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Cilicia falls naturally into two parts, an eastern low-lying fertile plain, watered by the Pyramus and Sarus (Cilicia Campestris), and a western, mountainous land (Cilicia Tracheia, practically equivalent to the later Roman division of Isauria). In the present work this division is ignored, and an alphabetical arrangement is adopted, the western boundary of the district towards Pamphylia being drawn at the river Melas, the eastern east of the Gulf of Issus, so as to include Alexandreia ad Issum and exclude Nicopolis and Germanicia Caesareia.
The coinage of Cilicia down to about the middle of the fifth century consisted of silver Aeginetic staters (c. 180 grs.) struck at uncertain mints. Somewhat later Celenderis, Mallus, Nagidus, Soli, and Tarsus, and still later Issus, began to strike silver money on the Persic standard (c. 170-160 grs.). These six towns were probably the only important Cilician mints before the age of Alexander. Their money is partly municipal and partly satrapal, i. e. struck in the names or with the types of the Persian satraps, who made the Cilician ports the base of their operations against Cyprus and Egypt in the earlier part of the fourth century B.C.
The coin-legends, as might be expected in a country with a mixed population like Cilicia, are frequently bilingual, the Greek language prevailing in the western, and the Aramaic in the eastern half of the country. It is worthy of remark that a large number of the extant silver staters are countermarked with the figure of a bull standing, with the two Aramaic letters (יז) above its back (see infra, Issus). With the expedition of Alexander, the satrapal coinage comes to an end, and is superseded by the new royal coinage of Alexander. This, followed by the money of the Seleucid kings, formed the chief currency of Cilicia down to the time when Pompey reorganized the country as a Roman province, B.C. 64. About this time begins a plentiful issue of autonomous bronze coins at all the principal towns, under Roman protection many of which are dated according to various local eras. But until A . D. 74 Cilicia Tracheia remained largely under the rule of local princes, and the quasi-autonomous coinage with magistrates’ initials or monograms lasted longer here than elsewhere in Asia Minor outside the province of Asia. The Imperial coins are very numerous; silver occurs exceptionally from Domitian to Caracalla at Aegeae, Mopsuestia, Seleuceia, Tarsus, and perhaps also at Elaeussa-Sebaste; for the weights see B. M. Catal. under these towns.
Adana on the Sarus. Under Antiochus IV of Syria (B.C. 175-164) bronze with inscr. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΩΙ ΣΑΡΩΙ. Types—Head of Antiochus radiate; Zeus seated holding Nike; Veiled female head; Horse. Autonomous Æ from circ. B.C. 164. Inscription, ΑΔΑΝΕΩΝ and (usually abbreviated) magistrates’ names. Types—as before; also Heads of Artemis, of Apollo, of Zeus, of City-goddess, of Hermes; Eagle; Nike; &c. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Hadrian to Gallienus. Inscr., ΑΔΑΝΕΩΝ, with addition of complimentary titles ΑΔΡΙΑΝΩΝ, ΜΑΚΡЄΙΝΙΑΝΩΝ, ΑΔΡ. CЄV. ΑΝΤΩΝЄΙΝΟV ΠΟ(λεως), CЄV. ΑΛЄΞΑΝΔΡΟ(υπολεως), ΜΑΞΙΜЄΙΝΙΑΝΩΝ, ΜΑΞΙΜΙΑΝΩΝ, in honor of various Emperors from Hadrian to Maximus. Types—Zeus; Half-length of River-god Saros; Dionysos; Hermes before agonistic table ; Sarapis; Tyche with River-god Saros at feet; &c. Games—ΙЄΡ(α) ΟΙΚ(ουμενικα) ΔΙΟ(νυσια).
Aegeae (Ayas), on the Gulf of Issus. Æ of Antiochus IV of Syria. Rev. ΑΙΓΕΑΙΩΝ. Bust of horse. Autonomous Æ from circ. B.C. 164. Inscr., at first ΑΙΓΕΑΙΩΝ, then also ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ (or ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ). Types—Zeus; Athena; Herakles; Head of Perseus; Head of Alexander the Great (?); Turreted head of City; rev. Bust or Forepart of horse; Goat; Club; &c. Era, Caesarean (autumn B.C. 47). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Augustus to Gallienus. Severus Alexander is called ΑΡΧ(ηγετης) ΝЄΟΙΚ(ου) ΑCΚΛΗ(πιειον) (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 202). Inscr., ΑΙΓΕΑΙΩΝ, with complimentary titles ΑΔΡΙΑΝΩΝ. ΚΟΜΟΔΙΑΝΩΝ, CЄVΗΡΙΑΝΩΝ, ΑΛЄΞΑΝΔΡΟVΠΟΛΙC, ΜΑΚΡЄΙΝΟVΠΟ., ΜΑΚЄ(δονικης) ЄVΓЄΝ(ους) ΠΙCΤΗC ΘЄΟΦΙΛΟVC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΟV ΑΙΓΑΙΑC, ΝΑVΑΡΧΙΔΟC, &c. Magistrates names in early period, abbreviated, and name of legate Q. Terent. Culleo (ΕΠΙ ΚΟVΛΕΩΝΟC) under Tiberius. Types—Athena; Dionysos; Tyche; Dioskuri; Perseus; Herakles; Asklepios, Hygieia and Telesphoros; Amaltheia with infant Zeus; Fountain-nymph; Busts of Sarapis and Isis; Kadmos before Thebes; Figure of ΕΚΚΛΗ(σια) seated; Goat with torches on horns; Lighthouse and ships; Bridge over Pyramus (ΔΩΡΕΑ ΠVΡΑΜΟC the bridge being the gift of the Emperor); Boot; &c. The recumbent goat is a frequent symbol. There are AR tetradrachms of Hadrian and a billon coin of Valerian. Games—ΙЄΡΟC ΟΙΚΟVΜЄΝΙΚΟC ΑCΚΛΗΠΙΟC
Alexandreia ad Issum (near Alexandretta, Iskanderun). Æ of Antiochus IV of Syria. Inscr., ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΕΩΝ. Types—King’s head on shield ; Zeus standing; Nike. Autonomous Æ from B.C. 164: Head of Alexander as young Herakles, rev. Zeus. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial from Trajan to Severus Alexander. Inscr., ΑΛЄΞΑΝΔΡЄΩΝ, usually with ΚΑΤ ΙCCΟΝ, and with dates probably according to era of autumn B.C. 67/6. Types—Head of Alexander the Great(?); Athena; Dionysos; Kybele on lion; Bust of City; Tyche.
Anazarbus (Anavarza), on the Pyramus, reckoned its era from autumn B.C. 19, in which year it received the title Caesareia. Autonomous Æ of first century B.C. Inscr., ΑΝΑΖΑΡΒΕΩΝ. Types—Head of Zeus; Zeus seated; Tyche holding corn and cornucopia. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Claudius(?) to Gallienus. ΚΑΙΣΑΡΕΩΝ alone or with (ΤΩΝ) ΠΡΟΣ (ΤΩ) ΑΝΑΖΑΡΒΩ or VΠ ΑΝΑΖΑΡ. until Commodus; then ΑΝΑΖΑΡΒΕΩΝ or ΑΝΑΖΑΡΒΟV. Titles rivaling those of Tarsus— ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟLЄΩC (ЄΘΝΟVC), ЄΝΔΟΞΟV, ΤΙΜΙΩ(τατης), ΡΩΜ(αιων), ΤΡΟΠ(αιοφον), Κ. Є. Κ. (Κοινοβουλον ελευθερα Κιλικιας ?), Α. Κ. Μ. (πρωτης, καλλιστης μεγιστης). For inscriptions ЄΛЄVΘЄΡΟΝ ΚΟΙΝΟΒΟVΛΙΟΝ, Γ. Β. and Γ. Γ. (γραμματι Βουλης and Γερονσιας), ΔΗΜΙΟVΡΓΙΛ ΑΝΤΩΝЄΙΝΟV, see Tarsus. Agonistic, ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝΙΑΝΑ ΠΡΩΤΑ ΤΗC ΟΙΚΟVΜЄΝΗC, ЄΠΙΝЄΙΚΙΑ, ΙЄΡΟC ΟΙΚΟVΜЄΝΙΚΟC, ΙЄΡΟC ΙCЄ(λαστικος), ΑΔΡΙΑΝΙΟC ΟΙΚΟVΜЄΝΙΚΟC, ΔЄΚΙΟC ΟΙΚΟVΜЄΝΙΚΟC, ΟΛVΜΠΙΛ, CЄΒΑCΜΙΑ, ΓVΜΝΑCΙΑΡΧΙΑ (Gymnasiarch standing by oil-basin), CVΝΘVCΙΑ ΟΙΚΟVΜЄΝΗC. Coins dated ЄΤ. ΙЄΡΟV ΟΛVΜΠ. were issued A. D. 250/1. Types (many copied from Tarsus)—Tyche seated, with two others standing, or holding statuettes of the three Eparchiae; Sarapis; River-god Pyramos (half-length or reclining figure); Bust of Zeus before acropolis of City; the Koinoboulion seated voting; Nike in biga; Bust of Artemis; Prize crowns (five or six); ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ of M. Aurelius and Verus .
Anemurium in Cetis, on the promontory nearest to Cyprus, was a mint of Antiochus IV of Commagene (A. D. 38-72). Inscr., ΑΝЄΜΟΥΡΙЄΩΝ. Types—Head of king; Artemis huntress in long chiton. Also coins with inscription ΚΙΗΤΩΝ. Types—Scorpion and crescent. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Titus to Gallienus. Inscr., ΑΝЄΜΟΥΡΙЄΩΝ or ΑΝЄΜΟVΡЄΩΝ. Types—Perseus; Mummy-shaped figure of Artemis; Tyche in temple; Lion and crescent. Regnal dates of the Emperors.
|Beardless (usually female ?) winged figure
in kneeling-running attitude, holding
[BMC Lyconia, Pl. XV. 10-12.]
|Conical baetyl in rude incuse square.
AR Staters 185 grs.
|Female winged figure, in kneeling-running attitude, holding caduceus or staff
[BMC Lyconia, Pl. XVI. 1-7.]
|Incuse square containing conical or pyramidal
baetyl, sometimes with handles
, between granulated patches, pair
of birds, or bunches of grapes;
on stone or in field, sometimes , Ι,
Γ, Ψ, &c. (ιερα στοιχεια ?).
AR Staters 180 grs.
In the time of Pharnabazus, coins on the Persic standard were perhaps issued at the same mint:
|Aphrodite, wearing polos, seated between two sphinxes, smelling flower. [BMC Lyconia, Pl. XIX. 14.]||Athena Parthenos standing to front, holding
Nike who is about to crown her
, resting r. on olive-tree, l. on shield
. (Copy of the Parthenos of Pheidias
AR Staters 154 grs.
[Imhoof-Blumer KM, Pl. XVI. 24.]
|Sphinx seated |
AR Obol 10.8 grs.
|Id. [Imhoof, l. c., Pl. XVI. 25.]||Head of Athena. |
AR Obol 12.2 grs.
|Beardless head [Imhoof, M. G., p. 373 75] or Head of Hermes [Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, p. 204].||Aphrodite seated between sphinxes, smelling
flower and holding flower with
long stalk. |
AR Obol 8.8 grs.
|Facing female head. [Ibid.]||Γ Sphinx. |
Æ size 3.5
If this attribution is correct, probably the colonial coin of Sept. Severus, reading CO. IVL. AV..., with seated Aphrodite smelling a flower, belongs to the same mint (Imhoof, M. G., p. 374. 77; Kl. M., p. 435).
Augusta, on the Pyramus or the Sarus, probably derived its name from Livia Augusta. Imperial, Livia to Gallienus. Era, autumn A.D . 20. Inscr., ΑVΓΟΥΣΤΑΝΩΝ. Types—Bust of young Dionysos; Athena; Artemis; Tyche with river-god at feet; Tyche seated and standing female figure; Athlete seated on table crowning himself; etc.
Carallia (Ueskeles Keui near Beysheher). Imperial, Μ. Aurelius to Gallienus . Inscr., ΚΑΡΑΛΛΙΩΤΩΝ. Types—Athena fighting, serpent round tree beside her (Imhoof, Kl. M., Pl. XVII. 13); Athena voting; Aphrodite arranging her hair; Selene with torch; Tyche seated in temple; &c. Marks of value Γ, Η, ΙΑ on later coins.
|ΚΕΛ Nude horseman with whip, riding sideways .||Goat kneeling, with symbols; incuse circle
AR Staters 170 grs.
AR Tetrobols 55 grs.
|Id. (sometimes letters).||ΚΕΛΕΝ Goat as above; incuse circle.
(Fig. 319). |
AR Staters 170 grs.
|Id. [N. Chr., 1896, Pl. III. 4; Imhoof-Blumer KM., p. 453.]||ΚΕΛΕΝΔΕΡΙΤΙΚΟΝ Goat as above;
incuse square. |
AR Stater 161.4 grs.
To the same period belong obols and half-obols (often uninscribed) with Goat (or forepart) kneeling; Gorgoneion; Head of Athena; Forepart of Pegasos; Astragalos; Free horse; Head of bearded Herakles; &c.
|Nude horseman as above.||ΚΕΛΕΝ (or abbrev.). Goat kneeling as above
AR Staters 170 grs.
Also obols and half-obols as before.
During the second and first centuries B.C. and under the early Empire Celenderis issued Æ inscr. ΚΕ or ΚΕΛΕΝΔΕΡΙΤΩΝ, with magistrates' initials . Types—Gorgoneion; Goat; Laureate head of hero; Turreted bust of City; Apollo standing. Antiochus IV of Commagene (A. D. 38-72) issued here coins with his head and the type of Apollo. Imperial, Domitian to Trajan Decius. Inscr. ΚЄΛЄΝΔЄΡΙΤWΝ. Types—Athena; Demeter in serpent-car; Poseidon; Infant Dionysos enthroned, three Korybantes around him; &c.
Cennatis. See Diocaesareia, Lalassis, and Olba.
Cetis or Cietis. A large district, including Olba, part of the Calycadnus valley , and the country south of it, and the districts of Cennatis, Lalassis, and Lacanatis. For coins inscr. ΚΙΗΤΩΝ see Anemurium.
Cibyra Minor (on the coast, near the Pamphylian border). Autonomous Æ of second or first century B.C. Inscr., ΚΙΒΥΡΑΤΩΝ with dates (?) ΔΚ or ΕΚ. Types—Zeus; Dioskuri; Hermes; Nike crowning trophy . Imhoof, Gr. Münzk., p. 679.
Claudiopolis (Mut), in the Calycadnus valley. Imperial of Hadrian. Inscr ., ΚΛΑVΔΙΟΠΟΛΙΤW[Ν]. Type—Tyche. This coin is of the fabric of the neighborhood, and cannot belong to Bithynium-Claudiopolis; but possibly it represents the non-colonial portion of a double community , of which the colony Ninica Claudiopolis (q. v.) formed the other portion.
Colybrassus, an inland city near the Pamphylian border, not far from Side . Imperial, Aurelius to Saloninus. Inscr., ΚΟΛVΒΡΑCCЄWΝ. Types—Zeus (sometimes in temple); Athena; Hephaestos forging shield; Asklepios; Hygieia; Hermes; Gymnasiarch’s oil-basin in temple (ΓVΜΝΑCΙΑΡΧΙΑ); &c. Marks of value Γ, Є, and ΙΑ on later coins.
Coracesium (Aláya). Imperial, Trajan to Saloninus. Inscr., ΚΟΡΑΚΗCΙΩΤΩΝ. Types—Zeus; Athena voting; Demeter drawn by serpents, or standing; Apollo Sidetes; Helios in quadriga; Hermes; Goddess on horseback . Mark of value ΙΑ on later coins.
Coropissus (a metropolis of Cetis, between Laranda and Claudiopolis). Imperial, Hadrian to Valerian. Inscr., ΚΟΡΟΠΙCCЄΩΝ (or ΚΟΡΟΠЄΙCЄWΝ) with or without ΤΗC ΚΙΗΤWΝ (or ΚΗΤWΝ) ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟ. Types—Perseus and Andromeda with slain κητος; Zeus; Athena; Apollo; Nike; Tyche seated in temple; &c.
Corycus (Korgos, on the coast, south-west of Elaeussa; near it was the Corycian cave, cf. Pind., Pyth., i. 31; Strab., xiv. 670; Plin., N. H., v. 92). Autonomous Æ of first century B.C. with magistrates’ names abbreviated. Inscr., ΚΩΡΥΚΙΩΤΩΝ. Types—Turreted head of City; Hermes standing; Bust of Thalassa with crab-shell head-dress; Apollo with branch. Æ of Antiochus IV of Commagene (A. D. 38-72). Type—Female figure seated with phiale. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Trajan to Gallienus. Inscr. as before, with ΑVΤΟΝΟΜΩΝ or ΑVΤΟΝΟΜΟV, sometimes ΝΑVΑΡΧΙC. Types—Hermes; Aphlaston; Caduceus; Head (of Aphrodite?) with inscr. ΟΡΟΝ (unexplained); Poseidon; Artemis; Apollo; Zeus; Okeanos reclining; Thalassa, with crab’s claws as head-dress, holding aphlaston and oar; Aphrodite (?), with prow at feet, holding aphlaston and sceptre; Dionysos standing before table with prize crown (inscr. ΘЄΜΙΔος); &c.
Diocaesareia (metropolis of Cennatis, in the lower Calycadnus valley). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial. Domitian to Philip. Inscr., ΔΙΟΚΑΙCΑΡЄΩΝ (or ΔΙΟΚЄCΑΡЄΩΝ) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΩΝ, later also ΜΗΤΡΟ. ΚЄΝΝΑΤΙΔ[ΟC] or ΚЄΝΝΑΤΩΝ (ΚЄΝΑΤΩΝ). Types—Grapes; Hermes; Bust of City; Eagle; Thunderbolt; Temple of Zeus with thunderbolt; Thunderbolt on throne; Zeus hurling thunderbolt (inscr. ΟΛΒΟC ‘prosperity’); Athena in quadriga hurling thunderbolt (cf. Seleuceia ad Calycadnum); Athena standing; Herakles seated on lion-skin; Tyche and seated City, river-god at their feet; Arched gateway with statues. Eagle and thunderbolt are common countermarks.
Epiphaneia (near the head of the Gulf of Issus). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Trajan to Gallienus. Inscr., ЄΠΙΦΛΝЄΩΝ, on earliest coins also ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟΠΟ. Era, 68 B.C. Types—Athena; Demeter; Apollo; Helios; Artemis; Dionysos (bust, figure standing or in car drawn by panthers with satyr); Poseidon; Hades; Asklepios and Hygieia; &c.
Flaviopolis (on the spurs of Mt. Taurus, above Anazarbus), named after Vespasian, who organized the province in 74; era begins in autumn of A.D. 73 or 74. Imperial, Domitian to Gallienus. Inscr., ΦΛΑΟVΙΟΠΟΛЄΜΩΝ (or ΦΛΑVΙ-). Types—Athena; Cultus-statue of Artemis between stags browsing on trees; Sarapis; Busts of Isis and Sarapis confronted; Bust of Kronos veiled; Herakles with apples; Helios; Dioskuri (busts, or figures standing with crescent between them); Tyche seated with river-god at feet; Genius seated to front sacrificing between two vases.
Hieropolis-Castabala (Budrum on the Pyramus). Æ of Antiochus IV (B.C. 175-164). Inscr., ΙΕΡΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΓΙΡΟΕ ΤΩΙ ΠΥΡΛΜΩΙ. Type—Eagle. From thence to Imperial times, autonomous Æ. Inscr. as before, sometimes also ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ. Types—Turreted head of City; Eagle; Goddess of Hieropolis (Artemis Perasia) enthroned, eagle under seat; River-god Pyramos (half-figure) swimming, holding eagle. The coins of Tarcondimotus I and Philopator (see p. 735) were issued here. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Ant. Pius to Gallienus. Inscr., ΙЄΡΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ (or -ЄΙΤΩΝ), with or without ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟC ΤΩ ΠΥΡΑΜΩ, after Sept. Severus with ΚΑCΤΑΒΑΛЄΩΝ. Types—Bust of heroised king, diademed; Bust of Hekate veiled, with torch; of Artemis; of young Dionysos; Zeus; Bust or figure of Helios; Tyche seated in temple, river-god at her feet; Prize-crown and torches (ΙЄΡΟC; Naked youth running; Torch and caduceus; &c.; Marks of value (Valerian and Gallienus) Δ, Ϛ.
Holmi, on the coast south of Seleuceia. The coinage (silver of the Persic standard, of which the staters show a connexion with Side, q. v.) ceased when Seleucus transferred the inhabitants to his foundation Seleuceia.
|Athena standing, holding Nike; before her, dolphin. [Imhoof, G. M., p. 710, 562; Kl. M., Pl. XVII. 9.]||ΟΛΜΙΤΙΚΟΝ Apollo Sarpedonios
standing, with long laurel-branch
and phiale (as on staters of Side).
AR Stater 149 grs.
|Head of Athena. [Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, p. 209.]||ΟΛΜ, ΟΛΜΙΤΙ, ΟΛΜΙΤΙΚΟΝ or ΟΛΜΙΤΟΝ Head of Apollo or of a
AR 12 grs. or less
Æ size .5
Irenopolis, the Eastern city, near Anazarbus, perhaps at Kars Bazar. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Nero to Gallienus. Inscr., ΙΡΗΝΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ or ЄΙΡΗΝΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ. Era begins from autumn of A. D. 51 or 52. Types—Bust of Kronos, veiled; Zeus; Athena; Herakles reclining; Dionysos in car of panthers, to front; Bust of young Dionysos; Demeter in biga of oxen; Asklepios and Hygieia; Eirene-Nemesis; Nike crowning City-goddess; Tyche with river-god at feet; Busts of Sarapis and Isis; Caduceus between two cornucopia. For the Western Irenopolis see Lacanatis.
Isaura Nova, metropolis of Isauria proper, perhaps at Tris Maden (Siristat). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Severus to Mamaea. Inscr., ΙCΑΥΡΩΝ or ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄΩC ΙCΑΥΡΩΝ. Types—Head of young Herakles in lion-skin; Youth armed with sword riding on lion; Zeus; Athena seated or hurling thunderbolt, Artemis; Apollo and Emperor joining hands; Tyche seated in fortified gateway or temple; &c.
Issus, at the head of the gulf of the same name. No coins can with certainty be assigned to it before the fourth century.
|ΙΣ[ΣΙ] or ΙΣΣΙ[ΚΟΝ ?] and traces of Aramaic legend; Apollo with long laurel-branch and phiale.||Herakles, beardless, holding club, bow,
and lion-skin; symbol, ankh. [Imhoof, Monn. gr., p. 355].
AR Stater 165 grs.
|ΙΣ ? Baal standing, holding sceptre and eagle.||Id. [Babelon, Perses Ach., No. 157,
Pl. III. 17]. |
AR Stater 160.5 grs.
|ΙΣΣΙΚΟΝ and תריבזו (Teribazu) in Aramaic. Baal standing, holding sceptre and eagle.||Ahura-mazda as half-figure terminated
by winged solar disk, holding wreath
and flower; magistrate’s name ΑΜΙ.
AR Persic stater
Similar coins were issued by Tiribazus, while organizing the war against Euagoras I, from Mallus, Soli, and Tarsus. Pharnabazus (B.C. 379-374) also perhaps struck coins at or for Issus (with ankh of peculiar form, see under Tarsus). Under Mazaeus (B.C. 361-333) or later, staters with Baaltars seated, rev. City-walls, with lion slaying bull above, or facing bust of Athena, were issued with the mint-marks of the same four towns (see Tarsus). The Aramaic countermark iz with a bull, common on coins of the south coast, is generally supposed to indicate Issus.
Lacanatis, an inland district of Cetis. Æ of Antiochus IV of Commagene and his sons Epiphanes and Callinicus (A. D. 38-74). Inscr., ΛΑΚΑΝΑΤΩΝ. Types—Scorpion; Armenian tiara; Capricorn; the two princes (ΒΑCΙΛЄΩC ΥΙΟΙ) on horseback; Anchor between crossed cornucopia containing their heads. The mint was perhaps the western Irenopolis (Irnebol).
Laerte, on the coast near the western border. Imperial, Trajan to Saloninus. Inscr., ΛΑЄΡΤЄΙΤΩΝ. Types—Zeus seated or standing; Apollo Sidetes; Athena (with olive-tree); Demeter; Ares; Dionysos; Hermes; Nike in quadriga; Female figure seated, holding aplustre and short sceptre; &c. Marks of value on later coins Γ, Η, ΙΑ.
Lamus, metropolis of Lamotis, inland from Antiocheia and Charadra (B. C. H., 1899, p. 591), distinct from the town on the river Lamus.Imperial, Severus to Valerian. Inscr., ΛΑΜΟΥ ΜΗΤΡΟΠ. ΛΑΜWΤΙΔΟC or ΤΗC ΛΑΜWΤΙΔΟC Types—Zeus in temple; Eagle on altar; Apollo with bow and branch.
Lyrbe, near Side, on the western border. Imperial, M. Aurelius to Saloninus. Inscr., ΛΥΡΒЄΙΤΩΝ. Types—Zeus; Apollo Sidetes; Hades with Kerberos; Ares; Athena voting; Dionysos; Helios; Goddess with spear; Hekate triformis; Nike and seated City-goddess. Mark of value ΙΑ on later coins.
Mallus, one of the oldest cities in Cilicia, on the lower course of the Cydnus, was according to one tradition founded by Mopsos and Amphilochos, the latter of whom had a famous oracle on the spot. The coinage (see especially Imhoof, Ann. de Num., 1883, pp. 89 f.; BMC Lyconia, &c., pp. cxvii f.; Imhoof-Blumer KM, ii, pp. 406 f.) begins towards the end of the filth century B.C.
|Beardless male winged figure, nude to waist, in kneeling-running posture, holding in both hands a disk with star on it; sometimes Aramaic inscription מרלו (mrlu).||ΜΑΡΛΟΤΑΝ, ΜΑΡΛΟ, ΜΑΛΡΟ (or
other abbreviation). Swan; in field,
various symbols, ankh, &c. Concave
field. (Fig. 320). |
|Bearded figure (Kronos?), with four wings or with two large wings at shoulders and two small ones at ankles, sometimes janiform, in kneeling-running posture, holding disk (sometimes with animal’s head on it); below, on one variety, forepart of man-headed bull.||ΜΑΡ, ΜΑΡΛ, or ΜΑΡΛΟ Swan; in
field sometimes symbols. Incuse
square or circle [Hunter Cat., ii, Pl.
LIX. 11, 12]. |
To the same period belong small coins (14.5 grs. or less) with types— Head of Herakles bearded; Head of Athena; Winged half-figure; Swan; Astragalos. The swan on the above coin is doubtless the symbol of Astarte-Aphrodite, and the bird must have been common on the Pyramus marshes. Kronos appears in a Hellenized form on later coins.
|Young Dionysos seated in vine with grapes. [BMC Lyconia, Pl. XVII. 1.]||ΜΑΡΛ? Male figure ploughing with yoke of oxen; above, winged disk; in field, barley-corn.|
|Head of Kronos, bearded, wearing decorated taenia.||ΜΑΛ Demeter holding torch and ears of barley.|
|ΜΑΡ and Teribazu in Aramaic; Baal standing, with sceptre and eagle.||Ahura-mazda as half-figure terminated by winged solar disk, holding wreath and flower.|
|King of Persia in kneeling-running posture, with spear and bow.||King of Persia as on obv., but holds bow and draws arrow from quiver.|
|Similar.||ΜΑΛ Group of Herakles and lion on capital of column.|
|Athena seated with spear and shield; olive-tree behind her.||ΜΑΛ Hermes and Aphrodite standing.|
|Id. [BMC Lyconia, Pl. XVII. 8.]||ΜΑΛ Nike kneeling on club and writing her name ΝΙΚΗ.|
|Head of Herakles, lion-skin round neck.||ΜΑΛ Conventional head of bearded satrap in low tiara.|
|Id. [Babelon, Inv. Wadd., Pl. X. 15.]||ΤΕΙΡΙΒΖΟΥ Similar.|
|Head of Aphrodite or Demeter.||ΜΑΛ or ΜΑΛΛΩΤΗΣ Similar.|
To the same period belong small coins (13 grs. or less) with types— Veiled head of Demeter, rev. Demeter with torch and ears of barley; Persian king with spear and bow, rev. Head of Satrap (but see Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, p. 107); Baal standing (Teri in Aramaic and double-barred ankh), rev. Head of Ahura-mazda; Bearded head, rev. Athena seated; Head of Apollo, rev. Baal seated. Bronze is introduced in this period—Head of Triptolemos (?) wearing corn-wreath, rev. Gorgoneion.
To the time of Alexander and his successors may be assigned, besides tetradrachms (Müller, 1308-1318), the staters with Baal seated, rev. Lion slaying bull over two lines of wall, or Head of Athena facing, with mint-mark Μ (see under Tarsus). Under Demetrius II of Syria (B.C. 145-125) and later were issued tetradrachms, drachms, and autonomous bronze coins with mint-mark Μ or ΜΑΛ, rev. Cultus figure of Athena Magarsis, wearing triple-crested helmet, fringe of serpents on either side of body from waist down, holding scepter, rosettes at sides. After the delivery of Cilicia from Tigranes in B.C. 69, Mallus issued Æ. Inscr., ΜΑΛΛΩΤΩΝ. Types—Head of Apollo, rev. Athena seated.
Imperial, Tiberius to Macrinus. Inscr., ΜΑΛΛΩΤΩΝ, or ΜΑΛ. ΙЄΡ. ΤΟΥ (or sometimes ΠΟΛεως?) ΘЄΟΥ ΑΜΦΙΛΟΧΟΥ. Era, B.C. 68 or 67. Types—Athena Magarsis; Amphilochos holding branch and scepter, boar at his feet; Tyche seated or standing with two river-gods at her feet. Colonial (some quasi-autonomous), Elagabalus to Valerian. Under Elagabalus Mallus received a colony. Inscr., MALLO COLONIA, sometimes also FELEX (sic), usually also S. C. Types—Bust of Senate (SACRA SINATUS sic); Tyche seated between vexilla, with two river-gods at her feet; Amphilochos with tripod and boar, or with Athena, Prize-crown (ΔЄΙ ΑΜFΙLΟCΗΙ, sic); Emperor with yoke of oxen, crowned by genius and offering statuette to Tyche; &c.
Mopsus or Mopsuestia (Missis), on the Pyramus, was founded by Mopsos, brother of Amphilochos. Under Antiochus IV of Syria it was called Seleuceia. Regal and autonomous Æ. Inscr., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝΤΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΩΙ ΠΥΡΑΜΩΙ. Types—Head of Zeus; Artemis huntress; Circular altar (Μοφου εστια). From circa B.C. 164 the coins (Æ) read ΜΟΨΕΑΤΩΝ, usually also ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ. Types— Head of Alexander Bala (?); Head of Zeus; Tripod; Circular altar; Zeus seated with Nike; Three Korybantes (?); Head of Athena; Helios in car. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Tiberius to Gallienus. Silver of Hadrian and Pius. Era begins from autumn of B.C. 68. Inscr. as before (in early Empire sometimes ΑCΥΛΟΥ for ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ); ΑΔΡΙ. ΜΟΨЄΑΤWΝ ΠΟΛЄWC; or ΑΔΡΙΑΝWΝ ΜΟΨЄΑΤWΝ (occasionally ΜΟΜΨЄΑΤWΝ) with complimentary titles, as ΑΝΤWΝЄΙΝΙΑΝWΝ, ΑΛЄΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, ΔЄΚΙΑΝWΝ, ΟΥΛεριανον ΓΑΛΛΙηνιανον. Types— Mopsos with branch and tripod; Bust of Zeus; Eagle; Artemis huntress; Dionysiac mule carrying bow, quiver, and ivy-wreath; Herakles and lion; River-god Pyramos and nymph; Male and female figures with branches (ΔΩΡЄΛΙ); Three Graces; City-goddess holding altar of Mopsos; Athlete crowning himself; Prize crown on table; Altar and crab; Bridge over Pyramus (ΔΩΡЄΑ ΠΥΡΑΜΟC, see Aegeae); &c. The altar of Mopsos is a frequent symbol. Festivals, ΑΓΩΝ - -, ΟΙΚΟΥΜЄΝΙΚΟC.
Nagidus (Boz Yazi, between Anemurium and Posidium) began to coin on the Persic standard towards the end of the fifth century.
|Aphrodite enthroned, crowned by Eros, whom she supports on her r. hand.||ΝΑΓΙΔΙΚΟΝ or ΝΑΓΙΔ (retrograde)
Bearded Dionysos wearing himation,
standing, holding thyrsos and grapes;
incuse circle. |
|Aphrodite enthroned, Eros standing beside her.||ΝΑΓΙΔΕΩΝ Bearded Dionysos,
chlamys over shoulders, holding kantharos and thyrsos; incuse circle.
|Head of bearded Dionysos, wreathed with ivy.||ΝΑΓΙΔΕΩΝ or ΝΑΓΙΔΙΚΟΝ Head
of Aphrodite, hair in sphendone.
|Aphrodite enthroned, holding phiale over altar; behind, Eros crowning her.||ΝΑΓΙΔΕΩΝ Bearded Dionysos standing, wearing himation, holding thyrsos
and vine-branch with grapes.
|Aphrodite enthroned, holding phiale; behind her, crouching Eros.||ΝΑΓΙΔ Similar. |
|פרנבזו (Pharnabazu) in Aramaic. Head
[BMC Lyconia, Pl. XL. 10.]
|ΝΑΓΙΔΙΚΟΝ Aphrodite, wearing polos, on throne flanked by sphinxes, smelling flower, and holding phiale. [Cf. Aphrodisias, p. 718 f.]|
|Aphrodite on backless throne, holding phiale, crowned by flying Eros; below seat, mouse; in exergue, Ω.||ΝΑΓΙΔΕΩΝ Bearded Dionysos standing, wearing himation, holding
thyrsos and vine-branch with grapes;
letters in field. |
|Similar, but Aphrodite wears polos, throne has back; usually, flower growing before her; no letters.||ΝΑΓΙΔΙΚΟΝ As preceding; magistrate’s name ΤΩΝΔΩ or initials
(Fig. 321). |
Ninica Claudiopolis. See Kubitschek, Num. Zeit., xxxiv (1902), pp. 1-27; he would identify this city with the Claudiopolis at Mut (see above, Claudiopolis). The colony was probably founded by Domitian, and named after his deified wife (see Ramsay, Oesterr. Jahresh., Beibl., 1904, p. 76). The coinage is Colonial from Trajan to Maximus. Inscr., COL. IVL. AVG. FELI. NINIC. CLAVD., NINI. COL. CLAVDIOPOLI. &c., variously abbreviated and blundered. Types—Athena standing holding Nike; Dionysos on car drawn by panthers, led by Seilenos; Satyr with wine-skin; Bust of Tyche; Wolf and twins; Flaming altar; Founder with yoke of oxen, vexillum behind; Temple façade (tetrastyle); Two vexilla; &c. Counter-marks, Δ in circle, star, Nike, eagle.
Olba (Oura) was said to have been founded by Ajax, son of Teucer, who established there a famous temple of Zeus (site at Uzundja-Burdi, ‘tall castle’). The high priests in the time of Augustus and Tiberius ruled over not only Olba, but also Cennatis and Lalassis. The coinage begins about the end of the first century B.C. : Æ with inscr. ΟΛΒΕΩΝ. Types—Throne and Thunderbolt of Zeus Olbios. Then follow coins of the high-priests (Num. Chr., 1899, pp. 181-207) :—
Quasi-autonomous. Inscr., ΑΡΧΙΕΡΕΩΣ ΑΙΑΝΤΟΣ ΤΕΥΚΡΟΥ, rev. ΤΟΠΑΡΧΟΥ ΚΕΝΝΝΑΤ. ΛΑΛΑΣΣ. (ΑΡΧΙΕΡΕΩΣ sometimes on rev.) or ΑΙΑΝΤΟ. ΤΕΥΚΡΟ. and two monograms. Dates—Τ (= ετους) Α, Β and Ε Imperial of same dates with heads of Augustus and Tiberius; inscr., ΑΡΧΙΕΡΕΩΣ ΑΙΑΝΤΟΣ ΤΕΥΚΡΟΥ ΤΟΠΑΡΧΟΥ ΚΕΝΝΑΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΛΑΛΑΣΣΕΩΝ, and in year 5 also ΕΠΙ ΔΙΟΔΩ. Types—Head of Ajax as Hermes; Triskeles; Thunderbolt.
Inscr., ΜΑΡΚ. ΑΝΤΩΝΙΟΥ ΓΙΟΛΕΜΩΝΟΣ ΑΡΧΙΕΡΕΩΣ, rev. ΔΥΝΑΣΤΟΥ ΟΛΒΙΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΚΕΝΝΑΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΛΑΛΑΣΣΕΩΝ ΕΠΙ ΝΕΩΝΟΣ. Dates—Τ Ι and ΙΑ (magistrate’s name omitted in year 11). Types—Head of Polemon; Sacred throne (sometimes with triskeles symbol); Thunderbolt.
Between this and the time of Hadrian coins were struck at Olba in the name of the ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΛΑΛΑΣΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΚΕΝΝΑΤΩΝ by Polemon II of Pontus, circ. A. D 41-68 (types—Club and Harpa); also with the head of Domitian Caesar (type, Cornucopia). A coin of Galba, rev. ΒΑCΙΛΕΥC Μ. ΑΝΤ. ΠΟΛΕΜΩΝ, Athena standing, was also probably issued in Cilicia.
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Hadrian to Philip. Inscr., ΟΛΒЄΩΝ. sometimes also ΑΔΡΙΑΝΩΝ ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝΙΑΝΩΝ and ΜΗ. Κ(Ι)Η(τιδος); a coin of Geta has [ΜΗΤΡ.?] ΚЄΝΝ(ατων). Types—Head of Athena; Spear between caps of Dioskuri; Throne of Zeus; Hermes; Head of Herakles; Bust of City; Club; Crenellated tower; Eagle on thunderbolt; Bust of Selene; of Sarapis; River-god; ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ of M. Aurelius and L. Verus; Zeus seated; Dionysos; Selene in biga of bulls, stars in the field; Sarapis standing.
Philadelpheia in Cetis, in the Calycadnus valley. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Trajan to Maximinus. Inscr., ΦΙΛΑΔЄΛΦΕWΝ ΚΗΤΙΔΟΕ (ΚΙΗΤΙΔΟC or ΤΗC ΚΙΗΤΙΔΟC or ΚΙΗΤWΝ). Types—Bust of Athena; Two bunches of grapes on stalk; Zeus; Apollo; Demeter; Tyche; Eagle in temple.
Seleuceia ad Calycadnum (Selefke), founded by Seleucus Nicator, who transferred thither the people of Holmi. The coinage begins in the second century B.C. Autonomous Æ of two classes—(i) Without city-name: types—Bust of Aphrodite (?), rev. Five-leaved flower or branch, magistrates’ initials (Imhoof, Kl. M, ii, pp. 481, 482). (ii) With inscr. ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ or ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΩΙ ΚΑΛΥΚΑΔΝΩΙ : types—Bust of Athena of Holmi; Nike; Head of Apollo Sarpedonios; Forepart of horse; Bust of Artemis; Athena standing; Head of City; Club; Bust of Helios; magistrates’ names usually abbreviated, but among those in full are ΞΕΝΑΡΧΟΥ and ΑΘΗΝΑΙΟΥ, probably the Peripatetics (Strab., xiv. 670). AR tetradrachms of Antiochus VIII and Seleucus VI of Syria (B.C. 121-95) may also have been struck here (type, Athena standing). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Hadrian to Gallienus. Inscr., CЄΛЄΥΚЄΩΝ, usually with ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟC ΤΩ ΚΑΛΥΚΑΔΝΩ variously abbreviated (e.g. ΠΡ. ΚΑΔΝΩ); under Hadrian also ΤΗC ΙЄΡ. ΚΑΙ ΑC. ΑΥΤ.; later ЄΛЄΥΘЄΡΑC. Silver of Hadrian to Caracalla with C. Є. on later issues; Π Π in titles of Hadrian and Pius (cf. Tarsus, p. 734). Types—Bust of Athena; Owl; Athena on foot or in chariot, fighting giants (Z. f. N., xiii. 134f.); Busts of Apollo and Tyche confronted; Sacred laurel-branch; Zeus; Dionysos in car of panthers, accompanied by Seilenos; Infant Zeus and Korybantes; Busts of Apollo and Artemis; Aphrodite with mirror and two torch-holding Erotes; River-god Kalykadnos; Artemis huntress with tree and stag; Artemis with Hermes and sleeping figure; Bull, above, star in crescent; Europa on bull, with Eros and Okeanos ? (Imhoof, Kl. M., Pl. XVIII. 20); Tyche seated with river-god at feet; Bust of Tyche with bull above; Busts of Sarapis and Isis; Two Victories holding wreath on table.
Selinus (Selinti), on the coast of Selentis. It was a mint of Antiochus IV of Commagene, his queen Iotape, and their sons Epiphanes and Callinicus (A.D. 38-74). Inscr., CЄΛΙΝΟΥCΙΩΝ or CЄΛΙ; rev. types— Apollo with sceptre, phiale, and raven; Artemis huntress in long chiton. Imperial, Trajan to Philip. Inscr., CЄΛΙΝΟΥCΙWΝ, or ΝЄΡουιανων ΤΡΛΙανοπολιτων CЄΛΙ., or ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟ. CЄΛΙΝΟΥ., with or without ΤΗC ΙЄΡας. Types—Apollo as before; Artemis huntress; Two veiled goddesses; Trajan seated in temple inscribed ΘЄΟΥ ΤΡΑΙανου. Trajan died at Selinus.
Soli-Pompeiopolis, on the coast near Mezetlu, near the border between Cilicia Tracheia and Pedias, was probably of Rhodian origin, but also in some way connected with Athens. The coinage begins about B.C. 450 on the Persic standard.
|Archer, wearing bonnet with wing shaped cockade, kneeling, looking along arrow or bow-string.||ΣΟ or ΣΟΛΕΩΝ Grapes; magistrates ’
initials; incuse square.
AR Staters and Tetrobols
|Head of Athena in Athenian helmet, usually crested and adorned with griffin.||ΣΟΛΙ, ΣΟΛΙΟ, ΣΟΛΙΟΝ or ΣΟΛΙΚΟΝ Grapes; usually incuse square.
AR Distater (?), Staters, Obols, &c.
|Head of bearded Dionysos.
[Leake, Supp., p. 95.]
|Σ...ΟΝ Grapes. |
AR 60.5 grs.
|Head of archer in bonnet with cockade.||ΣΟ Grapes; usually in incuse square.
AR Obols, &c.
|ΣΟ and Teribazu in Aramaic. Baal standing with sceptre and eagle.||Ahura-mazda wearing polos, body terminated by mihr, holding wreath and
lotus-flower; incuse circle. |
|Head of bearded Herakles, lion-skin round neck.||ΣΟΛΕΩΝ or ΣΟΛΙΚΟΝ Conventional
head of Satrap in tiara. |
|Head of Athena in crested Corinthian helmet.||ΣΟΛΕΩΝ Grapes; magistrates’ names
(and, on staters, owl and cult-symbols). |
AR Staters, Obols, &c.
|Head of Athena in wreathed Athenian helmet.||ΣΟΛΕΩΝ Grapes; magistrates’ names.
In the time of Alexander or of his immediate successors, silver coins were struck for Soli with the facing head of Athena and seated Baal, mint-mark Σ (see Tarsus, p. 732); probably also Alexandrine tetradrachms with Σ (Müller, 1319-1329).
During the Seleucid period, until Tigranes destroyed Soli (soon after B.C. 83) there was a large coinage of AE; inscr., ΣΟΛΕΩΝ. Types— Aphrodite riding on bull; Bull-horned Dionysos; Rose; Cornucopia; Head of Artemis; of Athena; Athena seated; Athena hurling thunderbolt; Aegis with gorgoneion; Owl (inscr. ΑΘΕ); Head of Helios; of City; Caps of Dioskuri; Eagle. Monograms of magistrates.
Cn. Pompeius restored Soli in B.C. 66, from autumn of which year the era was reckoned. The coins (Æ) were at first inscr. ΠΟΜΓΙΗΙΑΝΩΝ (Head of Pompeius; Nike, see J. H. S., xviii. 166); this was soon changed to ΠΟΜΠΗΙΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ. Types—Head of Pompeius; Two bunches of grapes; Star; Athena standing, holding Nike. Magistrates’ names. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Nero to Volusian (magistrates' names to Domitian). Types as before; also Bust of Athena; Athena (sometimes with crescent at shoulders) holding Nike; Zeus seated; Apollo; Dionysos; Helios (figure or head of); Artemis huntress with stag's horns on head; Asklepios, Hygieia, and Telesphoros; Nike; Tyche with river-god at feet; Crescent moon; Fountain-nymph (ΠΗΓΗ CΟΥΝΙΑC) reclining; CЄΒΑCΤΩΝ ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ, of Marcus and Verus; Busts of Chrysippos and Aratos; Statue of Chrysippos (?). Large coinage in A. D. 163/4 for some special occasion. Mark of value ΑϚ (=6 assaria) on latest coins. Π(ατηρ) Π(ατριδος) in Imperial titles from Pius onwards.
Syedra (Sedra), between Coracesium and Iotape. Imperial, Tiberius to Gallienus. Inscr., CΥЄΔЄWΝ; title, CЄΜΝΗC ЄΝΔΟΞΟΤΕΡΑC. Types—Demeter with two torches; Apollo Sidetes with phiale and scepter; Aphrodite with Ares and Hermes; Aphrodite; Athena voting; Rape of Persephone; Hades with Demeter; Dionysos; Wrestlers (ΘЄΜΙC); Gymnasiarch’s oil-basin (ΓΥΜΝΑCΙΑΡΧΙ A, cf. Anazarbus and Colybrassus). Marks of value ΙΑ and Η on later coins.
Tarsus, on the Cydnus, the most important city in Cilicia, was in the time of Xenophon the capital of its kings, by whom the coins earlier than the time of Tiribazus must have been struck. The standard is Persic, the inscr. Aramaic and Greek.
With a history going back over 6,000 years, Tarsus has long been an important stop for traders and a focal point of many civilizations. During the Roman Empire, Tarsus was capital of the province of Cilicia, the scene of the first meeting between Mark Antony and Cleopatra, and the birthplace of Paul the Apostle.
|King of Persia stabbing lion.
[Maonald, Hunter Cat., ii, Pl. LX. 5.]
|ΤΕΡΣΙ and תרז (Tarz). King walking,
holding sceptre and ankh. Incuse
|King on horseback; beneath, ankh.
[Ibid., Pl. LX. 6.]
|Tarz Two soldiers standing confronted. Incuse square.|
|King on horseback, holding flower; in front, Tarz or חלך (ḥilik) = Κιλικιον.||Kneeling archer shooting, behind, ankh;
incuse square [Maonald, Hunter
Cat., ii, Pl. LX. 7]. |
|Forepart of Pegasos.||Id. [Imhoof, Monn. gr., Pl. G, 6].
AR Tetrob. and Triob.
|Lion attacking bull.||Tarz Ear of corn; incuse square.
|King on horseback; sometimes ankh.||Tarz Hoplite kneeling, defending himself with spear and shield; incuse
square or (later) circle.
AR Staters, Tetrobols.
During this period Tarsus was the chief mint of the satraps who ruled Cilicia or raised military forces there.
Tiribazus (B.C. 386-380) issued staters as at Issus, Mallus, and Soli, differentiated by Τ.
|Teribazu and Τ Baal standing, with sceptre and eagle.||Ahura-mazda, body terminated by mihr, holding wreath and lotus-flower.|
Pharnabazus (B.C. 379-374).
|Female head facing, with loose hair (copied from Arethusa of Kimon).||פרנבזו חלּּ (Pharnabazu ḥilik). Head of bearded Ares in helmet; symbol usually ankh.|
|Id. [Babelon, Invent. Wadd., Pl. XI. 25.]||ΚΙΛΙΚΙΑ ḥilik. Similar.|
|בעלתרז (Ba'altarz). Baal seated with sceptre.||Pharnabazu ḥilik. Head of Ares.|
|ḥilik. Head of young Herakles in lion skin three-quarters l.||ΤΕΡΣΙΚΟΝ Similar [BMC Lyconia, Pl. XXIX. 6].|
Some of these, which only bear the word ḥilik or Κιλικιον, were doubtless issued at other mints (those with ankh with double bar and Λ-shaped ansa perhaps at Issus). Of the same time are obols with facing female head and head of Ares, with ḥilik or uninscribed.
|Facing female head, as above.||תדנמו (Tadn̥mu). Head of Ares as above.
|Ba'altarz. Baal seated, with sceptre, ear of corn and grapes; thymiaterion beside him; the whole in circle of battlements.||Tadn̥mu. Archer seated, holding arrow;
beside him, bow; above, mihr [Revue
étud. anc. 1903, p. 248]. |
|Similar (Fig. 322).||Tadn̥mu and usually אנא (Ana).
Datames (?) in attitude of adoration
before the god Ana; between them,
thymiaterion; above, line of roof
with antefixa. |
Anonymous (circ. B.C. 350).
|Athena seated, with spear and shield;
behind, olive tree (cf. Mallus).
[BMC Lyconia, Pl. XL. 11.]
|ΤΕΡΣΙΚΟΝ Girl kneeling playing with astragali; behind, plant.|
|Young Herakles kneeling over club, strangling lion (as on Syracusan gold).||ΤΕΡΣΙΚΟΝ Head of Aphrodite wearing stephane [BMC Lyconia, Pl. XL. 12].|
Mazaeus (circ. B.C. 361-333). For nearly thirty years Mazaeus governed Cilicia, and from 350 onwards also northern Syria (Ebernahara, ‘the country beyond the Euphrates’). For his history and coinage see especially Six, Num. Chr., 1884, pp. 97 ff. From 333 to 328 he was governor of Babylon, see p. 816. His Cilician coins were mainly issued from Tarsus; even those bearing the initials Ι (ΙΣ), Μ, Σ (for Issus, Mallus, Soli) seem to have been actually struck there, as dies with different mint-marks are combined in ‘mules’. His type of the lion killing a stag is copied from the coins of Citium.
|Ba'altarz. Baal enthroned, with ear of corn, grapes, and sceptre; under throne, ankh, or symbol, or Aramaic letter.||מזדי (Mazdai). Lion killing stag; letters
usually in field. Incuse square on
earlier issues (Fig. 323). |
|Id. Under seat, letters.||Mazdai. Lion killing bull (emblem of
Tarsus); in field, letters or symbols.
|Id. In field, symbol.||Mazdai. Lion walking; in field, sometimes crescent and star. |
|Id. In field, letters. (Fig. 324.)||מודי זי על עברנהרא וחלך (Mazdai zi
‘al ‘Ebernahara vu Ḥilik) (‘Mazdai,
who is over Ebernahara and Cilicia’).
Two lines of turreted wall (Tarsus);
above, lion killing bull. |
[Babelon, Invent. Wadd., 4581.]
|Mazdai. Butting bull. |
Mazaeus also struck coins in Phoenicia (see Sidon, p. 796 infra); for his coinage after 333 see Babylon, p. 816 infra; for imitations of Athenian tetradrachms with his name see Athens (p. 377 supra). The place of Alexandrine tetradrachms at Tarsus and other Cilician mints was perhaps taken by coins of the following classes. They bear mint-marks Ι(ΙΣ), Μ, Σ, Τ or T, and the cost was probably therefore borne by Issus, Mallus, Soli, and Tarsus (see Num. Chron., 1902, p. 83).
|Ba'altarz. Baal enthroned; in field, ear of corn; under throne, mintmarks.||Lion killing bull above double city-wall; above, club. |
|Similar (no inscr.); under throne, mint-marks; symbols, helmet and ivy-leaf.||Bust of Athena Magarsis in three-crested helmet facing; in field, symbols or mint-marks. |
|Bust of Athena Magarsis in three-crested helmet facing.
[BMC Lyconia, Pl. XXXII. 4.]
|Thunderbolt on oval shield incurved at
sides; in field, star. |
|..תר (Tr..). Deity standing, himation over l. arm and lower limbs, holding wreath or branch, between two seated sphinxes.||Uncertain Aramaic inscr. Lion killing stag. [Imhoof, Kl. M., ii. p. 493, Pl. XIX. 6].|
Tarsus was probably also the chief mint of many small uninscribed AR coins (13.7 grs. and less) of the fourth century. Types—Baal seated; Eagle on ploughshare; Forepart of wolf; Bearded male head wearing stephane; Forepart of Pegasos; Head of Herakles facing, chin covered by lion’s scalp; Bearded head wearing turreted crown; Head of Triptolemos; Facing female head; &c.
Probably under Antiochus Epiphanes (B.C. 175-164) Tarsus received the name of ‘Αντιοχεια η προς τω Κυδνω, but the Æ coinage under this name was confined to a very short period. Inscr., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΙΡΟΣ ΤΩΙ ΚΥΔΝΩΙ. Types—Turreted head of City; Zeus seated; Tyche seated, river-god Kydnos at her feet; Sandan-Herakles on lion; Club in wreath; Cornucopia. The Seleucid kings from Alexander I (B.C. 150-145) to Antiochus IX (B.C. 116-95) struck tetradrachms and drachms at Tarsus, with the type of Herakles-Sandan standing on a horned and winged lion; on the tetradrachms he appears in a pyramidal structure, probably the pyre burned at the annual Tarsian festival πυρα. The autonomous coinage from circa B.C. 164 to Imperial times consists of AR Attic drachms and Æ. Inscr., ΤΑΡΣΕΩΝ. Types—Head or seated figure of City; Sandan (sometimes on his pyre); Zeus; Apollo; Club; Cornucopiae. Magistrates’ names abbreviated or in full.
Quasi-autonomous (to time of Commodus) and Imperial, Augustus to Salonina. Titles—ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ or ΤΗΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ, ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄΩC ΤΩΝ Γ. ЄΠΑΡΧЄΙΩΝ, Γ. ЄΠ. Π(ροκαθεζουενης), ЄΛ(ευθερας) ΠΟ(λεως ?) ΤΟΥ ЄΘΝΟΥC, Α. Μ. Κ. (πρωτης μεγιστης καλλιστης), ΝЄΩΚΟΡΟΥ (or -ΩΝ) under Antinoüs, ΔΙC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΟΥ under Commodus, and the following titles after Emperors : ΑΔΡΙΑΝΗC (or -ΩΝ), ΚΟΜΟΔΙΑΝΗC, CЄΟΥΗΡΙΑΝΗC, ΑΝΤΩΝЄΙΝΙΑΝΗC, ΑΝΤΩΝΙΑΝΗC, ΑΝΤΩΝЄΙΝΟΥΠΟΛ., ΜΑΚΡЄΙΝΙΑΝΗC, ΑΛЄΞΛΝΔΡ(ιανης). Inscriptions relating to the constitution: Γ. Β. (Septimius Severus to Gallienus) and Γ. Γ. (Gallienus and Valerian) mean γραμματι (or γνωμη) βουλης and γερουσιας; Γ. Π. Β. = γνωμη πρυτανεως βουλης (?). ΚΟΙΝΟΣ (or -ΝΟΙ) ΚΙΛΙΚΙΑC, ΚΟΙΝΟC ΤΩΝ ΤΡΙΩΝ ЄΠΑΡΧΙΩΝ. The three eparchies ΙCΑΥΡΙΑ, ΛΥΚΑΟΝΙΑ, ΚΙΛΙΚΙΛ. The provincial diet ЄΛЄΥΘЄΡΟΝ ΚΟΙΝΟΒΟΥΛΙΟΝ. ΚΙΛΙΚΑΡΧΙΑC (office of the Cilicarch). ЄΠΟΧΙΚΩΝ. ΔΗΜ(ιουργιας) ΑΛЄΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ. Festivals: ΑΔΡΙΑΝΙΑ, ΑΥ. ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝΙ. (?), ΑΥΓΟΥCΤΙΑ, ΚΟΜΟΔЄΙΟΕ, CЄΟΥΗΡЄΙΑ, ЄΠΙΝЄΙΚΙΑ, ΟΛΥΜΠΙΛ, ΑΚΤΙΑ, ΟΙΚΟΥΜЄΝΙΚΟC, ЄΝ ΚΟΔΡΙΓΑΙC(-ΓЄC) ΟΡΟΙC ΚΙΛΙΚΩΝ (probably games celebrated on the scene of the victory of Severus over Pescennius), ΚΟΡΑΙΑ, ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΑ, ΘЄΟΓΑΜΙΑ (?). Types—Apollo Lykeios (or ΠΑΤΡΩΟC) on omphalos holding two wolves, at his feet two bulls (alone, or held by Perseus, or with Perseus or Emperor sacrificing to him); Perseus (sometimes called ΒΟΗΘΟΥ) alone or with fisherman (see J. H. S., xviii. 172 f.); Herakles-Sandan on lion, sometimes on his pyre; Athena (ΠΑΛΛΑC ΑΘΗΝΗ) alone, or with Tyche and Nemesis, or in quadriga to front; Helmeted goddess riding on lion, crowned by Nike; Artemis with stag’s horns on head; Selene in biga of bulls; Aphrodite of Praxiteles; Judgment of Paris; Tripod-lebes of Antinous-cult (ΝЄΩΠΥΘΙΩ); Temple of Antinoüs (ΝЄΩΙΑΚΧΩ); Panther with thyrsos; Dionysos and Ariadne in biga of centaurs; Kybele; Helios; Asklepios and Hygieia; Asklepios and Herakles in temple; Herakles’ labors (Antaios, Lion, Bull, Hesperides, Stymphalian birds, Hydra); Kronos; Amphilochos standing, with boar; Sarapis; Three Graces; Triptolemos; Mithras sacrificing bull; Skylla; Tyche Panthea winged and helmeted; Tyche (ΤΥΧΗ), usually of Antiocheia type; Veiled female figure of the Eleutheron Koinoboulion sacrificing, or standing between temples; ΒΟΥΛΗ seated voting; ΔΗΜΟC seated; River-god ΚΥΔΝΟC; Tyche receiving the three eparchies (all veiled and turreted); Galley with CЄΙΤΟC or ΔΩΡЄΑ ΑΛЄΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ ΤΑ(ρσω), and Triptolemos in serpent-car with. ΔΩΡЄΑ CЄΙΤΟΥ ΑΠΟ ЄΓΥ(πτου) ΤΑΡCΩ. alluding to gifts of wheat from the Emperor (N. Chr., 1900, 96 f.); ΟΜΟΝΟΩ CЄΒΑCΤΩΝ of Marcus and Verus; Nike with shield inscr. ЄΙC ΑΙΩΝΑ ΤΟΥC ΚΥΡΙΟΥC; Crowns of the demiourgoi (office once held by Severus Alexander), and of the high priests of the Koinon, the latter decorated with busts of Emperors (Oesterr. Jahresh., ii. 245 f.); Temple of Imperial cultus (op. cit., vii, pp. 36 f.); Elephant carrying crown (ΟΜΑΚΚ — πρωτη μεγιστη καλλιστη, οροις Κιλικων ?); Three athletes crowning themselves; Lion killing bull; Eagle on harpa. From Hadrian onwards, Π(ατηρ) Π(ατριδος) usually in Emperors’ titles; from Philip I, ЄΥΤ(υχης) ЄΥC(εβης). Silver or billon from Tiberius to Macrinus at intervals; weights irregular.
Titiopolis, probably in the mountains between the Ermenek Su and the coast. Imperial, Hadrian to Geta. Inscr., ΤΙΤΙΟΠΟΑЄΙΤΩΝ; on one coin ΚΙ or ΚΗ (Κιητιδος ?). Regnal date ЄΤΟΥC Γ on coin of Verus. Types—Zeus seated with sceptre and cornucopia; Dionysos; Tyche.
Zephyrium-Hadrianopolis (Mersina). Autonomous Æ of first century B.C. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Hadrian to L. Verus. Inscr., ΖЄΦΥΡΙWΤWΝ which from Hadrian’s time ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟΠΟΛЄΙΤWΝ is prefixed; on a coin of Hadrian and Sabina also ЄΥCЄΒWΝ. Types— Two staves in saltire (large Χ ?); Turreted head of City; Zeus seated; Turreted goddess seated with sceptre, or holding Nike (?), with shield beside her; Athena seated holding Nike; Bust of Athena; Altar; Poseidon standing. Π(ατηρ) Π(ατριδος) on coins of Antonine period. Era B.C. 68-7 (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, p. 226).
|Turreted and veiled bust of City.
[BMC Lyconia, Pl. XL. 14.]
|ΕΛΑΙΟΥΣΙΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ Goddess standing, holding tiller or stylis; monograms; all
in wreath. |
AR Tetradrachm 239 grs.
To the same period belong Æ inscr. ΕΛΑΙΟΥΣΣΙΩΝ or ΕΛΑΙΟΥΣΙΩΝ. Types—Head of Zeus, rev. Nike; Bust of City turreted, rev. Hermes. Monograms or initials of magistrates. From B.C. 18/17 to A.D. 5/6 Elaeusa was the mint of Archelaus Philopatris of Cappadocia (infra, p. 752) for his AR drachms with his portrait, title ΚΤΙΣΤΗΣ, and club. In the same period were issued Æ coins in which the old name is eventually replaced by ΣΕΒΑΣΤΗΝΩΝ. Types—Head of City, rev. Nike. Somewhat later are coins with Nike and Club, and those on which ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ is added. Types as before, or Caduceus and Dolphin. Sebaste was a mint of Antiochus IV of Commagene and Iotape (A. D. 38-74); inscr., ΣΕΒΑΣΤΗΝΩΝ. Types —Head of Antiochus, Nude beardless figure on prow; Tyche; Iotape seated (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, p. 218). To the period from A. D. 74 to the time of Commodus Imhoof attributes silver Imperial coins usually assigned to Caesareia in Cappadocia. Types—Two clasped hands holding standard on prow, sometimes with ΟΜΟΝ. CΤΡΑΤ. (Concordia militum); Eleutheria standing with cap and sceptre (ЄΛЄVΘ. ΔΜΟΥ); Bust of Amazon; Club; Nike. (See, however, BMC Galatia, p. xxxvi, note *, and BMC Lycaonia, p. lxx, note 4.) Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Commodus to Valerian. Inscr., CЄΒΑCΤΗΝΩΝ, CЄΒΑCΤΗ ΝΑΥΑΡΧΙC, CЄΒΑCΤΗ ΙΕΡ(α) ΑC(υλος) ΑΥΤ(ονομος) ΝΑΥ(αρχις), sometimes also ЄΛЄΥΘЄΡΛ (Imhoof, Kl. M., ii, p. 442). Types—Athena spearing serpent-footed giant; Zeus seated; Asklepios, alone or with Telesphoros; Bust of young Dionysos; Veiled cultus-figure on globe, sometimes under arch. On the later coins occur the unexplained letters ΠCΡΔЄΤ or ΠΔCЄΡΤ.
The capital of the later kings of Cilicia was at Hieropolis-Castabala.
|Head of King diademed.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΤΑΡΚΟΝΔΙΜΟΤΟΥ ΦΙΛΑΝΤΩΝΙΟΥ Zeus seated holding
Philopator (either I, son of Tarcondimotus I, deposed B.C. 30; or II, son of Tarcondimotus II and grandson of Tarcondimotus I, died A.D. 17).
|Veiled and turreted head of Tyche of Hieropolis.||ΒΑCΙΛЄΩC ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟC Athena
standing, holding Nike. |
|Forepart of lion. [BMC Lyconia, p. cxxvii.]||Incuse square divided by single diagonal.
AR Staters 165 grs.
[N. Chr., 1888, p. 115. 15, Pl. V. 9.]
|Uncertain inscr. Man spearing lion;
Incuse square. |
AR Stater 163.6 grs.
Attributed to Issus by Six (N. Chr., loc. cit.).
|F Ram walking. [N. Chr., 1895, p. 197. 1, Pl. VII. 16.]||Dolphin and rosette; incuse square.
|Similar; above, ankh.
[N. Chr., 1895, Pl. VII. 17.]
|Club and olive-branch in saltire; incuse square.|
|Aramaic inscr.; goat kneeling.
[BMC Lyconia, p. 54. 17, Pl. IX. 11.]
|Owl facing, wings open; incuse square.
AR Stater 163.6 grs.
|Similar. [Maonald, Hunter Cat., p. 531. 4, Pl. LIX. 3; Z. f. N., xxiv, p. 130.]||Similar; incuse circle.
AR Stater and Tetrobol
|Winged goat kneeling, bird on crupper.
[BMC Lyconia, 54. 18, Pl. IX. 12.]
|Similar; on either side, ankh; incuse
AR Stater 165.6 grs.
|Aramaic inscr.; similar, but only one wing shown, and no bird. [Maonald, p. 531. 5, Pl. LIX. 4.]||Similar, but no symbols.
AR Stater 168.1 grs.
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CILICIA - Now part of Turkey, extending along the Mediterranean opposite Cyprus. It was formerly one of the most opulent provinces of the Roman Republic and is memorable as the scene of Cicero's pro-consulship.
The sestertius of Hadrian, bearing respectively the legends ADVENTUS AVG CILICIAE and RESTITVTORI CILICIAE, record the visit paid and allude to the benefits conferred by that emperor on the province. Of the former (viz, Adventus Augusti Ciliciae) the reverse type exhibits the emperor and a galeated female, who bears a vexillum, standing with an altar between them, and a victim ready for sacrifice. This typifies a general rejoicing on Hadrian's safe arrival in Cilicia. From the attire and attitude of the female, it is evident that the province was deemed warlike; but the Cilicians were despised by the Greeks as being prone to knavery, cruelty and mendacity - hence the proverb, "Cilix hand facile verum dicit." (Cilicia does not easily speak the truth.) --Capt. Smyth, Desc. Cat. p. 105.