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Copper was shaped by hammering from early prehistoric times. The Timna Valley in Israel contains evidence of copper mining in 7000 - 5000 B.C. Copper pins, arrowheads, and small personal accouterments date from this time, and it was not long until these gave way to chisels, axes, needles, and larger tools. Ötzi the Iceman found in the Alps in 1991, dated to about 3300 B.C., was found with a copper axe.
|Most ancient nails were Iron. Bronze nails were used in ship construction and also with decorative purposes. The photo right is of a lockable strongbox or arca for storing money and other valuables. It was found at Pompeii. dates to the 1st century A.D. and is now in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. These boxes were often placed in the atrium, the public area of the house, as a display of wealth and power. This one is decorated with numerous bronze studs.|