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XXI

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Synnada, Phrygia

Synnada (Suhut, Turkey today) was of considerable importance as a station on the road from Apameia to the north and east. Synnada is said to have been founded by Acamas who went to Phrygia after the Trojan War and took some Macedonian colonists. It enters written history when the Roman consul Gnaeus Manlius Vulso passed through on his expeditions against the Galatians in 189 B.C. After having belonged to the kingdom of the Attalids, under Rome it became the capital of a district of the province of Asia. Cicero stayed there for three days on his way to Cilicia. In Strabo's time it was still a small town, but when Pliny wrote it was an important place, being the conventus juridicus for the whole of the surrounding country. Under Diocletian at the time of the creation of Phrygia Pacatiana, Synnada, at the intersection of two great roads, became the metropolis. Synnada was celebrated throughout the Roman Empire for its precious Synnadic marble, a light color marble interspersed with purple spots and veins. From quarries on Mount Persis in neighboring Docimeium, it was conveyed through Synnada to Ephesus, from which it was shipped over sea to Italy.


Historia Numorum

Synnada. This city stood in a plain and was of considerable importance as a station on the road from Apameia to the north and east. Cicero (Ad Att., v. 16. 2), on his way to Cilicia, stayed three days at Laodiceia, three at Apameia, and three at Synnada. Its earliest coins are Cistophori, after B.C. 133 (Num. Chron., 1883, p. 187; Rev. Num., 1892, Pl. III. 6). The adjunct symbols are, on one, an Amphora, and, on the other, an Owl on an amphora. The bronze coins of the same period have on obv. Turreted head of Kybele or City, rev. Zeus standing draped holding fulmen and resting on scepter. Magistrate’s name in genitive case (BMC Phrygia, p. xcviii). The following is also pre-Imperial :— Obv. Head of Zeus with scepter behind, rev. Poppy and ear of corn between caps of Dioscuri (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 292). The subsequent issues. quasi-autonomous and Imperial, range from Augustus to Gallienus. Inscr., ΣΥΝΝΑΔΕΩΝ, CVΝΝΑΔЄΩΝ, CVΝΝΑΔЄΩΝ ΔΩΡΙЄΩΝ ΙΩΝΩΝ, CΥΝΝΑΔЄΩΝ ΙΩΝΩΝ, CΥΝΝΑΔΙC, CΥΝΝΑΔЄΙC, etc. Magistrates’ names at first generally in nominative case; after Claudius usually in genitive with επι. Titles—Archiereus (Claudius); Philokaisar (Claudius, Nero); Hiereus (Faustina); Hiereia (Lucilla) (B. M. C., Phr., p. xcix); Prytanis and Logistes (Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, etc.); Archon, Agonothetes, and Hippikos, in dative case (= Latin ablative) (Gordian and Trajan Decius); and Archon, in genitive with επι (Gallienus). A coin of Ant. Pius has on the obv. the word ΑΠΟΚΑΤЄ[στησεν], probably equivalent to the Latin ‘restituit’ or ‘renovavit’ (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 294). Chief types—Heads of ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΙЄΡΑΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΘЄΑ ΡΩΜΗ; ΖΕΥC ΠΑΝΔΗΜΟC; ΑΚΑΜΑC, helmeted head of hero, son of Theseus, probably as Founder; ΘΥΝΝΑ- ΡΟC, a local hero, bearded; also heads or busts of Athena; Kybele or City; Serapis; etc. The reverse types are also numerous, ΖЄΥC ΠΑΝ- ΔΗΜΟC seated holding Nike or eagle; ΔΙΑ ΠΑΝΔΗΜΟΝ (Imhoof-Blumer KM, 294); ΔΗΜΟC ΡΩΜΑΙΩΝ standing; Athena ΠΟΛΙΑC standing; Standing figure of Demeter; Artemis Ephesia; Herakles; Amaltheia turreted, carrying infant Zeus and with goat at her feet; Akamas or Lakedaemon helmeted, in short chiton and holding Palladium (cf. Sagalassus Pisidia, B. M. C., Lycia, cvi and 241 ff.); Asklepios; Hygieia; Nemesis; Mên; Tyche; Isis; Temple of Dionysos (?); Modius or Cippus in temple, flanked by palms; Cippus in arena with Bestiarii around fighting with beasts, or gladiators in combat; Palladium; Emperor in quadriga crowned by Nike. An interesting type on late Imperial coins is a mountain, which is probably Mount Persis at the neighboring Docimeium, which contained the famous quarries of the precious marble known as Synnadic, because it was through Synnada that it was conveyed and exported to Ephesus and over sea to Italy. Games— ΑΔΡΙΑΝΙΑ ΠΑΝΑΘΗΝΑΙΑ Agonistic crown (Mionnet, iv. 983). Alliance coin with Hierapolis (Verus), rev. Zeus (Pandemos (?) ) seated before the Apollo Kitharistes of Hierapolis standing. For illustrations and lists of magistrates’ names see B. M. C., Phr., p. xcvii ff. and Pl. XLVI.