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Zograph

Zograph, Aleksandr Nikolaevich. Ancient Coinage, Part I: The General Problems of Ancient Numismatics. BAR Supplementary Series 33. (Oxford, 1977).

Zograph, Aleksandr Nikolaevich. Ancient Coinage, Part II: Ancient Coins of the Northern Black Sea Littoral. BAR Supplementary Series 33. (Oxford, 1977).

English translation by H. Bartlett Wells of Antichnye Monety (Moscow and Leningrad, 1951). 421 pp., 50 pl. Zograph's first volume is a general survey of ancient Greek coinage. The second volume covers certain coinages of the Black Sea region, such as Tyra and the Kingdom of Bosporos, and is very useful.

Not held by Forum.

Also see:
Tooapse Hoard
Zograph Tyra


Alexander Nikolaevich Zograf (1889-1942)

Alexander Zograf was the first Keeper of the Numismatic Collection in the Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow. He was born in Moscow on February 26, 1889. His father was a zoology professor at the Imperial Moscow University. Zograf graduated in Classics and Ancient History and then went on to study art history under such well-known scholars as I. Tsvetaev, V. Malmberg and N. Romanov. Zograf’s association with them was to determine his future.

One of his mentors – Professor Ivan Tsvetaev – devoted twenty-five years of his life to setting up the Museum of Fine Arts and discussed with Zograf the possibilities of organizing a numismatics department using the university collection as its initial core. Professor Tsvetaev`s untimely death in 1913 meant that many of his plans for the museum remained on paper. It was not until 1918 that V. Malmberg, Tsvetaev`s successor, invited Zograf to take up the post of Keeper of the Numismatic Collection. Prior to that, Zograf had been teaching. Zograf had also been pursuing his interest in numismatics. In 1913 he was elected corresponding member of the Moscow Numismatic Society, and later in 1917, was made a full member. His teacher in this field was the well-known Russian scholar A.V. Oreshnikov.

Alexander Zograf’s work in the Museum of Fine Arts coincided with one of the most difficult periods in the museum’s history. In 1918 the Soviet government moved from Petrograd to Moscow. A plan was approved for the setting up of four leading museums in the city: a National Museum of Art, a Museum of West-European Art, a Museum of Russian Folk Art and a Museum of Oriental Art. The Civil War, foreign intervention and economic chaos meant that these plans were postponed for five years. The Museum of Fine Arts remained part of Moscow University. At that period Muscovites experienced some very cold and snowy winters.  The museum building was not heated and had no electricity: the damp attacking the walls of the exhibition halls meant that the marble was damaged and in the spring, water got into the building. Nevertheless the efforts of the museum’s 16-member staff kept things under control and they were able to open the museum to the public in the summer months. The main task of the staff at that time was to make the museum’s exhibits better known to the population at large. Zograf taught Greek and Latin in several institutions and also worked as a lecturer and guide in the city’s museums. Despite the difficult conditions and his heavy work load Zograf did a great deal to systematize the numismatic collections and carried out research in numismatics and philology. During the Civil War he translated Cicero, Cato the Elder, and several chapters of Pliny the Elder’s Natural History. He also worked on translations of various Polish documents into Latin relating to the history of the Time of Troubles.

Zograf took part in the excavations of Tyras, a city-site on the northern coast of the Black Sea, and wrote a book on the coins of Tyras. It was during the Moscow chapter of Zograf’s career that he first came into his own as a scholar and teacher. In 1922 he was invited to come and work in the Numismatics Department of the Hermitage Museum and moved to Petrograd. By 1925, together with E.M. Pridik, Zograf had prepared the permanent numismatic exhibition, and thereafter he worked without interruption on various problems associated with the enormous Coin collection of the Hermitage. He was first as a scientific collaborator, and from 1930 a full member; in 1935 he was appointed to the post of Keeper of the Numismatics Department, which he held until his death on January 17, 1942 during the siege of the city. In 1939 A. Zograf was awarded the degree of Doctor in Historical Sciences, honoris causa.

Methodical approach, accuracy and caution in drawing conclusions were the fundamental characteristics of the late A.N. Zograf. The coin as a work of art had always been of interest to him. But he became a pragmatic numismatist as well. The coin as an archaeological document, the coin as a historical source, the coin as a factor of economic history, the problems of monetary circulation – these were the primary objects of his inquires.

Alexander Zograf’s writings in the field of numismatics are widely known, in particular his book Coins of The Ancient World. Zograf’s articles were published in many Russian and foreign journals, including Numismatic Chronicle and Zeitschrift für Numismatik.

Bibliography

1922
“Statuarnye izobrazheniia Devy v Khersonese po dannym numizmatiki  (Statuary representations of the Virgin in Chersonesos, on the basis of numismatic facts),” Izvestiia Rossiiskoi Akademii Istorii Material’noi Kul’tury Vol. 2, No. 25, pp. 337- 360, Pl. 31.

1923
Stroganovski dvorets-muzei, ital’ianskie medali = (Stroganovski Palace-Museum, Italian Medals), 1923.

1925
“The Tooapse Hoard : with some notes on the Lysimachean staters struck at Byzantium. With six tables of weights,” NC, pp. 29-52.
Review of S. R. Milbank, The Coinage of Aegina, (New York, 1924) ZfN XXV. pp. 21-22.
“Popravki k numizmatike Tiry (Corrections on the Numismatics of Tyra),” Izvestiia Rossiiskoi Akademii Istorii Material’noi Kul’tury, vol. 4 (1925), pp. 147- 156.

1926
“Ein Bronzemedaillon von Assos,” ZfN 36, pp. 68-72.
Evolutziya monetnogo typa i statui na monetah (Evolution of coin type and statues on coins).
Otchet o poezdke v muzei Yuga SSR dlya sobiraniya numizmaticheskyh materialov (Report on visiting museums in South of USSR for registration of Numismatic materials).
K voprosu ob izobrajenii strel’by iz luka na monetah Ol’bii i Hersonesa (On the representations of the shooting archer on the coins of  Olbia and Chersonesos).
“The preliminary report of an excursion in the summer of 1926”, Communications of The Academy for History of Material Culture I, pp. 241-247.
“Kizikiny kollektsii S.G. Stroganova” (Cyzicenes’ collection of S.G. Stroganoff), Leningrad. Hermitage. Sbornik, No. 3, pp. 59-69.

1927
Dve hersonesskiyie monety s zaimstvovannymi typami (Two Chersonessos coins of imitative types).

1928
Otto Blau als Muenzforscher.
“Pegasos stater from a Sicilian Hoard found in the past century,” NC 8, pp. 115- 130.

1929
“Some fifth and fourth century Greek Coins with portrait types,” Antichnyi Portret (The Ancient Portrait) (Leningrad, 1929), pp. 14-22

1930
“Retsenziya na knigy B.N.Grakova “Drevnegrecheskiye keramicheskiyie kleimy,”(Review of B.N.Grakov, Ancient Greek Ceramic Stamps [1930])
“The Roman Coins in Olbia,” Izvestia of State Academy For History of Material Culture, vol. VI, Pt. IV.

1931
Neskol’ko dobavochnyh zamechanii po povodu Gerzeul’skogo klada (Some notes on Gerzeul Hoard).

1932
“Zur antiken Münztechnik”, Numismatik I, pp. 49-53, pl. V. 1934 Nekrolog na smert’Oreshnikova (A.V. Oreshnikiv. Obituary).

1935
“Antichnye zolotye monety Kavkaza  (Ancient Gold Coins from Caucasus),” Izvestiia Rossiiskoi Akademii Istorii Material’noi Kul’tury, vol.10, pp. 178-192.
23

1936
Perevody otryvkov iz ritoricheskih sochinenii Tsitserona (Translation of the fragments from Cicero).

1937
“Monety Geraya (Herayos Coins)”, Sciences Committee of The Uzbek Socialist Soviet Republic. Committee For The Preservation And Study Of Records Of Material Culture Tashkent, 1937

1938
“Reforma denezhnogo obrashcheniya v bosporskom tsarstve pri Savromate vtorom (Monetary reform  in the Bosporan Kingdom under Sauromates II),” Vestnik Drevn?istorii 1938, pp. 120-145. “Sauromates II’s reform  of the currency,” NC 18, pp. 99-115.

1939
Kratkii putevoditel’ po otdelu numizmatiki (Guide-book around Numismatics Department).

1940
Drevnegrecheskii gorod Tyra – Belgorod – Akkerman (Ancient Greek city Tyra – Belgorod – Akkerman). Monety iz raskopok Ol’vii 1935-1936 (Coins from the excavations in Olbia 1935- 1936).
Nahodki pontiyskih monet mifradatovskogo vremeni v Ol’vii (Finds of Pontic Coins of Mithridates time in Olbia).
“The State Historical Museum’s Athenian Decadrachm”, Sovetskaya Arkheologiya Vol. VI, pp. 304-306.
Tiritakskiy klad (The Tiritak Hoard), Kratkie Soobchsheniia VI, p. 58-60

1941
Nahodki monet v mestah predpolagaemyh antichnyh svyatilisch na Chernomorye (Finds of Coins at the hypothetic Classical Sanctuaries at the Black Sea).
Monety iz raskopok Bosporskoy ekspeditsii (Coins from the excavations of Bosporsky expedition).
Mirmekiyskiy klad (The Mirmekii Treasure).

1945
“Monnaies antiques trouvées au Caucase,” Leningrad. Hermitage. Travaux du Dépt. Numismatique, Vol. 1, pp. 29-85.
“Nahodki antichnyh monet na Kavkaze (Finds of the Classical Coins from Caucasus)”, Soobscheniia Gosudarstvennojo Ermitazha, vol. 52, p. 11.
“Statery Aleksandra Makedonskogo iz Kerchenskikh I Tamanskikh nakhodok (Statères d’Alexandre le Grand des fouilles de Kertch et de Taman),” Leningrad. Hermitage. Trudy Otdela Istorii Iskusstva I Kul’tury Antichnogo Mira, vol. 1, pp. 86-98.
“Sur la technique des monnaies siciliennes du Ve siècle,” Leningrad. Hermitage. Travaux du Dépt. Numismatique, vol. 1, pp. 7-16.


1948
Tehnika monetnogo dela ellinisticheskoy epohi (Techniques of the Hellenistic Period).

1951
Antichnye monety (Ancient Coinage), (Moscow 1951).

1952
“Opisaniye monet, naydennyh pri raskopkah Tiritaki I Mirmekiya v 1935-1940 gg. (Description of coins discovered during excavation works at Tiritaka and Mirmekii in 1935-1940)”, Materialy i Issledovaniia po Archeologii SSSR No. 25, pp. 363-386.

1955
“Denezhnoe obrashcheniye i monetnoe delo  Severnogo Prichernomor’ya (Monetary circulation and Coin Production in the Northern Black Sea region)”, Antichnye Goroda Severnogo Prichernomor’ya Moscow, pp. 148-163.

1957
Monety Tiry (The coins of the city of Tyra), (Moscow)

1977
Ancient coinage, trans. by H. Bartlett Wells, 1977.

1982
“Luk I strel’ba iz nego na monetah Severnogo Prichernomor’ya (The bow and archer on the coins from the Northern Black Sea region)”, Numizmatika Antichnogo Prichernomor’Kiev, pp. 5-13, 147.