In addition to the numerous special monographs on the coins of various Macedonian and Thracian cities and kings, which are to be found in the volumes of the Numismatic Chronicle, the Revue numismatique, the Zeitschrift für Numismatik and other periodicals, the following are some of the more important works to which the student of the money of Northern Greece may be referred :—
Allen, D. Catalogue of Celtic Coins in the British Museum, Vol. 1: Silver Coins of the East Celts and Balkan Peoples. (London, 1987).
In the following pages, which treat of the coins of Macedon, Thrace, and the north-western and northern coasts of the Euxine, an attempt has been made to present to the student a clearer method of classification by describing the coins of these northern regions in the following seventeen groups (A-H, Macedon and Paeonia, and I-R, Thrace and the northern coast of the Black Sea). The alphabetical arrangement has, therefore, in this section, been abandoned in favor of one which geographically, and to some extent chronologically, seems more instructive, although it may involve an occasional reference to the Index at the end of the volume.
(D.) The Chalcidian District. Orthagoreia; Apollonia (?); Acanthus; Olophyxus; Uranopolis; Terone; Sermyle; Olynthus; the Chalcidian League; Aphytis; Scione; Mende; Capsa; Potidaea; Cassandreia; Bottice; Dicaea; Aeneia.
(F.) Kingdom of Macedonia. Alexander I; Perdiccas II; Archelaus I; Aëropus; Amyntas II; Pausanias; Amyntas III; Perdiccas III; Philip II; Alexander the Great; Philip III; Cassander; Antigonus; Demetrius Poliorcetes; Pyrrhus; Interval; Antigonus Gonatas; Antigonus Doson; Demetrius II; Philip V and contemporary autonomous coins of Macedon; T. Quinctius Flamininus; Perseus; Adaeus (? Dynast).
(H.) Macedon, semi-independent and, later, under the Romans. Revolt of Andriscus; Amphaxitis; Beroea; Bottiaea Emathiae; Dium; Edessa; Heracleia Sintica; Pella; Phila (?); Scotussa; Stobi; Thessalonica.
A. THE PANGAEAN DISTRICT.
This mountainous region was inhabited by rude tribes whose chief occupation consisted in working the silver and gold mines with which the hills abounded. It is natural that, among a population whose one staple of trade was gold and silver, a currency should have been adopted at a much earlier period than was the case among agricultural or pastoral peoples.
The earliest Thraco-Macedonian coins date from the earlier half of the sixth century B.C. In style and types they bear a striking resemblance to another series of coins conjecturally assigned to Thasos.
In weight the largest denominations are octadrachms of the Phoenician standard, which was perhaps derived from the important city of Abdera. The staters however follow, for the most part, the Babylonic standard of the coins of Thasos(?). There exists also an uninscribed electrum stater of the Phocaic standard (Fig. 111) which may possibly belong to this region.
Orrescii. Leake (Northern Greece, iii. p. 213) is of opinion that these people were identical with the Satrae and closely connected with the Bessi, or priests of the oracular temple of the Thracian Bacchus on Mt. Pangaeum.
ELECTRUM. Sixth century B.C.
Babelon (Traité, II. 133) disputes this conjectural attribution, and, in spite of its characteristically Macedonian type, would assign the coin to one of the coast-towns of Asia Minor. Its specific gravity, however, shows that it contains 64 per cent. of pure gold, which differentiates it from the coins of Chios (Babelon, op. cit., Pl. VIII. 6, 8), with which Babelon compares it.
SILVER. Before B.C. 480.
Inscr. ΟRRΕΚΙΟΝ, ΟRRΗΚΙΟΝ, ΩRΗΣΚΙΟΝ, ΩRΗΣΚΙΩΝ, etc., sometimes retrograde.
Before circ. B.C. 480.
Before circ. B.C. 480.
Uncertain of the above classes or of Lete.
Other staters with the same obverse type are inscribed ΕΤΑΙΟΝ, and have on the reverse a helmet in an incuse square (N. C., 1892, Pl. II. 4; Berlin Catalog, II. Pl. IV. 35, and p. 91; cf. also Hunter, I. Pl. XIX. 16).
Neapolis (originally Daton), the modern Kavala, lay on the coast at the foot of Mt. Pangaeum, opposite Thasos. Commercially it must have been a town of some importance, owing to its position at the only point where the great military high road through Thrace touched the sea. It was probably originally a Thasian settlement, subsequently tributary to Athens and partially occupied by Athenians, who derived much profit from the neighboring Pangaean mines. Its silver coinage begins before B.C. 500 and continues in an unbroken series down to the time of Philip, exhibiting in fabric and weight much similarity to the money usually attributed to Thasos. The Gorgon-head as a coin-type appears to have been copied from the earliest coins of Eretria in Euboea (Hill, N. C., 1893, pp. 255 sqq.).
Circ. B.C. 500-411.
Circ. B.C. 411-350.
The two following coins seem also to belong to the latter part of this period :—
Eïon, at the mouth of the Strymon, appears in early times to have been a prosperous port, but it was afterwards eclipsed, B.C. 437, by its near neighbor, Amphipolis. The attribution to this town of the coins with a duck or goose for type is only due to their having been frequently found in that locality. Aquatic birds in large numbers are said still to haunt the shores and marsh-lands of lake Cercinitis and the mouth of the Strymon. The letters Α, Η, Θ, Λ, and Ν, which occur on these little coins, are unexplained. Isolated letters in the field are also noticeable on coins of Neapolis and Thasos (?).
Circ. B.C. 500-437.
B. COINAGE ON THE BABYLONIC STANDARD IN THE EMATHIAN DISTRICT.
Lete. This town stood at the issue of a glen leading through the Dysôron ridge of mountains which overlooked the plain of Therma, at a distance of from two to four hours’ journey northwards from that place. (Archives des missions scientifiques et littéraires, Ser. iii. Tom. iii. pp. 276 sqq.) The rich coinage conjecturally attributed to a city so little known historically as Lete may be accounted for by the fact that it occupied a site commanding the route between the Pangaean district and the silver mines (Herod. v. 17) on the one side, and the fertile plain of lower Macedonia on the other (see map in BMC Macedonia).
The coinage here assigned to Lete closely resembles in style, fabric, and weight the money of the Orrescii and the other Pangaean tribes, and illustrates in a remarkable manner the cult of the mountain Bacchus with his following of Satyrs, Centaurs, and Nymphs, which was characteristic of the country of the Satrae (Herod. vii. 111). During these Bacchic festivals, for which coins would be required, rude and primitive dramatic performances may account for the obscenity of the types.
Before B.C. 500. Lumpy fabric.
Circ. B.C. 500-480. Flatter fabric.
Inscr. fragmentary, and barely legible, ΕΤΑΙΟ.
Staters with types as above. On this later series the incuse square is usually divided into four quadrilateral parts. For varieties see Babelon, Traité, and Berlin Catalog,, II. p. 92 ff. Cf. also other staters of the Pangaean district (supra, p. 196), some of which belong to Lete. e.g. ΕΤΑΙΟ Centaur carrying off Maenad, rev. Helmet in incuse square (Babelon, Traité, Pl. L. 20, 21).
When Alexander I possessed himself of this region he appears to have monopolized the right of striking money, for none of the coins of Lete can be attributed to a later period than B.C. 480.
Concerning the types see Babelon, op. cit.
The early silver coins conjecturally attributed to it recall, in their type of the kneeling he-goat, the story told of Karanos its founder, a brother of Pheidon, king of Argos, who was directed by an oracle ‘to seek an empire by the guidance of goats’. Cf. a similar legend concerning Perdiccas I (Herod. viii. 137).
The standard of these early coins is the Babylonic, which must have penetrated into the highlands of Macedon by way of the Lydias valley through Lete and Ichnae (see map in BMC Macedonia and for coins, Imhoof Münzkab. Karlsruhe, p. 7).
Circ. B.C. 500-480.
See also Imperial coins with inscr. ΕΔΕΣΣΑΙΩΝ (p. 244).
Ichnae, in lower Macedonia, lay between the Axius and the Lydias, not far from Pella. Herodotus (vii. 123) mentions it as one of the towns in which the army of Xerxes halted before advancing southwards into Greece.
The silver coins of Ichnae follow the Pangaean (Babylonic and Phoenician) standards. The obverse types are similar to those of the coins of the Orrescii and of the Edoni. These two facts show where the earliest silver coinage of Macedon took its rise.
Circ. B.C. 500-480.
Tynteni. Whether there was a city called Tynte or whether the Tynteni were a Thraco-Macedonian tribe occupying scattered villages is uncertain. Babelon (Traité, p. 1109) suggests that Tynte may be identical with Daton. Or the coins, which resemble those of the Orrescii and of the town of Ichnae, may have been struck at Ichnae for the Tynteni (Rev. Num., 1903, 317, and Berlin Catalog II. p. 162, and Pl. VI. 55).
Circ. B.C. 500-480.
C. COINS OF THRACO-MACEDONIAN TRIBES IN THE BISALTIAN DISTRICT.
Bisaltae. This tribe occupied the tract of land west of the Strymon, including the metalliferous mountains which separate the valley of the Strymon from Mygdonia. Their coins follow the Phoenician standard. When inscribed they furnish us with several epigraphical peculiarities, such as C and < for Β, etc. When uninscribed they cannot be distinguished from coins of Alexander I of Macedon, who, after the retreat of the Persians, acquired the whole of the Bisaltian territory as far as the Strymon, together with its rich mines, and adopted at the same time the Bisaltian coinage, placing upon it his own name :—
Circ. B.C. 500-480.
Inscr. CΙΣΑΤΙΚΩΝ, CΙΣΑΛΤΙΚN, CΙΑΤΙΚΟ, <ΙΕ┻.... ΒΙΣΑΛΤΙΚΟΝ, etc., on octadrachms: smaller coins uninscribed.
UNKNOWN KINGS OR DYNASTS.
Mosses. Perhaps a king of the Bisaltae or of the Edoni. Circ. B.C. 500-480. Known only from his coins.
Docimus (?). From the following coins of the earlier half of the fifth century B.C. it would seem that a dynast of this name may have ruled for a time over one or other of the Thraco-Macedonian tribes.
For varieties see Imhoof MG, pp. 98 sqq.
Cf. with this last coin the octadrachm of Ichnae (N. C., 1885, 3).
Most of these coins come from Mesopotamia or Syria, whither, we may presume, they were conveyed by the Persians, to whom the Thraco-Macedonian tribes had been tributary since their conquest by Darius, B.C. 513.
Derrones. H. Gaebler (Z. f. N., xx. 289) has pointed out that the remarkable series of dekadrachms of Euboïc (?) weight, conjecturally attributed in the first edition of this work to an unknown king of the Odomanti, on the borders of the Bisaltian territory, by name Derronikos, belong in reality to a tribe called the Derrones, perhaps the Δερσαιοι (Herod. vii. 110) or Δερραιοι (Steph. Byz.), who, he thinks, may have occupied the central or Sithonian peninsula of Chalcidice, of which the city of Terone was the chief coast town. Th. Reinach, on the other hand (R. N., 1897, 125), would place the Derrones between the Crestones and the Odomanti, in the valleys of Mt. Dysôron, and there can be no doubt that their coins resemble in style those of the Bisaltians more than those of any place in Chalcidice. It is only their apparently Euboïc weight which connects them with the latter district. Reinach’s location of the Derrones is therefore probably correct, and in striking confirmation of it he publishes a unique silver stater of king Lykkeios of Paeonia (B.C. 359-340), on the obverse of which is a beardless laureate head accompanied by the legend ΔΕΡΡΩΝΑΙΟΣ, proving that Paeonians and Derronians worshipped the same god, and that consequently they must have been near neighbors. The fact that the early Derronian coins may be deka-
202drachms of the Euboïc or Chalcidian standard suggests that this tribe may have occupied the country between Chalcidice and the Pangaean and Bisaltian silver mines, and that the chief source of their wealth may have been the carrying trade between the two. Such an intermediate position might also explain the fluctuating weights of their coins, which range between the Euboïc standard of the Chalcidian coast towns and the Phoenician standard prevalent in the inland districts. They may also have circulated as octadrachms of the Babylonic standard. The car drawn by oxen would also be an appropriate type for the coins of carriers.
Of these coins, ranging in weight from about 640-580 grs. or less, and dating from about B.C. 500, the following are the principal varieties.
Before circ. B.C. 480.
The two adjectival forms of the legend, Δερρωνικος and Δερρωνικον, correspond with Βισαλτικος and Βισαλτικον on the coins of the neighboring tribe, the Bisaltae. Reinach (op. cit.) suggests that masculine and neuter nouns (e. g. χαρακτηρ and αργυριον) are to be understood.
In addition to the above described coins of the Derrones there are several barbarous imitations of them, issued by neighboring tribes, e. g. those with the inscr. ΛΑΙΑΙ on the obv. and a Pegasos in a double linear square on the rev., which are attributed by Svoronos (Ephem., 1889, 94) to the Laeaei, a Paeonian tribe (Thuc. ii. 95, 96). With regard to these see Gaebler (op. cit.), and Babelon (Traité, p. 1048).
For references to illustrations see the above cited works, and BMC Macedonia; Imhoof MG, Pl. D. 1; Ashburnham Cat., Pl. III. 71; Reinach, L'Histoire par les monnaies, 1902, Pl. V; and Babelon, Traité, Pl. XLIV.
Therma (?), later Thessalonica. The central position of this town (the modern Salonica), at the head of the Thermaic gulf, threw it of necessity into communication both by sea and land with various cities and tribes using money struck on various standards, Babylonic, Euboïc, and Phoenician. No early coins are, however, known which can be with certainty attributed to it, although it is possible that many uninscribed Macedonian coins, which have been found at Salonica, may have been struck there. For some of these see BMC Macedonia, pp. xxv and 135. The only coins which have been, with some probability, assigned to Therma are those with a Pegasos on the obverse, a type which seems especially applicable to Therma, supposing it to have been a colony of Corinth.
Circ. B.C. 480.
Imhoof MG, p. 105, while accepting the coins with the Pegasos as probably of Therma, gives reasons for rejecting the hypothesis that many other coins marked with the symbol or Θ, and bearing the types of various Macedonian towns, were also struck at Therma.
The Greek towns which studded the coasts of Chalcidice, with its three huge tongues of land extending far into the sea, were for the most part sprung from the two enterprising Euboean cities, Chalcis and Eretria. From Euboea these colonies derived the Euboïc silver standard, which took firm root in those northern regions, and continued in general use until the latter part of the fifth century, when, as will presently be seen, it was in nearly all of them superseded by the Phoenician or Macedonian standard.
Beginning with the eastern shores of the promontory, and taking the towns in order from east to west, the first town we come to of which coins are known is—
Orthagoreia. Eckhel (ii. 73), on the authority of a fragment of the Geographi Minores, identifies Orthagoreia with Stageira, on the Strymonic gulf (but see Pliny iv. 11, 18). In style and weight its coins form an exception to those of the other Chalcidic cities, and correspond with those of the kings of Macedon from Archelaus to Perdiccas III (B.C. 413-359) as well as with the contemporary coins of Abdera and Maroneia.
Circ. B.C. 350.
Apollonia (?). There were three Macedonian towns of this name, one of which, situated to the south of Lake Bolbe, may, according to Imhoof, have issued the following bronze coins. The attribution is very doubtful. The inscr. ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟΣ occurs elsewhere only on some coins of Tauromenium in Sicily. Imhoof (Imhoof MG, p. 65) would supply the word πολις. In spite of the inscr. the types refer to the cult of Dionysos.
Third or second century B.C. (?).
These uncertain coins may be compared for style with those of the unknown rulers Adaeus and Cavarus, and with the coins reading ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟΣ ΙΑΤΡΟΥ, assigned by Pick to Apollonia Pontica (Jahr. arch. Inst., xiii. 169), and by Svoronos (Journ. int. d'arch.-num., i. p. 86) to Peparethus (p. 313 infra).
Acanthus was an ancient colony from Andros, situated on the isthmus which connects the peninsula of Acte with the mainland of Chalcidice. It began to coin silver in large quantities about B.C. 500 or earlier. Until the time of the expedition of Brasidas, B.C. 424, the Euboïc standard was used, after that date the Phoenician.
Coins of Euboïc weight. Circ. B.C. 500-424.
Herodotus (vii. 125 sq.) relates that while Xerxes was marching from Acanthus to Therma his camels were set upon by lions, and he proceeds to state that all these northern regions, west of the river Nestus, abounded with lions and wild bulls with gigantic horns. The coin-type may not, however, be derived from local incidents of this kind, as it is of far more ancient and perhaps Anatolian origin in connexion with the worship of Kybele (Soph., Philoktetes, 400; cf. J. H. S., xx. 118). There are also similar tetradrachms on which the animal seized by the lion is a boar instead of a bull (Z. f. N., xxiv. 48). This rare uninscribed variety was probably issued by some town in the neighborhood of Acanthus, perhaps Stageira, whose port, north of Acanthus, was called Καπρος (Strab.
205vii. 35). For other staters, etc. with the type of a boar or a sow see Perdrizet (Rev. Num., 1903, 313).
Coins of Phoenician weight. Circ. B.C. 424-400, or later.
Circ. B.C. 392-379, or later.
The bronze coins of Acanthus are all subsequent to B.C. 400.
Olophyxus. A small town near the summit of Mt. Athos (Herod. vii. 22; Strab. vii. Fr. 33, 35). Its name is mentioned in the Athenian quota-lists, and its weights and measures are alluded to in Aristoph. Av. 1041.
BRONZE. Circ. B.C. 350.
Uranopolis, on the peninsula of Acte, probably on Mt. Athos, is said to have been founded by Alexarchus, brother of Cassander (Athen. iii. 20). The silver coins of this city are the only ones in Macedon which adhere to the Phoenician standard in post-Alexandrine times. On the types, which are suggested by the name of the town, see Num. Chron., 1880, p. 58, and Imhoof (Imhoof MG, p. 96).
Circ. B.C. 300.
Terone or Torone, on the Sithonian peninsula, was one of the most flourishing of the Chalcidian colonies. During the expedition of Xerxes it was one of the towns which furnished ships and men to the Persian armament. The tetradrachms are probably all anterior to B.C. 480. Of the period of the Athenian supremacy tetrobols only are known.
In B.C. 424 Terone opened its gates to Brasidas, but was shortly afterwards recovered for Athens by Cleon.
Here, as elsewhere in Chalcidice, the Euboïc standard appears to have been replaced, circ. B.C. 424, by the Phoenician, but there are no coins of Terone after circ. B.C. 420.
Euboïc weight. Circ. B.C. 500-480.
Circ. B.C. 480-424.
Phoenician weight. Circ. B.C. 424-420.
Circ. B.C. 500.
The following coins, which can hardly be later than the end of the sixth century B.C., have been assigned by some numismatists to Chalcis in Euboea. The Chalcidian colony Olynthus appears however to be a far more probable place of mintage. In any case the engravers of these remarkable coins were unrivalled masters of the difficult art of representing in relief a horse and his rider seen from the front. The types, like those of Elis, seem to be agonistic, and to refer to contests at Olympia. Thus the Eagle and Serpent, as at Elis and at Chalcis, is the well-known omen of victory of the Olympian Zeus. The chariot, the horses, and the horse (sometimes standing beside the ‘meta’) are equally significant of Olympian contests.
The weight-standard of the early Olynthian coins, like that of the
208other Chalcidian colonies in Macedon is the Euboïc, which in the fourth century is exchanged for the Phoenician standard.
Before B.C. 500.
After B.C. 479.
For other coins with Eagle and Serpent see Sparadocus, Chalcis Eub., and Elis. Although this type, as at Elis, may symbolize the Olympian Zeus, and thus refer to victories at the Olympian games, it may also be considered as affording an instance of a colony adopting the type of the money of its mother-city (Chalcis in Euboea). The coin
209reading ↓ΑΚ suggests that, even in the earlier half of the fifth century, Olynthus issued money for Olympic festivals in the name of all the Chalcidian colonists who attended the games.
Circ. B.C. 392-358.
The Chalcidian League. Into this period falls the beautiful federal currency of the Chalcidian League, constituted B.C. 392, of which the head quarters and doubtless the mint were at Olynthus. There is every reason to suppose that this series was continued until Philip made himself master of Chalcidice, B.C. 358. The heads of Apollo on these coins are remarkable for their great variety, no less than for the strength and beauty of their style (see Wroth in N. C., 1897, p. 100 [citing Pl. III. 11 and B. M. Guide, Pl. XXI. 10-11]).
These beautiful gold staters were doubtless issued for war expenses shortly before B.C. 358.
‘Αφυταιοι δε τιμωσιν Αμμωνα ουδεν ησσον η οι ‘Αμμωνιοι Λιβυων). While tributary to Athens, before B.C. 424, it struck no coins (Corp. Inscr. Att., vol. i. p. 229). The following appear to have been issued before its conquest by Philip (B.C. 358).
The head of Ammon at Aphytis, as at Cyrene, Tenos, Mytilene, and Lesbos, is represented either bearded or youthful. The kantharos refers to the worship of Dionysos at Aphytis, where, according to Xenophon (Hell. v. 3. 19), there was a temple of that god. The next coins, of later style, were probably issued shortly before the overthrow of the Macedonian kingdom (B.C. 168).
Scione, the chief town on the south coast of Pallene, was probably of Euboean origin, notwithstanding the fact that the inhabitants ascribed the foundation of their city to some one of the Achaean heroes returning from Troy. In B.C. 424 it revolted from Athens, and two years afterwards was captured and its inhabitants put to the sword.
The archaic coins of Scione are more numerous than has been hitherto suspected, although the tetradrachms of Euboïc weight with a bunch of grapes on the obv., and on the rev. a winged genius, a head of bearded Herakles, or a crested helmet, formerly assigned by me (N. C., 1891) to Cyrene, and later by Hill (J. H. S., 1897) conjecturally to a city in Chalcidice (Scione?), have been recently shown by Wroth (J. H. S., 1907) to have been issued in the island of Peparethus (q.v.). The following inscribed specimens, beginning in archaic times, lead us however to suppose that Scione may have previously struck the uninscribed coins figured by Babelon, Traité, Pl. LII. 1-3.
The large Eye on some of the archaic specimens is probably ‘shorthand’ for a prow, of which the eye was the most conspicuous feature.
Mende was an ancient colony of Eretria, situate on the south-west
211side of Cape Poseidion in Pallene. The types of its coins illustrate some forgotten myth of Dionysos and his companion Seilenos (Maonald, Coin Types, p. 108). The wine of Mende was famous and is frequently mentioned by ancient writers. It may be doubted whether any coins were struck at Mende after its first capture by Philip, B.C. 358. Here, as at Acanthus, etc., the Euboïc standard gives place to the Phoenician about B.C. 424. For the earliest uninscribed coins, apparently of the sixth century B.C., see Babelon, Traité, pp. 1130 sqq.
Circ. B.C. 500-450.
Circ. B.C. 450-424.
Circ. B.C. 424-358.
Before circ. B.C. 480.
Potidaea, a colony of Corinth on the Thermaic gulf, began to coin money about B.C. 500. Its name is clearly derived from Poseidon (cf. Poseidonia). The type of the tetradrachm was doubtless suggested by the sacred image of Poseidon, which Herodotus (viii. 129) mentions as standing in front of the city, εν τω προαστειω. Millingen (Syll., p. 48) thinks that the female head on the tetrobol may represent Pallene, from whom the peninsula received its name. With the celebrated blockade of Potidaea by the Athenians, B.C. 432-429, the silver coinage comes to an end. The bronze coins belong to the fourth century, but they are no doubt earlier than B.C. 358, when Philip of Macedon seized the city and handed it over to the Olynthians.
Circ. B.C. 500-429.
Circ. B.C. 400-358.
Cassandreia. This town was founded by Cassander on the site of Potidaea.
In the Molthe in Cat. (971) an earlier coin is ascribed to Cassandreia, but cf. 1141. Both are probably coins of Cassander.
Bottice. The Bottiaeans originally occupied the fertile plains between the lower courses of the Axius, Lydias, and Haliacmon, a district of Emathia which retained the name of Bottiaea until after the Roman conquest. The original Bottiaeans were however expelled at an early date and settled near Olynthus in the district called after them Bottice. Their chief city was Spartolus (BMC Macedonia, p. xl).
Circ. B.C. 424-392.etc.
Time of the Chalcidian League, B.C. 392-379, or later.
Dicaea, on the Thermaic gulf, was a colony of Eretria, from which its oldest coin-types are borrowed. On the distinction between the coins of this town and those of Dicaea in Thrace, see J. P. Six (Num. Chron., N. S., Vol. xv. p. 97). In the Athenian Quota-lists (Corp. Inscr. Att., Vol. i. p. 230) it is called Δικαια ‘Ερετρι[ων], and the inhabitants Δικαιοπολιται ‘Ερετριων αποικοι.
Circ. B.C. 500-450.
Fourth century B.C. ?
Aeneia, on the Thermaic gulf, was said to have been founded by Aeneas (Otto Abel, Makedonien vor König Philipp, p. 37, and Friedlander, Monatsberichte d. K. Akad. d. Wissensch, 1878).
Before B.C. 500.
Concerning this remarkable coin, which affords the oldest representation of a Trojan myth which has come down to us, see Friedlander (l. c.). The smaller silver coins are of two periods.
E. MACEDONIAN CITIES IN THE STRYMONIAN AND BOTTIAEAN DISTRICTS.
Amphipolis, on the Strymon, although founded B.C. 437 by the Athenians, does not seem to have struck money until some years after its capture by Brasidas B.C. 424, from which time until it was taken by Philip in B.C. 358 it remained practically free. The magnificent series
of full-face heads of Apollo on the coins of Amphipolis, as works of art, perhaps excel the types of any other city of Northern Greece. Kimon of Syracuse was probably the first die-engraver who successfully mastered the difficulty of worthily representing a full-face head on coins. His wonderful Arethusa-head with flowing hair seems to have roused the emulation of the die-engravers of many cities, Catana, Croton, and Pandosia in the west, Larissa and Thebes in Central Greece, Aenus and Amphipolis in the north, Rhodes and Clazomenae in the east, among others. But none of all these has left us such a rich and varied series of full-face heads as Amphipolis. The fashion, however, was found to be unsuitable for current coins, and it prevailed only during the period of finest art, circ. B.C. 410-360. The Race-torch, the usual reverse-type of the coins of Amphipolis, reminds us of the worship of Artemis Tauropolos or Brauronia, who was especially revered at Amphipolis, and in whose honor Torch-races, Lampadephoria, were held (Leake, Num. Hell., p. 11). The weight-standard is the Phoenician.
Circ. B.C. 424-358.
To this period (circ. B.C. 400) the following rare gold coin also belongs :—
1 On an exceptional tetradrachm (Berlin Catalog,, II. Pl. III. 25) the head on the obv. is represented with ear-rings. In this instance it is doubtful whether it is intended for Apollo or for a personification of the city or a goddess. The flamboyant hair is not characteristic of Apollo, and reminds us of Kimon’s Arethusa-head at Syracuse. (p. 177 supra).
Circ. B.C. 358-168.
During this period Amphipolis was one of the principal places of mintage of the kings of Macedon, and, from about B.C. 185 down to the Roman conquest in 168, of numerous coins reading ΜΑΚΕ, ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ, etc. (see infra, under Philip V). After the defeat of Perseus the issue of silver coins in Macedon was prohibited by the Romans, and it was not until ten years later, B.C. 158, that it was again permitted.
At Amphipolis as the Capital of the First Region the coins reading ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ ΠΡΩΤΗΣ were struck, B.C. 158-149; see also below (p. 239) for coins issued in the following year, 149-148, during the revolt of Andriscus-tetradrachms of the Roman Legatus reading LEG., which, on the victory of Andriscus, were restruck, some merely without the letters LEG, and others with the types of Philip V, presumptive grandfather of the pretender, and the legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ.
After B.C. 148.
For the coins struck at Amphipolis and at Thessalonica by the Quaestors L. Fulcinnius and G. Publilius (148-146), and, later, by the Praetor L. Julius Caesar (93-92), by the Quaestor Aesillas, and the Legatus pro quaestore L. Bruttius Sura (92-88), see below under Macedonia, a Roman Province (p. 239). None of these coins bear the name of Amphipolis as they were issued for the whole Province of Macedonia. The local or municipal bronze coins reading ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ or ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ are of various types, but afford few indications of date. In style they seem to range from the Roman conquest, or even earlier, down to the time of Augustus. The following types are of more or less frequent occurrence :—
Semuncial reduction after B.C. 88.
Most of the remaining types, even when without the name of the Emperor, belong to Imperial times.
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial.
Augustus to Salonina. Chief types. Head of ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙC; ΡWΜΗ standing; ΤΑΥΡΟΠΟΛΟC Artemis standing; CΤΡΥΜWΝ River recumbent; Artemis Tauropolos, standing or riding on bull; Tyche-Artemis standing or enthroned; Head of Poseidon, etc. (BMC Macedonia, 50 sqq.; Berlin Catalog,, 47 sqq.; Hunter Cat., I. 278 sqq.).
Tragilus. The site of this town is fixed, almost certainly, by Perdrizet (Congrès int. de Num., 1900, p. 149 ff.) near the modern Aëdonochori, three hours NW. of Amphipolis. The small silver coins of Tragilus belong evidently to the period before Amphipolis began to coin money. The bronze coinage is somewhat later in style, but it can hardly be brought down much below B.C. 400.
The form of the inscr. ΤΡΑΙΛΙΟΝ (= Τρα(γ)ιλιων or Τρα(γ)ιλιον) is an example of the omission of γ between two vowels.
Circ. B.C. 450-400.
Philippi. As early as the sixth century B.C. the Thasians possessed a mining settlement on the mainland of Thrace, called Daton, a district which extended inland as far as the springs called Crenides. Subsequently the Pangaean tribes expelled the Thasians, but in B.C. 361 the Athenian orator Callistratus refounded the colony of Daton at Crenides with the assistance of a number of Thasians.
Gold and bronze coins were now issued at the revived colony with the inscription ΘΑΣΙΟΝ ΗΠΕΙΡΟ, obv. Head of Herakles, rev. Tripod (Mion. I. 433, and Suppl. II. Pl. VIII. 5; Berlin Catalog,, II. 120). In B.C. 358 Philip made himself master of the district with its rich mines, renamed the town after himself, Philippi, and allowed it the privilege of striking money identical in type with the Thasian coins above described, but with the legend ΦΙΛΙΠΠΩΝ, AV Staters 133 grs., AR Phoenician tetradrachms, 215 grs.; drachms, hemidrachms, and Æ Size .7-.65 (BMC Macedonia, p. 96 f.; Berlin Catalog,, II. 118; Sotheby, Sale Cat., May, 1904, Lot 47). Before the end of Philip’s reign Philippi was deprived of the right of striking money in its own name, but it remained a royal mint under Philip and his successors, if the tripod, which is a common symbol on
218the coins of the kings of Macedon, may be accepted as a mint-mark of Philippi.
From the Roman conquest to the time of Augustus no coins appear to have been struck at Philippi with the legend ΦΙΛΙΠΠΩΝ. It was not until after the battle of Philippi that the right of coinage was conferred upon the veterans of the Praetorian cohort whom Augustus settled at Philippi. The legends of the coins of this series are in Latin, COHOR. PRAE. PHIL.; COL. AVG. IVL. PHIL. IVSSV. AVG.; COL. AVG. IVL. PHILIP; COL. PHILIP; COL. AVG. IVL. V. PHILIPP.; A. I. C. V. P., etc. ‘Colonia Augusta Iulia Victrix Philippensium.’ For the types see BMC Macedonia, pp. xlvi and 98, and Berlin Catalog,, II. p. 121 f.
Circ. B.C. 400-354.
See also another coin with inscr. ΜΕΘΟ in Margaritis Cat., p. 9 (Paris, 1874).
Pydna was originally a Greek city established on the Macedonian coast, on the western side of the Thermaic gulf. It subsequently fell into the hands of the kings of Macedon. Amyntas III, however, found himself compelled to hand over the maritime district of Macedon to the Olynthians, and it is to this interval that the bronze coins of Pydna, identical in type with those of Amyntas, belong.
Another interval of autonomy occurred during the reign of Perdiccas III. Pydna at this time again struck bronze coins, the reverse type of which, the Owl, betrays Athenian influence. Pydna is indeed said to have been subject to Athens B.C. 364-358, but we may infer that it enjoyed free institutions under Athenian control, for it was by no means eager to be handed over again to the kings of Macedon (Theopomp., Fragm. 189).
Dictionary of Roman Coins