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Bellinger, A.R. The Excavations at Dura-Europos, Final Report, Vol. 6: The Coins. (New Haven, 1949).
Bellinger, A. The Syrian Tetradrachms of Caracalla and Macrinus. ANSNS 3. (New York, 1940).
Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (1992 - ).
Butcher, K. Coinage in Roman Syria: Northern Syria, 64 BC - AD 253. RNS Special Pub. 34. (London, 2004).
Cohen, E. Dated Coins of Antiquity: A comprehensive catalogue of the coins and how their numbers came about. (Lancaster, PA, 2011).
Gardner, P. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum, The Seleucid Kings of Syria. (Forni reprint, 1963).
Hill, G.F. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum: Phoenicia. (London, 1910).
Houghton, A., C. Lorber, & O. Hoover. Seleucid Coins: A Comprehensive Catalog. (Lancaster, 2002 - 2008).
Houghton, A. Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton. ACNAC 4. (New York, 1983).
Hoover, O.D. Handbook of Syrian Coins, Royal and Civic Issues, Fourth to First Centuries BC. HGC 9. (Lancaster, PA, 2009).
Levante, E. Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum Switzerland I. Levante - Cilicia. (1986, and supplement).
Lindgren, H.C. and F.L. Kovacs. Ancient Bronze Coins of Asia Minor and the Levant. (1985).
Lindgren, H.C. Lindgren III: Ancient Greek Bronze Coins from the Lindgren Collection. (1993).
Kritt, B. The Seleucid Mint of Aï Khanoum, CNS 9. (Lancaster, PA, 2016).
McAlee, R. The Coins of Roman Antioch. (Lancaster, 2007).
Mørkholm, O. "Autonomous Tetradrachms of Laodicea" in ANSMN 28 (New York, 1983).
Newell, E.T. Late Seleucid Mints in Ake-Ptolemais and Damascus. ANSNNM 84 (1939).
Newell, E.T. The Coinage of the Eastern Seleucid Mints. From Seleucus I to Antiochus III. (New York, 1938).
Newell, E.T. The Coinage of the Western Seleucid Mints, From Seleucus I to Antiochus III. (New York, 1941).
Newell, E.T. The Seleucid Mint of Antioch. (Chicago, 1978).
Price, M.J. The Coinage of in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. (London, 1991).
Prieur, M. & K. Prieur. The Syro-Phoenician Tetradrachms and their fractions from 57 BC to AD 258. (Lancaster, PA, 2000).
Sawaya, Z. Histoire de Bérytos et d'Héliopolis d'après leurs monnaies : Ier siècle av. J.-C. - IIIe siècle apr. J.-C. (Beirut, 1999).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol. 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sear, D. Greek Imperial Coins and Their Values. (London, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Volume 7: Cyprus to India. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, München Staatlische Münzsammlung, Part 28: Syrien: Nicht-königliche Prägungen. (Berlin, 2001).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain, Volume IV, Fitzwilliam Museum, Leake and General Collections, Part 8: Syria - Nabataea. (London, 1971).(London, 1940-1971).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain XII, The Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow, Part 2: Roman Provincial Coins: Cyprus-Egypt. (Oxford, 2008).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Israel I, The Arnold Spaer Collection of Seleucid Coins. (London, 1998).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Schweiz II, Katalog der Sammlung Jean-Pierre Righetti im Bernischen Historischen Museum. (Bern, 1993).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).
Van Heesch, J. "The last civic coinages and the religious policy of Maximinus Daza (AD 312)" in NC 1993.
Waage, D. Antioch-on-the-Orontes, Vol. 4, Part 2: Greek, Roman, Byzantine and Crusaders' Coins. (Princeton, 1952).
Wroth, W. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Syria. (London, 1899).
Wruck, W. Die Syrische Provinzialprägung von Augustus bis Traian. (Stuttgart, 1931).
The coinage of the whole region between the Euphrates and the sea may be described by dividing it into districts in the order which Eckhel adopted:
|I. Commagene.||VII. Trachonitis.|
|II. Cyrrhestica.||VIII. Decapolis.|
|III. Chalcidice.||IX. Phoenicia.|
|IV. Palmyrene.||X. Galilaea.|
|V. Seleucis and Pieria.||XI. Samaria.|
|VI. Coele-Syria.||XII. Judaea.|
Throughout the whole of this vast extent of territory, bounded on the north by offshoots of the Taurus, on the north-east by the Euphrates, and on the east and south by the deserts of Arabia, the royal gold coinage of Persia probably passed current down to the age of Alexander the Great. In the latter half of the fifth century the Persian gold coinage was supplemented by the substantial silver money of the wealthy Phoenician cities of the sea-coast, governed for the most part by their own kings, who seem to have been more or less independent of the King of Persia. The coinage of these towns, Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos, inscribed with Phoenician characters, is regulated according to the standard, hence called Phoenician, of about 56 grs. to the drachm, or 224 grs. to the shekel. Aradus, on the other hand, the most northern town on the Phoenician coast, accommodated her money to the standard which prevailed in Cyprus and Cilicia, striking shekels of about 168 grs. equivalent to three-quarters of the Tyrian and Sidonian shekel.
On the Macedonian conquest all the old coinages, both Persian and Phoenician, were abolished, except at Tyre, and mints were set up by Alexander or his immediate successors at all the chief coast-towns of Phoenicia and Palestine, viz. Marathos, Aradus, Sidon, Tyre, Ace, Joppa, Ascalon, and Gaza, as well as at some of the chief cities of the interior. This Alexandrine coinage lasted down to about B.C. 266, when Ptolemy Philadelphus, who had obtained possession of Phoenicia, established mints of his own at the chief cities along the coasts of Palestine and Phoenicia; the issues of the various mints being distinguished by mono- grams. The Ptolemaic coinage in Phoenicia was superseded early in the second century B.C. by the Seleucid coinage; but it is observable that, although the new currency consisted partly of coins of the Attic standard with ordinary Seleucid types, it also included a series of issues which in general appearance and weight were closely modeled upon the previous Ptolemaic coinage (see supra, p. 765). This shows that under the Seleucid rule the commercial susceptibilities of the Phoenician cities were carefully consulted. Later still, complete freedom and independence were accorded to a great number of them, as is evident from the dated autonomous issues of Byblos, Marathus, Aradus, Sidon, Tripolis, Tyre, Ace, Ascalon, Jerusalem, &c., some of them continuing to strike their own silver money even in Imperial times. Although nearly all the Syrian and Phoenician coins bear dates, the eras from which they reckon are not always the same.
|Head of king, diademed and radiate.|
[Babelon Rois, p. 217, Pl. XXX. 1.]
|ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΑΜΟΥ ΘΕΟΣΕΒΟΥΣ ΚΑΙ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ in ex. ΓΛ Nike advancing. [Hunter].|
|Head of king in pointed head-dress.|
[Hunter Cat., Pl. LXX. 20.]
|Same inscription. Thyrsos between two interlaced cornucopias.|
|Head of king in pointed head-dress.|
[BMC Galatia, p. 104; Babelon Rois, Pl. XXX. 2.]
|ΒΑCΙΛΕΩC ΜΙΘΡΑΔΑΤΟΥ ΚΑΛΛΙ- ΝΙΚΟΥ Athena standing, holding Nike.|
|Eagle with palm.|
[Babelon Rois, p. 217, No. 4.]
|Same inscription. Caduceus. [Paris]|
|Eagle with palm.|
[Babelon Rois, p. 218, No. 5.]
|Same inscription. Palm. [Paris].|
Mithradates Philhellen Philoromaios, circ. B.C. 92 (?). Son of Mithradates I Callinicus (?).
|Head of king in pointed head-dress.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩ(ς) ΜΙΘΡΙΔ ΦΙΛΟ[ρω- μαιου ?]. Club. Æ Size .7. [Brit. Mus.; Berlin.]|
Antiochus I (Theos), circ. B.C. 69-38 (or 31 ?). Son of Mithradates Callinicus by Laodice Thea Philadelphus, daughter of Antiochus VIII, Grypus, of Syria. Antiochus I struck the following bronze coin :
|Bust of king in Armenian tiara on which star between two eagles (cf. tiara of Tigranes).||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ Lion walking.|
On a height of Mount Taurus, now the tumulus of Nemroud Dagh, Antiochus established a sacred precinct and royal mausoleum (BMC Galatia, p. xliv). On the Nemroud Dagh reliefs he wears an Armenian tiara ornamented with a lion. Another relief shows a star-spangled lion, Antiochus having been born under the zodiacal sign of the Lion.
The successor of Antiochus I was a king, probably his son, named Mithradates, circ. B.C. 31. Reinach (p. 245) supposes the following bronze at Berlin and Paris (Invent. Wadd., p. 447) to have been issued by Antiochus I and Mithradates in conjunction:obv. [ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ] ΑΝ- ΤΙΟΧΟΥ Bust of Antiochus in tiara, rev. ΜΙΘΡΑΔΑ[ΤΟΥ] Humped bull, rushing.
Two or three kings followed Mithradates in rapid succession. In B.C. 20 Augustus placed upon the throne another Mithradates, who was succeeded by his son (or brother) Antiochus III. On the death of this Antiochus in A.D. 17, Commagene became a Roman province, but in 38 Caligula restored the kingdom for the benefit of his friend Antiochus IV, son of Antiochus III.
Antiochus IV of Commagene (Epiphanes), A.D. 38-72. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΜΕΓ[ΑΣ] ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΣ ΕΠΙΦΑ[ΝΗΣ]; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΜΕΓΑΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΣ; ΒΑ- ΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΣ.
|Head of king diademed.||ΚΟΜΜΑΓΗΝΩΝ Scorpion within laurel-wreath.|
|Id.||ΚΟΜΜΑΓΗΝΩΝ Capricorn within laurel-wreath.|
|Id.||ΚΟΜΜΑΓΗΝΩΝ Two cornucopias.|
The Scorpion was the zodiacal sign under which Commagene stood. Cilicia formed part of the kingdom of this ruler, who issued money at Anemurium, Celenderis, Corycus, Sebaste, Lacanatis, and Cetis. He also struck coins in Lycaonia (BMC Galatia, p. xlvi, p. 108).
|ΒΑΙCΙΛΙCCΑ ΙΩΤΑΠΗ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛ- ΦΟC Bust of Iotape.||ΚΟΜΜΑΓΗΝΩΝ Scorpion.|
|ΒΑCΙΛЄΩC ΥΙΟΙ Epiphanes and Callinicus on horseback.||ΚΟΜΜΑΓΗΝΩΝ Capricorn.|
|ΒΑCΙΛЄΩC ΥΙΟΙ Anchor between two crossed cornucopias, each containing a youthful head (Epiphanes and Callinicus).|| Armenian tiara, ornamented with scorpion: laurel- wreath.|
|ΒΑCΙΛЄΥC ΜЄΓΑC ЄΠΙΦΑΝΗC Head of Epiphanes. CЄΛΙ (Selinus).||ΒΑCΙΛЄΥC ΜЄΓΑC ΚΑΛΛΙΝΙΚΟC Head of Callinicus. Paris. [Cf. BMC Galatia, p. xlvii.]|
Commagene in genere. Bronze coins of first century A.D. (? circ. A.D. 41, Rev. des études gr., 1899, p. 402), struck probably at Samosata (BMC Galatia, p. xlviii): Capricorn, rev. Scorpion. Capricorn, rev. ΚΟΜΜΑΓΗΝΩΝ Armenian tiara. ΠΙΣΤΙΣ, Two hands clasped holding caduceus, rev. ΚΟΜΜΑΓΗΝΩΝ, Anchor.
Germanicia Caesareia (Marash). Imperial, M. Aurelius to Commodus. Inscr., ΚΑΙCΑΡ. ΓЄΡΜΑΝΙΚЄWΝ ΚΟ; ΚΑΙC. ΓЄΡΜΑ. ΚΟΜ. Types City seated, with river-god swimming at her feet; Inscr. in laurel-wreath. (Contrast the coins of Caesareia Germanica in Bithynia.)
Samosata (Samsat), on the Euphrates, the capital of the kings of Commagene. Autonomous bronze of the period of the Commagenian kings (Antiochus I-IV). Inscr., CΑΜΟCΑΤW; CΑΜΟCΑΤΩ ΠΟΛΕΩC. TypesZeus; Lion; City seated on rock; Eagle. Imperial, Hadrian to Philip jun. Inscr., ΦΛΑ. CΑΜΟ. ΜΗΤΡΟ. ΚΟΜ. (i.e. Flavia Samosata Metropolis Commagenes); Φ. CΑΜΟC. ΙЄΡ. ΑCΥ. ΑΥΤΟΝΟ. ΜΗΤΡ. ΚΟΜ.; CΑΜΟCΑΤЄΩΝ. Usual typeCity seated; at her feet, river-god Euphrates or running Pegasos. Era dates from autumn of A.D. 71 (BMC Galatia, p. 117 n.).
Zeugma, on the right bank of the Euphrates, opposite Apameia (Birejik), both cities founded by Seleucus I and connected by a bridge of boats. Imperial, Trajan to Philip jun. Inscr., ΖЄΥΓΜΑΤЄΩΝ. TypesTetrastyle temple with peribolos encircling the sacred grove (BMC Galatia, p. li), sometimes with capricorn in ex.; Inscr. in laurel-wreath.Silver coin of Caracalla, rev. Eagle and ΖЄV (Antioch type). The numerals that appear on the Imperial Æ of Zeugma and other Syrian towns probably indicate the month of issue: see Macdonald, N. C., 1903, p. 105. Dieudonné (Journ. int., 1907, pp. 273 ff.) has, however, suggested that they indicate the numbers of the dies.
Beroea, now Aleppo (Haleb). Imperial bronze with or without heads of Emperors, Trajan to Antoninus Pius. Rev. ΒЄΡΟΙΑΙWΝ within wreath. Also AR of Macrinus, rev. Eagle (Antioch type), ΒΕ and fantastic bird. (BMC Galatia, p. 132.)
Cyrrhus. Regal bronze of Alexander I, Bala, of Syria (q. v.). Inscr., ΚΥΡΡΗCΤΩΝ, rev. Zeus standing with wreath, also rev. Athena standing holding Nike BMC Galatia, p. lii). Imperial, Trajan to Philip jun. Inscr., ΚΥΡΡΗCΤΩΝ, rev. ΔΙΟC ΚΑΤΑΙΒΑΤΟΥ (or ΚΑΤЄΒΑΤΟΥ), Zeus Kataibates seated on rock holding his thunderbolt and sceptre, before him, eagle. Also Temple containing his statue. This Zeus had altars at Olympia, Athens, &c.; rocks and places struck by lightning were regarded as sacred to him (BMC Galatia, p. lii). Also rev. Inscr. in laurel-wreath. On some later coins, symbol, ram.
Hieropolis (Membij). The ancient name Bambyce was changed to Hieropolis by Seleucus Nicator, who built a new temple for Atargatis (Astarte), the great goddess of the city (cf. the treatise De dea Syria). The following Attic didrachms with Aramaic inscriptions have been attributed (BMC Galatia, p. liii) to Bambyce :(α) Coins of the sacerdotal dynasty of Abd-Hadad, circ. B.C. 332: Bust of Atargatis, rev. inscr., Abd-Hadad, King and driver in chariot; Bust of Atargatis (with name inscribed), rev. Abd-Hadad, Abd-Hadad standing in temple. (β) Coins with name'Alexander [the Great ?]. TypesBust of Atargatis, rev. Lion devouring bull; Bust of Atargatis facing, rev. King and driver in chariot; Baal enthroned, rev. Atargatis riding on lion; Warrior on horse, rev. Lion walking, in front, bird perched on flower.
In the second century B.C. there are bronze coins of Antiochus IV of Syria (q. v.), rev. ΙЄΡΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ, Zeus standing holding wreath. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Trajan to Philip jun. Inscr., ΙЄΡΟ- ΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ. Types (often accompanied by ΘЄΑC CΥΡΙΑC)Atargatis riding on lion or enthroned between two lions; Temple, within which, Roman standard, on one side of the temple, Baal Kevan seated between two oxen, on the other, Atargatis seated between two lions, inscr., ΘЄΟΙ CΥΡΙΑC (Imhoof, Gr. M., p. 759, No. 773, cf. No. 772). Also silver (Antioch class) of Domna, Caracalla (symbol, lion), Macrinus (symbol, lion), and Diadumenian. Also bronze of Imperial times dated from Seleucid Era. The inscr. ΘЄΑC CΥΡΙΑC, which frequently appears within a laurel- wreath and without any type, probably indicates the Festival in connexion with which the coins bearing it were issued.
Chalcis (Kinnesrin), near Beroea (Aleppo). ImperialTrajan to L. Verus. Inscr., ΦΛ. ΧΑΛΚΙΔЄWΝ. TypesLaurel-wreath; Standing figure radiate holding palm-branch, spear, and shield, with inscr. ΗΛΙΟ- CЄΙΡΟC, Hunter Cat., Pl. LXXI. 27. Date ΚЄ (25) on coins of Trajan and of Hadrian = A.D. 117, from era beginning A.D. 92.
Palmyra struck small bronze coins without the names or heads of Emperors. These were probably issued from the first century A.D. till the time of Sept. Severus and his family. Inscr., when present, ΠΑΛ- ΜVΡΑ. TypesPalm-tree; Bearded male head in modius, radiate = the Malachbelos of Palmyra (?); Female figure (Atargatis ?) on lion; Lion and crescent; Head of Tyche of Palmyra; and other types described by De Saulcy (see BMC Galatia, pp. lvi-lviii). For coins with the heads of Zenobia and Vaballathus see infra, Egypt under the Romans.
Tetrapolis of Seleucis. The four cities of Antiocheia, Seleuceia, Apameia, and Laodiceia, all founded by Seleucus I, used a joint bronze coinage during part of the second century B.C., beginning B.C. 149. Inscr., ΑΔΕΛΦΩΝ ΔΗΜΩΝ (cf. Strabo, xvi, p. 749 αιπερ και ελεγοντο αλληλων αδελφαι δια την ομονοιαν). TypesHead of Zeus, rev. Fulmen; Head of Apollo, rev. Tripod; Bearded heads (? Demoi of Antiocheia and Seleuceia), rev. Tyche crowning the inscription, or rev. Zeus seated. Dates according to the Seleucid Era. Mint, apparently Seleuceia (Hunter Cat., iii. p. 141).
Antiocheia ad Orontem, on the right bank of the Orontes, about twenty miles from its mouth, was the capital of the Seleucid Empire, and one of the most splendid cities of the ancient world. It was a mint-place for the regal coinage of the kings from the time of Antiochus IV or earlier. In the second century B.C. it shared in the Tetrapolis coinage (see above), and during the first century B.C. issued bronze coins dated according to (i) the Seleucid Era, B.C. 312, (ii) the Caesarian (autumn, B.C. 49), or, possibly, the Pompeian (B.C. 64). Inscr., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΜΗ- ΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ, &c. Typesobv. Head of Zeus, or of Tyche of Antioch; rev. Zeus seated holding Nike; Tripod; Tyche standing with rudder; Poppy-head with ears of corn. There are silver coins (weight 240-200 grs.) of M. Antonius and Cleopatra, with portrait- heads: Cleopatra, ΒΑCΙΛΙCCΑ ΚΛЄΟΠΑΤΡΑ ΘЄΑ ΝЄWΤЄΡΑ, wears a profusion of pearls (BMC Galatia, p. 158). Imperial, Augustus to Valerian. Silver and bronze. Like Alexandreia in Egypt and Caesareia in Cappadocia, Antioch was an important Roman mint, whence the issue of silver coins and the Roman character of the types. Antioch was the principal mint for Syria, but Imhoof-Blumer has shown (Gr. M., p. 758; Revue Suisse, viii. pp. 40 f.) that about the time of Caracalla many silver and billon coins of Antiochene types and fabric, but with special symbols, were issued at various mints, chiefly in Syria and Phoenicia, e. g. Hieropolis in Cyrrhestica, Beroea, Zeugma, Aradus, Berytus, Sidon, Tripolis, Tyre, Gaza.
I. SILVER. Tetradrachms weighing at first 236 to 220 grains. From the time of Caracalla the silver deteriorates, weight 220 to 200 grains or less. Didrachms and drachms under Nero. The tetradrachm was tariffed as equivalent to three Roman denarii (BMC Galatia, p. lxiii). Usual inscr., ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ЄΞ (or ЄΞΟΥCΙΑC) ΥΠΑΤΟC ΤΟ Β (Γ, Δ, &c.)=Trib. Pot. Cos. ii (iii, iv, &c.). Coins of Augustus have ΕΤΟΥΣ ΝΙΚΗΣ, with dates of the Era of Actium, B.C. 31; also ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ, with double dates of the Actian and Caesarian Eras (B.C. 31 and B.C. 49). ΕΤΟΥΣ ΝΕΟΥ ΙΕΡΟΥ occurs, Galba to Nerva (Pick, Z. f. N., xiv. 331). On coins of Geta, VΠΑΤΟC ΑΠΟΔЄΔЄΙΓμενοσ=Consul designatus. On coins of the Philips, MONeta VRBica or ΑΝΤΙΟΧΙΑ are found. Usual type, Eagle. The type of the Tyche of Antioch seated on a rock with the river-god Orontes swimming at her feet (Fig. 343) occurs under Augustus and in some later reigns. It is found still earlier on the AR of Tigranes, q. v. These coins reproduce the group of Tyche and Orontes made by Eutychides of Sicyon, a pupil of Lysippus, and set up at Antioch soon after the foundation of the city by Seleucus I in B.C. 300. The marble statue in the Vatican is one of the best reproductions of this group (BMC Galatia, pp. lxi f.).
II. BRONZE. (α) Without heads of emperors. First and second century A.D., some dated from Actian Era, B.C. 31, but most from the Caesarian Era, autumn, B.C. 49, which is also found in class (β). Inscr., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ, and names of the Legati of Syria, also ΑΝ- ΤΙΟΧЄWΝ ΤΗC ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄWC. Types referring to Zeus, Artemis, Apollo; also Tyche and Orontes group; Running ram looking back with crescent and star above it (BMC Galatia, p. lix); Boule (?) dropping pebble into urn (ib., Pl. XIX. 11); Tripod with human heads (Pl. XX. 8). On this quasi-autonomous coinage see Macdonald in N. C., 1904, pp. 105 f., where it is shown that the most remark- able group belongs to the year A.D. 129, when Hadrian visited Antioch.(β) Imperial. Inscr., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ; ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ. From time of Elagabalus, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟ. ΚΟΛΩΝ. Types Commonly the letters SC (Senatus consulto) within a laurel-wreath; also, Crown of the αρχιερευς, inscr., ΑΡΧΙΕΡΑΤΙΚΟΝ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΙΣ (BMC Galatia, p. 167); Laurel-wreath encircling name of Legatus of Syria; Bust of the Tyche of Antioch, above, running ram; Tyche and Orontes, sometimes in shrine. On the coins from Domitian to Caracalla various numerals appear, see Zeugma, supra, p. 777. They probably indicate the month of the issue, or possibly the die-number. Æ coins of Trajan, rev. ΚΟΙΝΟΝ CΥΡΙΑC, Bust of Tyche of city, were doubtless minted at Antioch (BMC Galatia, p. xliii).
Antiocheni ad Daphnen. See supra, p. 763, under Antiochus IV.
Apameia (Kul'at el-Mudîk), on the Orontes or an affluent (the Axius), originally called Pharnake and then Pella. It was renamed by Seleucus I in honor of his wife Apame. It was a regal mint-place of Antiochus IV and later Syrian kings (Inscr., ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΩΙ ΑΞΙΩΙ and ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ), and shared in the Tetrapolis coinage (p. 778, supra). Autonomous Æ, second and first centuries B.C., with dates of Seleucid Era, B.C. 312: cf. BMC Galatia, p. lxiv, and Hunter Cat., iii. p. 191. Inscr., ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ, ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ, ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ. Types relate to Zeus, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Dionysos, Nike. Elephant as rev. type. BMC Galatia, p. 233, No. 3, &c.; also rev. Warrior advancing, Ib. No. 1. Imperial. Imhoof, N. Z., xxxiii, p. 5, attributes the following Æ to Apameia in the time of Claudius :Head of Zeus, rev. ΚΛΑΥΔ[ΙЄWΝ] ΑΠ[ΑΜ]ЄWΝ, Goddess of city seated, hand resting on shield, at feet, Orontes (Axius) (Hunter Cat., iii. Pl. LXXIII. 28). Also with the name Claudia only :obv. ΚΛΑΥΔΙЄWΝ, Head of Helios; rev. ΚΛΑΥΔΙЄWΝ, Head of Selene (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 236).
|Female head.||ΒΑΛΑΝΕΩΝ CΥ[ριασ] Zeus seated holding Nike. Date'104 = B.C. 209/8.|
|Head of City. [Fox, Engr., ii. p. 30.]||ΒΑΛΑΝΕΩΤΩΝ CΥ Nike standing. Date'104 = B.C. 209/8.|
Emisa (Homs), on the Orontes, celebrated for its temple of Elagabal, the Syrian divinity identified by the Romans with Sol and Jupiter. Imperial, Antoninus Pius to Uranius Antoninus. Inscr., ЄΜΙCΗΝΩΝ, and from Caracallas time, ЄΜΙCΩΝ ΚΟΛΩΝΙΑC, or ΜΗΤΡΟ. ΚΟΛ. ЄΜΙCΩΝ. Dates of Seleucid Era. TypesEagle standing on the black conical stone of Elagabal; Great altar of Elagabal richly decorated (J. Domna); Temple of Elagabal, within which the sacred stone, sur- rounded by a balustrade and shaded by two parasols (BMC Galatia, p. 239, Caracalla and Elagabalus). (This stone, transported to Rome by Elagabalus, priest of the god of Emisa, is shown on the Roman coins of that Emperor and also on those of Uranius Antoninus.) Games ΗΛΙΑ, ΠVΘΙΑ. Silver of Uranius Antoninus with Antiochene eagle- type. Lenormant (L'Alphabet phénicien, ii. p. 4) attributes to Emisa during Imperial times the following Æ, modelled on AR of Antioch : Obv. Dabel Malka (in Estrangelo characters), Bust of radiate Sun-god. Rev. S. C, and Eagle within wreath. On the coinage of Emisa, see, further, Dieudonné in Rev. Num., 1906, p. 132 f.
Epiphaneia, on the Orontes, the Hamath of the Old Testament, received its Greek name from Antiochus IV, Epiphanes. Autonomous Æ of second century B.C. Inscr., ΕΠΙΦΑΝΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥ- ΛΟΥ. TypesHead of Tyche of city, rev. Zeus seated, holding Nike; Bust of Athena, rev. Apollo standing. Some with dates (of era of Aradus ?) as at Paltus.
Gabala (Jebeleh), south of Laodiceia ad Mare. Inscr., ΓΑΒΑΛΕΩΝ. Autonomous Æ of first century B.C.; obv. Head of Helios; rev. Fore- part of galley and date ΗΚ; obv. Bearded head, rev. Crab and crescent (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 236; BMC Galatia, p. 243). ImperialAugustus to Macrinus (or later ?). Era begins B.C. 47. Types chiefly relate to a Syrian goddess (Astarte or Aphrodite ?), who appears seated holding flower, poppy-head, &c. Also Veiled cultus-statue of the same goddess, accompanied by two sphinxes and crescent and star. Also Athena; Owl and sphinx (BMC Galatia, p. 244; cf. N. Z., xxxiii. p. 6); &c.
Laodiceia ad Mare (Latakiyeh), refounded by Seleucus I and named after his mother Laodice, was an important and well-built city of Syria with an excellent harbor. Second century B.C. Inscr., ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ (or ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ) ΘΑΛΑΣΣΗΙ. Coins of the Seleucid kings and autonomous Æ, obv. Head of the Tyche of Laodiceia, rev. Nike. Also coins of the Tetrapolis (p. 778, supra). First century B.C. AR tetra- drachms, weight 230-220 grains., obv. Bust of the Tyche, veiled and turreted, rev. Zeus seated holding Nike, all in wreath. Also AR Drachm (56-60 grains) with obv. Bust of Tyche, rev. ΛΑ ΘΕ Aplustre (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 237). Æ, Head of Zeus, rev. Tripod with lebes; Radiate head (Helios?), rev. Artemis huntress; Head of Artemis, rev. Boars head (cf. BMC Galatia, p. lxvii); Head of Dionysos, rev. Pharos (ib., p. 250, No. 24). Inscr., ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΝΟ- ΜΟΥ, and after B.C. 47 (when Julius Caesar visited Syria and conferred various honors on the cities), ΙΟΥΛΙΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕΩΝ.
Imperial and Colonial, Augustus to Trebonianus Gallus (or Valerian?). (α) Without name of emperor. Æ first and second century A.D. Inscr., ΙΟΥΛΙЄWΝ ΤWΝ ΚΑΙ ΛΑΟΔΙΚЄWΝ. Bust of Athena, rev. Bust of Sarapis. (β) With name of Emperor. Inscr., ΙΟΥΛΙΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕΩΝ; under Sept. Severus, ΙΟΥΛ·ΛΑΟΔΙ·CЄΟV·ΜΗΤΡΟ- ΠΟΛЄWC. From time of Caracalla, inscr., chiefly in Latin, COL. LAOD. METROPOLEOS or LAVDICEON. Types chiefly relate to the Tyche of Laodiceia, whose head is sometimes wreathed with bunches of grapes, the vineyards of the neighborhood being famous (Strabo, xvi. p. 752). The Tyche seated, with river-god at feet, and four Cities standing before her. Also, Two Wrestlers; Two Centaurs supporting agonistic crown; Modius and inscr., AETERNVM BENEFICIVM (an Imperial benefaction of corn to the city: N. C., 1900, p. 100); Armed female figure standing between two stags, probably reproducing the old statue of Artemis Brauronia that Seleucus I brought from Susa to Laodiceia, where it was in existence in the time of Pausanias (BMC Galatia, p. lxviii). There are AR tetradrachms of Augustus and later emperors, rev. Bust of Tyche. Era, Caesarian. B.C. 48. GamesΑΝΤΟΝΙΝΙ- ΑΝΑ, ΡVΤΗΙΑ (BMC Galatia, p. 259).
Larissa (Kul'at es-Seijâr), on the Orontes. Autonomous Æ of first century B.C. Inscr., ΛΑΡΙΣΑΙΩΝ ΤΗΣ. ΙΕΡΑΣ. TypesHead of Zeus, rev. Throne of Zeus; Head of City, rev. Horse walking (BMC Galatia, p. lxviii f.).
Nicopolis Seleucidis (BMC Galatia, p. lxix). Imperial, Com- modus to Philip. Inscr., ΝЄΙΚΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ ΤΗC CЄΛЄΥΚΙΔΟC Τ. ΙЄΡΑC; ΝЄΙΚΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ CЄΛЄΥΚΙΔΟC. TypesWreath; Nemesis in shrine; Artemis (?) and nymph; beneath, river-god, above, Eros flying with torch.
Paltus (Baldeh), between Gabala and Balanaea. Imperial, Septimius Severus to Herenenius Etruscus. Inscr., ΠΑΛΤΗΝΩΝ. TypesDioskuri; Athena; Nike; Bust of J. Domna (?) as Tyche. Era begins in autumn of B.C. 259 or 258 (Imhoof, Rev. Suisse, viii. p. 44 f.; BMC Galatia, p. lxx).
Raphanea (Rafniyeh), south-west of Epiphaneia (Hamah). Imperial, Caracalla to Severus Alexander. Inscr., ΡЄΦΑΝЄΩΤΩΝ. Chief type Male figure (Genius of the city ?), seated or standing, holding phiale and cornucopia; in front, bull; on either side, eagle.
Rhosus, on the Gulf of Issus. Autonomous Æ, second and first centuries B.C. Chief typeObv. Head of the Tyche of Rhosus, rev. ΡΩΣΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙЄΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ. Syrian divinity (Hadad ?) horned standing between two recumbent bulls (BMC Galatia, p. lxx); cf. similar types described under Dium in Decapolis infra. Also Head of Zeus, rev. ΡΩΣЄΩΝ ΙЄΡΑΣ, Bust of the Tyche. Imperial, Commodus to Caracalla. Inscr., ΡΩCЄΩΝ ΙЄΡΑC, Bust of Artemis or Selene, &c. Era begins B.C. 39 (Macdonald, Journ. Internat., 1903, p. 47).
Seleuceia Pieria (Seleukiyeh), the port of Antioch. Founded by Seleucus I, it was a mint of the Syrian kings in the second century B.C. (inscr. on Æ, ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΕΜ ΠΙΕΡΙΑΙ). Autonomous AR of second and first century B.C. :
|Bust of Tyche of Seleuceia.||ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ Thunderbolt (with fillet attached) on cushion placed on stool.|
AR Tetrad. 230-215 grs.
|Id.||ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ Thunderbolt.|
AR Drachm; also 1/2Drachm with rev. Nike.
|Head of Zeus. [Z. f. N., iii. 350.]||ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ Thunderbolt.|
Also Æ of second century. Inscr., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ; ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΕΜ ΓΙΙΕΡΙΑΙ; ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ. TypesHead of Zeus, rev. Thunderbolt; Head of Apollo, rev. Tripod; Head of Zeus, rev. Three naked Kuretes (Hirsch, Auct. Cat., xiii. 4115). Also Æ of the Tetrapolis, see supra, p. 778. ErasOn the Æ, Seleucid; on the AR are years probably reckoned from the era of the autonomy of the town, beginning B.C. 108 (or 109).
Imperial, Augustus to Severus Alexander. (Tetradrachms were struck under Augustus, and there are also quasi-autonomous Æ of the second century.) Inscr., usually CЄΛЄΥΚЄΩΝ ΠΙЄΡΙΑC, also CЄΛЄΥ- ΚЄΩΝ ΤΗC ΙЄΡΑC ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ. TypesThunderbolt on stool or on roof of shrine, each type sometimes with inscr. ΖЄΥC ΚЄΡΑΥ- ΝΙΟC; Sacred stone with shrine, which is surmounted by eagle, or within temple, generally with inscr. ΖЄΥC ΚΑCΙΟC. EraActian (B.C. 31); also (on coin of Augustus) the era of Seleuceia (B.C. 108 or 109). The types (BMC Galatia, p. lxxi) of this city mainly relate to Zeus Keraunios and to Zeus Kasios, the latter a Semitic divinity identified with Zeus and honored with annual festivals on Mount Kasios, south of Seleuceia. The thunderbolt was a cultus-object of Zeus Keraunos, and, according to one account, was connected with the foundation of the city; cf. Appian, Syr. 58 φασι δε αυτω τας Σελευκειας οικιζοντι, την μεν επι τη θαλασση, διοσημλαν ηγησασθαι κεραυνου και δια τουτο θεον αυτοις κεραυνον εθετο και θρησκευουσι και υμνουσι και νον κεραυνον.
Chalcis sub Libano (Mejdel'Anjar), at the foot of Antilibanus (BMC Galatia, p. lxxiii, cf. liv). This city, together with the neighbouring Heliopolis, the valley of the Marsyas and the mountainous region of Ituraea, constituted a Tetrarchy, the whole or portions of which were governed in the first century B.C. by rulers who took the titles of τετρορχης and αρχιερευς.
|Head of Zeus, laureate.||ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΤΕΤΡΑΡΧΟΥ Eagle flying.|
|Id.||ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΤΕΤΡΑΡΧΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΡΧΙΙΕΡ (sic) Two warriors standing facing, holding spears; laurel- wreath.|
|Head of Lysanias, diademed.||ΛΥΣΑΝΙΟΥ ΤΕΤΡΑΡΧΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΡ- ΧΙΕΡΕΩΣ Athena Nikephoros standing.|
From B.C. 36 to 30 the dominions of Lysanias were in the hands of Cleopatra. After her death they were farmed by Zenodorus, who, how- ever, in B.C. 24 lost Batanea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis on their being handed over by Augustus to Herod I. He retained Oulatha and Panea s till his death in B.C. 20.
|Head of Octavian.||ΖΗΝΟΔΩΡΟΥ ΤΕΤΡΑΡΧΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΡΧΙΕΡΕΩΣ Head of Zenodorus.|
With date'87 of an era beginning either B.C. 117 or B.C. 114 (BMC Galatia, p. 281).
Damascus. The earliest coins are Alexandrine tetradrachms, symbol, forepart of ram (Müller, Nos. 1338-1346), belonging to circ. B.C. 300 or later. Autonomous Æ of second and first centuries B.C. with dates of Seleucid era (cf. Demetrias). Inscr., ΔΑΜΑΣΚΗΝΩΝ. TypesHead of Tyche; Tyche standing; Ram; Stag; &c. (see De Saulcy, Terre- Sainte, p. 30 f.). On Damascus as a probable mint of the later Seleucid kings see supra, p. 772, and as a mint of the Nabataean kings see under Arabia, p. 811.
Imperial, Augustus to Severus Alexander. Inscr., ΔΑΜΑCΚΗΝWΝ; ΔΑΜΑCΚΗΝWΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄWC; ΔΑΜΑCΚΟV ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄΟC; ΔΑΜΑCΚΟV ΙЄΡΑC ΚΑΙ ЄΝΔΟΞΟV. Colonial, Philip I to Gallienus. Inscr., COL ΔΑΜAS METRO. Types (BMC Galatia, p. lxxv; De Saulcy, op. cit.), chiefly representations of the Tyche of Damascus. Also, the river-god Chrysoroas (Barada) reclining, inscribed ΠΗΓΑΙ (Fig. 344) (cf. De Saulcy, p. 47, No. 9; Imhoof, Nymphen, p. 170, No. 470;
Heliopolis (Baalbek). Colonial, Sept. Severus to Gallienus (BMC Galatia, p. lxxvii; De Saulcy. op. cit., p. 6). Inscr., COL. HEL. COLL · IVL · AVG · FEL · HEL. TypesTemple of Jupiter Heliopolitanus with inscr. I · O · M · H = Jovi optimo maximo Heliopolitano; Propylaeum of the same temple, I · O · M · H ·; Temple on rock approached by lofty staircase; Mercury (the triad of Heliopolitan divinities consisted of Jupiter, Venus, and Mercury: Perdrizet, Comptes rendus de l'Acad. des inscr., 1901, p. 128); Bust of the Tyche; the Tyche standing, on each side a standing figure and two Victories holding veil over her head; Two figures (of Herakles?) each holding club and stag(?) (Brit. Mus.); Two naked figures each holding vexillum and stag (?) (Brit. Mus.); Three agonistic crowns, inscr. CERT · SACR · CAP · OEC · ISE · HEL · = Certamina Sacra Capitolina Oecumenica Iselastica Heliopolitana; Two athletes supporting crown; Athlete drawing lots from urn.
Laodiceia ad Libanum, on the Orontes (De Saulcy, T. S., p. 3 f.; cf. BMC Galatia, p. lxxviii). Imperial, Sept. Severus to Caracalla. Inscr., ΛΑΟΔΙΚЄΩΝ ΠΡΟC ΛΙΒΑΝΩ. Chief Type, ΜΗΝ standing beside horse.
Leucas on the Chrysoroas (BMC Galatia, p. lxxviii). Imperial, Claudius to Gordian III (some without emperors heads). Inscr., ΛΕΥ- ΚΑΔΙΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΚΛΑΥΔΙΑΙΩΝ; ΚΛΑΥΔΙΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΛΕΥΚΑ- ΔΙΩΝ; ΛΕΥΚΑΔΙΩΝ, &c. TypesEmperor standing in quadriga; Herakles; Nike; River-god ΧΡΥCΟΡΟΑC. Eras(i) Beginning B.C. 38-7; (ii) A.D. 48.
Posidium (el-Bouseit), on a bay at the south-west base of Mount Casius. The following small coin has been attributed to this town (cf. BMC Galatia, p. lxxix) :Obv. Baal seated holding grapes; in field, fulmen. Rev. ΠΟΣΙ[Δ]..... Bearded head in pilos. AR Size .55. Wt. 64.7 grains.
Caesareia Panias (Banias), at the foot of Mount Hermon (BMC Galatia, p. lxxx f.). This city, at first called Panias, formed part of the tetrarchy of Zenodorus (see Chalcis sub Libano). In B.C. 20 it was handed over to Herod the Great, who apparently changed the name to Caesareia and built, near its celebrated Grotto of Pan, a splendid temple in honor of Augustus. Herod Philip II rebuilt the city and called it Caesareia Philippi (cf. Matt. xvi. 13; Mark viii. 27). Agrippa II changed the name to Neronias. The coins prove that from about the time of M. Aurelius it was generally known as Caesareia Panias, or Caesareia Augusta sub Panio. Imperial, M. Aurelius to J. Maesa. Inscr., ΚΑΙ. CΕΒ. ΙΕΡ. ΚΑΙ ΑCΥ. ΥΠ. ΠΑΝΕΙΩ, or Τ. ΠΡ. ΠΑΝ Hunter Cat., iii. p. 222); ΚΑΙCΑΡ. ΠΑΝΙΑΔΟC; ΚΑΙCΑΡΙΑ ΠΑΝΙΑC. A coin of Severus Alexander Caesar, A.D. 221-222, reading COL. CESARIA ITVR[aeae], which has been attributed to this mint (Z. f. N., xxiv. p. 133), is more probably of Caesareia ad Libanum. TypesZeus; Pan standing playing flute; Temenos of Pan, within which the god standing; Lagobolon and syrinx (N. C., 1900, p. 294). Dates of the era of the city beginning B.C. 3
Æ coins of Augustus (BMC Galatia, p. lxxx), with rev. C A within wreath (='Caesareia Augusta ?), have been attributed, with little probability, to Caesareia Panias, for these pieces are found not only in Palestine but also in Asia Minor (near Smyrna) and in Hayling Island, England, and C A may mean'Commune Asiae, i.e. κοινον'Ασιας (Froehners Mélanges d'epigr., 1875, p. 76), or simply'Caesar Augustus (Th. Reinach).
Gaba, probably identical with the'Gabe of Pliny, v. 18 (BMC Galatia, p. lxxxii; p. 300). Imperial, Titus to Caracalla. Inscr., ΚΛΑΥΔΙ. ΦΙΛΙΠ. ΓΑΒΗΝΩΝ; ΓΑΒΗΝΩΝ. Usual type, Mên standing. Dates of era of Gaba beginning B.C. 61 (or B.C. 60?).
Abila (Abîl), twelve miles east of Gadara. Imperial, M. Aurelius to Caracalla (De Saulcy, T. S., p. 309 f.). Inscr., CΕ. ΑΒΙΛΗΝΩΝ Ι. Α. Α. Γ. ΚΟΙ. CΥ (= CЄΛЄΥΚΕΩΝ ΑΒΙΛΗΝΩΝ ΙЄΡΑC ΑCΥΛΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΝΟ- ΜΟΥ ΓΝΩΡΙΜΟΥ (?) ΚΟΙΛΗC CΥΡΙΑC); CЄ. ΑΒΙΛΗΝΩΝ ΚΟΙ. CΥ. TypesHerakles; Cornucopia; Bunch of grapes (cf. Euseb. πολις οινοφορος); Temple flanked by towers. Era, Pompeian (B.C. 64).
Antiocheia ad Hippum (Hippus). Site at Khurbet Sûsîyeh, on the east of the Lake of Gennesaret (BMC Galatia., p. lxxxiii). Imperial, Nero to Caracalla. Inscr., ΑΝΤΙΟΧ. ΠΡ. ΙΠ. ΙЄΡ. ΑCΥΛΟ; ΙΠΠΗΝΩΝ. TypesTyche of the city holding horse; Horse standing; Horses head; Pegasos (Rev. Suisse, 1908, pp. 127, 128). Era, Pompeian (B.C. 64).
Canata or Canatha (Kunawât). See BMC Galatia, p. lxxxiv. Imperial, Claudius to Commodus. Inscr., ΚΑΝΑΤΗΝΩΝ; ΚΑΝΑΘΗ- ΝΩΝ ΓΑΒЄΙΝ. (the epithet Gabinia was probably derived from Gabinius the Proconsul of Syria). TypesTyche of the city; Head of Athena; Dionysos; Head of Zeus (probably the Ζευς μεγιστος of Canata); Astarte standing. Era, Pompeian (B.C. 64).Capitolias, probably at Beit-er-Râs, south-east of Gadara. Imperial, M. Aurelius to Macrinus. Inscr., ΚΑΠΙΤΩΛΙЄΩΝ Ι. Α. Α (= ΙЄΡΑC ΑCΥΛΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ). Prevalent typeAstarte (or the Tyche of the city?) standing in temple. Dates from local era beginning A.D. 97 or 98.
Dium (Eidun ?), near Pella. Imperial, Caracalla and Geta. Inscr., ΔЄΙΗΝΩΝ. TypeHadad? (cf. Rev. arch., 1894, pt. 2, p. 250), horned, standing between two bulls. A somewhat similar type occurs on other Syrian coins, at Rhosus, Hieropolis in Cyrrhestica, Neapolis in Samaria, and on tetradrachms of Antiochus XII (BMC Galatia, p. lxxxv). Era, Pompeian (B.C. 64).
Gadara (Umm Keis), south-east of the Sea of Galilee, was rebuilt by Pompey circ. B.C. 63 and made a free city. Autonomous Æ First century B.C. Obv. Head of Tyche, rev. ΓΑΔΑΡЄWΝ, Cornucopia and date'18 [Brit. Mus.]. Imperial, Augustus to Gordian III. Inscr., ΓΑΔΑΡЄΙΣ; ΓΑΔΑΡΑ; ΓΑΔΑΡЄWΝ; ΠΟΜΠΗΙЄWΝ ΓΑΔΑΡЄWΝ (or abbreviated), also with addition of Ι (=ΙЄΡΑC) Α (= ΑCΥΛΟΥ) Α (= ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ) Γ (= ?). Κ. CΥ (= ΚΟΙΛΗC CΥΡΙΑC). Types Bust of Tyche; Bust of Herakles; Two cornucopia; Zeus in temple; Male figure between two lions (De Saulcy. T. S., p. 303, No. 8); Galley with rowers and inscr. ΝΑΥΜΑ ? (= ναυμαχια). Era, Pompeian (B.C. 64).
Gerasa (Jerash). Imperial, Hadrian to Severus Alexander. Types relate to Artemis as Tyche of the city, with inscr. ΑΡΤЄΜΙC ΤΥΧΗ ΓЄΡΑCΩΝ (B. M.C., Galat., p. lxxxviii; N. C., 1900, p. 295). Coins of M. Aurelius and L. Verus are inscribed ΑΝ. ΤΩ. ΠΡ. ΧΡ. ΤΩ. ΠΡ. ΓЄ. (= Αντιοχεων των προς Χρυσοροα (the local river) των προτερον Γερασηνων). The name of Antioch borne by Gerasa is known also from lapidary inscriptions of the second century A.D. (Perdrizet in Revue biblique, July, 1900, p. 441; cf. Rev. Num., 1900, p. 487).
Pella (Tubukat el Fahil), about twenty miles south of the Sea of Galilee. Imperial, Commodus, Lucilla, and Elagabalus (De Saulcy, T. S., p. 291 f.). Inscr., ΠЄΛΛΑΙΩΝ. TypesAthena; Male figure standing holding phiale; Tyche of City seated, and River-god [Brit. Mus.]. Era, Pompeian (B.C. 64).
Philadelpheia (Amman), the Rahbath-Ammon of the Old Testament. The city as it existed in the third century B.C. was rebuilt and renamed by Ptolemy Philadelphus. Imperial, Hadrian to Severus Alexander (BMC Galatia, p. lxxxix). Inscr., ΦΙΛΑΔЄΛΦЄΩΝ ΚΟΙΛΗC CΥΡΙΑC; ΦΙΛ. ΚΟΙ. CΥΡΙ. Types relate chiefly to the Tyrian Herakles; Bust of Herakles; Four-horse car of Herakles, ΗΡΑΚΛЄΙΟΝ ΑΡΜΑ, doubtless employed in festal processions to carry cultus-objects, like the ΙЄΡΑ ΑΠΗΜΗ of Ephesian coins (supra, p. 577); Bust of ΘЄΑ ΑCΤЄΡΙΑ, the mother of the Tyrian Herakles.