the previous period, but the inscr. is ΣΑΜΙΩΝ, with various symbols and monograms, and, usually, a circle of dots (BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXVI. 6-10). The types of the Hemidrachms are as follows:—
|Head of Hera wearing stephane; border of dots.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXVI. 8.]
|ΣΑΜΙΩΝ Prow of Samian galley on which is a peacock, the symbol of Hera. |
AR Hemidrachm, 23 grs.
There are also small bronze coins of this period.
From B.C. 129 onwards Samos formed part of the Roman Province of Asia, and does not appear to have coined silver money. There are, however, bronze coins which may be assigned to the first century B.C. Inscr., ΣΑΜΙΩΝ or CΑΜΙΩΝ. Chief types: Head of Hera, rev. Peacock on caduceus, with sceptre across wing; Prow, rev. Forepart of bull; ΑΝΚΑΙΟC Ankaeos standing to front, rev. Peacock on caduceus; Ankaeos, rev. ΗΡΗC, Peacock; Ankaeos, rev. Two prows ramming one another; Prow, rev. Cultus-statue of Hera.
Augustus to Gallienus. Inscr., ΣΑΜΙΩΝ, CΑΜΙΩΝ, CΑΜΙΩΝ, &c., and, rarely, from Gordian’s time, CΑΜΙΩΝ ΠΡΩΤΩΝ ΙΩΝΙΑC. Magistrates’ names do not occur. The reverse-types are numerous and of considerable interest, e. g. Hera Samia, cultus-statue (by Smilis ?) (Paus. vii. 4. 5), sometimes accompanied by legend ΗΡΑ or ΗΡΗ; Do., between two peacocks; Do., with serpent coiled round her modius; Do., with prow before her; ΗΡΗC, Peacock of Hera; Temple of Hera; Prow of Samian galley; Hephaestos forging arms before Athena; ΠΥΘΑΓΟΡΗC, the Samian sage Pythagoras, seated or standing, touching with his wand a globe placed on a column (cf. also coins of Nicaea); River-god ΙΜΒΡΑCΟC (on whose banks Hera was fabled to have been born), recumbent, sometimes holding peacock; Hera and Nemesis standing; Nemesis alone with wheel beside her; Zeus and Poseidon standing to front; Female figure holding wreath; Herakles and Apollo (?) contending for tripod (?); Androklos, the colonizer of Ephesus and Samos, spearing wild boar; Androklos slaying Amazon; the Samian hero Ankaeos (or perhaps Kadmos) with foot on prow (see Roscher, Lex., ii. p. 872); Ares and Aphrodite standing face to face; Herakles standing; Two female figures to front, one Eirene (?) carrying a child, Ploutos (?); Kadmos (?) naked, hurling a stone at a serpent; Two children playing with astragali; Nymph holding with both hands a shell-shaped basin. (Imhoof, Nymphen u. Chariten, p. 166.)
Alliance coins, struck at Halicarnassus under Septimius Severus (BMC Caria, p. 112); also Samos with Alexandria, under Gordian (Mion., iii. 294).