(1) The family of Julius Caesar.
(2) Julia the Elder. Daughter of Augustus (39 BC - 14 AD).
Julia was Augustusí only natural child, the daughter of his second wife Scribonia. She was born the same day that Octavian divorced Scribonia, to marry Livia.
Julia tragic destiny was to serve as a pawn in her father's dynastic plans. At age two, she was betrothed to Mark Antony's ten-year-old son, but the fathersí hostility ended the engagement. At age 14, she was married to her cousin but he died two years later. In 21 B.C., Julia married Agrippa, Augustus' most trusted general and friend. Augustus had been advised by Maecenas, "You have made him so great that he must either become your son-in-law or be slain." Agrippa was nearly 25 years her elder. Agrippa died suddenly in 12 B.C. Julia was married to Tiberius in 11 B.C.
During her marriages to Agrippa and Tiberius Julia took lovers. In 2 B.C., Julia was arrested for adultery and treason. Augustus declared her marriage null and void. He also asserted in public that she had been plotting against his own life. Reluctant to execute her, Augustus had her confined on Pandateria island (modern Ventotene), with no men in sight, forbidden even to drink wine. Scribonia, Julia's mother, accompanied her into exile. Five years later, Julia was allowed to move to Rhegium. Augustus never forgave her and instructed that she should not be buried in his mausoleum. When Tiberius became emperor, he cut off her allowance and put her in solitary confinement in one room in her house. Within months she died from malnutrition.
(3) Livia, Augustus' third wife, mother of Tiberius, took the name Julia after Augustus' death.
DICTIONARY OF ROMAN COINS
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Julia. This illustrious family is that of Julius Caesar. The name Julius is dervived from Iulus, whom some believe to be Ascanius, the son of Aeneas; and others, the son of that Ascanius. In claiming to be descended from this stock, Julius Caesar prided himself on his origin from the goddess of beauty, and hence the images of Venus, and of Aeneas carrying Anchises, which are often found on his denarii. Be the question of pedigree decided as it may, it appears that after the descruction of Alba, the family came to Rome, and eventually furnished twelve personages, honoured as Imperatores, with the highest offices and dignities of the Roman commonwealth. According to Eckhel it is patrician in the Caesarian branch, and uncertain in that of Buriso, the only two surnames which occur on its coins. There are 75 varieties, of which the rarest type is a silver one, being on its obverse a youthful head, ornamented with wings, and having hair hanging down in ringlets, behind which is a trident and two arrows (in others a scorpion), The reverse is inscribed L IVLI BVRSIO (in another EX A P), with Victory in a quadriga holding a crown. The head which presents itself on the obverse of this denarius is of an unusual kind, and there has been much ado amongst anti-quarians to find out its meaning. Ursin and Vaillant take it to be that of Mercury, whilst Havercamp boldly calls it the head of "Triumph." But it is evidently not a male but a female head, and, as the judicious Eckhel observes, it is scarcely worthwhile to enter into a new field of conjectures about what nymph or goddess (of the sea or sky) it is meant to depicture. And, even after the prolix geussings of Vaillant and Havercamp, it is perhaps better to openly confess ignorance as to who Bursio is, to whom these medals belong.
Those denarii of the Julia family with the elephant trampling on a serpent, and pontificial instryments on the reverse; also woth the head of Venus, and ∆neas bearing the palladium in his hand and his father on his shoulders, are common enough. The name of this family is also found on coins struck by the mint masters of the great Julius. See CAESAR-DICT.
Julia is a name frequently found given on coins to the wives of emperors, and in several instances to their daughters and mothers. Livia, fourth wife of Augustus, assumed it when by adoptions she had passed into the Julia family. We also find medals of Julia Agrippina Senior, mother of Caligula; Julia, mother of Caius and Lucius, by Agrippa; Julia, sister of Caligula; Julia, daughter of Titus, Julia Agrippina Junior, second wife of Claudius, and mother of Nero; Julia Aquilia Severa, second wife of Elagabalus; Julia Domna, second wife of Severus; Julia Maesa, grandmother of Elagabalus and Severus Alexander; Julia Paulina, wife of Maximinus.
Julia, the daughter of Titus, by Furnilla, his second wife; she was a woman of great beauty, at first refused the infamous addresses of her uncle Domitian, married Sabinus her cousin german, afterwards became the mistress of her father's brother and successor, who caused her husband to be put to death, and lived in open concubinage with her. Julia abandoning herself to debauchery, died in the attempt to destroy the fruits of her incestous connection. She was nevertheless placed apotheosis amongst the deities, and is called DIVA on her coins, which in brass and silver are rare, and in gold of the highest rarity. On medals struck during her lifetime, she is styled IVLIA AVGSTA TITI AVGVSTI Filia; also IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA. (The August Julia, daughter of the August Titus). The reverse of one of her gold coins bears the legend of DIVI TITI FILIA, with a peacock; and on a silver coin of her appears the word VESTA, and that goddess seated, whence it would seem that she wished at least to be thought chaste; and this incident agrees with the attempt to conceal her pregnancy, to which she fell a victim.
On a large brass of this princess, who died in Domitian's reign, we see her consecration recorded, and the honours of deification paid to her memory at the will of her profligate uncle, by an obsequious Senate, in the following dedicatory inscription, DIVAE IVLIAE AVG DIV TITI F, accompanied with the type of the carpentum, or funeral car, drawn by mules. There is no partrait; but the emperor's titles, and the mark of COS XVI, shew the direct influence under which the coin was struck Senatus Consultu; and in the name of that body and the Roman people (S P Q R). On a silver medal the image of DIVA IVLIA appears on a car, drawn by elephants.