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Ancient people would sometimes scratch their initials or other marks on their coins.
Byzantine Empire, Constans II, September 641 - 15 July 668 A.D.
In 647 A.D., Gregory the Patrician declared himself emperor in the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa. An Arab army of 20,000 men under Abdullah ibn Sa'ad invaded Africa, taking Tripolitania and the city of Sufetula (240 km south of Carthage). Gregory was killed during the invation. Africa returned to imperial allegiance after his death, but the foundation of Byzantine rule was fatally undermined. SH94411. Gold solidus, Ratto 1509; DOC II part 2, 5e (not in the collection but refs. Ratto); Hahn MIB 9; SBCV 942; Sommer 12.7; Morrisson BnF -; Wroth BMC -; Tolstoi -, Choice VF, well centered, small graffito reverse inner right, weight 4.415 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 180o, 10th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 647 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTINVS P P AVG, bust facing with short beard indicated by a single row of dots, wearing chlamys, tablion ornamented with pellets, and crown with cross on circlet, globus cruciger in right hand; reverse VICTORIA AVGY I (victory of the Emperor, 10th officina), cross potent on three steps, E (indiction year 5) right, CONOB in exergue; scarce officina; $800.00 SALE |PRICE| $720.00
In 650 A.D., the first Chinese paper money was issued.SH70058. Gold solidus, SBCV 953; Hahn MIB 20; Sommer 12.12; DOC II part 2, 16 var. (officina not listed); Morrisson BnF -; Wroth BM; Tolstoi -; Ratto -, VF, graffiti (includes KΓ obverse left, CEVHPOC = Severus in exergue), weight 4.386 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 225o, 4th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 650 - 651 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTINVS P P AVG, bust facing with short beard and moustache, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding globus cruciger; reverse VICTORIA AVGY ∆ (victory of the Emperor, 4th officina), cross potent on three steps, CONOB in exergue; scarce officina; SOLD
Byzantine Empire, Constans II and Constantine IV, 13 April 654 - 15 July 668 A.D.
In 655, Constans II personally commanded the Byzantine fleet of 500 ships in the Battle of the Masts. He sailed to the province of Lycia (Turkey) in the southern region of Asia Minor. The two forces meet off the coast of Mount Phoenix, near the harbour of Phoenix (modern Finike). The Arabs under Abdullah ibn Sa'ad were victorious, but losses were heavy for both sides. Constans barely escaped back to Constantinople.SH70031. Gold solidus, DOC II part 2, 27f; SBCV 961; Hahn MIB III 27; Sommer 12.20; Morrisson BnF -; Wroth BMC -; Tolstoi -; Ratto -, aEF, graffiti on obverse and reverse, weight 4.436 g, maximum diameter 20.7 mm, die axis 180o, 8th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 654 - 659 A.D.; obverse d N CONSTANTINuS E CONSTAI, facing busts of Constans & Constantine IV (beardless) each wearing crown and chlamys, cross between their heads; reverse VICTORIA AVGY H (victory of the Emperor, 8th officina), cross potent on three steps, CONOB+ in ex; SOLD