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Bellinger, A.R. The Excavations at Dura-Europos, Final Report, Vol. 6: The Coins. (New Haven, 1949).
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Butcher, K. Coinage in Roman Syria: Northern Syria, 64 BC - AD 253. RNS Special Pub. 34. (London, 2004).
Cohen, E. Dated Coins of Antiquity: A comprehensive catalogue of the coins and how their numbers came about. (Lancaster, PA, 2011).
Gardner, P. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum, The Seleucid Kings of Syria. (Forni reprint, 1963).
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Houghton, A. Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton. ACNAC 4. (New York, 1983).
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Levante, E. Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum Switzerland I. Levante - Cilicia. (1986, and supplement).
Lindgren, H.C. and F.L. Kovacs. Ancient Bronze Coins of Asia Minor and the Levant. (1985).
Lindgren, H.C. Lindgren III: Ancient Greek Bronze Coins from the Lindgren Collection. (1993).
Kritt, B. The Seleucid Mint of AÔ Khanoum, CNS 9. (Lancaster, PA, 2016).
McAlee, R. The Coins of Roman Antioch. (Lancaster, 2007).
MÝrkholm, O. "Autonomous Tetradrachms of Laodicea" in ANSMN 28 (New York, 1983).
Newell, E.T. Late Seleucid Mints in Ake-Ptolemais and Damascus. ANSNNM 84 (1939).
Newell, E.T. The Coinage of the Eastern Seleucid Mints. From Seleucus I to Antiochus III. (New York, 1938).
Newell, E.T. The Coinage of the Western Seleucid Mints, From Seleucus I to Antiochus III. (New York, 1941).
Newell, E.T. The Seleucid Mint of Antioch. (Chicago, 1978).
Price, M.J. The Coinage of in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. (London, 1991).
Prieur, M. & K. Prieur. The Syro-Phoenician Tetradrachms and their fractions from 57 BC to AD 258. (Lancaster, PA, 2000).
Sawaya, Z. Histoire de Bťrytos et d'Hťliopolis d'aprŤs leurs monnaies : Ier siŤcle av. J.-C. - IIIe siŤcle apr. J.-C. (Beirut, 1999).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol. 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sear, D. Greek Imperial Coins and Their Values. (London, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Volume 7: Cyprus to India. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, MŁnchen Staatlische MŁnzsammlung, Part 28: Syrien: Nicht-kŲnigliche Pršgungen. (Berlin, 2001).
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Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain XII, The Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow, Part 2: Roman Provincial Coins: Cyprus-Egypt. (Oxford, 2008).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Israel I, The Arnold Spaer Collection of Seleucid Coins. (London, 1998).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Schweiz II, Katalog der Sammlung Jean-Pierre Righetti im Bernischen Historischen Museum. (Bern, 1993).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).
Van Heesch, J. "The last civic coinages and the religious policy of Maximinus Daza (AD 312)" in NC 1993.
Wroth, W. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Syria. (London, 1899).
Wruck, W. Die Syrische Provinzialpršgung von Augustus bis Traian. (Stuttgart, 1931).
Seleucus I (Nicator), B.C. 312-280, was the founder of the dynasty. He had been one of Alexanderís principal officers, and was appointed satrap of Babylon by the regent Antipater in B.C. 321. Expelled by Antigonus five years later, he fled to Egypt, where Ptolemy gave him command of his fleet. In B.C. 312, after the victory of Gaza, here covered his old satrapy. It was from the autumn of this year that the era of the Seleucidae was subsequently reckoned. Once re-established in Babylon, Seleucus embarked on a succession of campaigns which ultimately left him master of the whole Asiatic empire of Alexander, from the Aegean to the Indus (B.C. 282). In B.C. 306, following the example of the other Diadochi, he had assumed the title βασιλευς. The frequency with which elephants figure on his coins illustrates the drunken jest of Demetrius and his courtiers who dubbed him ελεφανταρχης (Plut., Demetr., 25). Regarding the anchor, which he is said to have used also as his signet, see Justin, xv. 4, and Appian, Syr., 56; and cf. Svoronos, Νομ. των Πτολ. i. p. ρα', and iv. p. 44, where it is suggested that it may be a reminiscence of his service as Ptolemyís admiral. His most characteristic device is, however, the head of a horned horse. The horns, which are probably emblematic of divine strength (cf. Appian, l. c.), reappear on his own head, on his helmet, and very often on the heads of the elephants.
For anonymous coins attributed to Seleucus as satrap see under Babylon (infra, p. 816). Prior to B.C. 306 his currency consisted largely of AV and AR with the name and types of Alexander, his issues being some- times distinguished by an anchor as adjunct symbol (MĀŁller, Nos. 1355-9 and 1491-1514). The following remarkable pieces, with Ptolemaic obverse, seem to be connected with his stay in Egypt :óAV Double- staters, anonymous, obv. Head of Alexander in elephant-skin, and rev. Nike, with head of horned horse in the field; ∆. ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Similar types or, sometimes, rev. Anchor (Svoronos, Νομ. των Πτολ., Pl. I. 29-35). The corresponding AR bore Alexanderís name and types (MŁller, No. 1487). Alexandrine types continued to be employed by Seleucus for various denominations, including the obol (N. C., 1900, p. 293), down to the very end of his reign; tetradrachms minted at Pergamum cannot be earlier than circ. B.C. 284 (Imhoof, Dyn. von Pergamon, pp. 15 f.). But after B.C. 306 his own name, generally accompanied by ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, was usually (though not invariably) substituted for that of Alexander. Other innovations appeared. On a good many specimens Zeus holds Nike instead of eagle, while on the Dr. and Ĺ Dr. of one series the figure of Seleucus, wearing horned helmet and mounted on horned horse, replaces the seated Zeus (N. Z., 1895, p. 15). This tendency to modification found more decided expression in completely new types, the Attic weight of Alexander's coinage being maintained. All have inscr. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ. The following were probably the earliest :ó
|Head of Apollo. [N. Z., 1895, Pl. II. 6, and 1901, Pl. I. 1.]||Artemis shooting, in car drawn by two horned elephants.|
|Head of Zeus. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. I. 8.]||Athena fighting, in similar car.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. I. 7.]||Similar; car has four horned elephants.|
|Head of Athena. [Imhoof, Zur gr. und rĀŲm. MĀŁnzkunde, Pl. VIII. 21.]||Head of elephant.|
Most of the preceding have symbols, monograms, or letters on the rev. They fall naturally into groups, indicating that they were struck over a considerable length of time and at more than one mint. Thus, the combined evidence of fabric, provenance, and die-position (see Corolla Num., pp. 184 ff.) shows that not a few are of Bactrian or Indian origin, notably those with a monogram on the obv. The same is probably true of others:ó
|Head of Seleucus, with bullís horn. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. I. 6.]||Head of bridled horse, with horns and plume.|
AV Stater and AR Tetradr.
In all likelihood the types just described were introduced towards the close of the reign of Seleucus; his successor adopted them. On the other hand, a series with rev. recalling the coinage of Agathocles (p. 181) may have begun after the victory of Ipsus (B.C. 301) :ó
|Head of Seleucus, idealized, in helmet ornamented with bullís horn and covered with pantherís skin.||Nike crowning trophy (Fig. 332).|
AR Tetradrachm, Dr., and Ĺ Dr.
|Id. [Philip II Coll.]||Id., without ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ.|
The foregoing, which are not distinctively Eastern, seem to represent the Syrian mintage of Seleucus after the transference of his capital to Antioch (cf. N. Z., 1895, p. 17). At the same time they must have been well known beyond the Euphrates, for barbarous imitations come from Baluchistan (see infra under Antiochus I). The remaining AR of Seleucus may have been struck in Central Asia, the head of the horned horse being particularly associated with the East:ó
|Head of bridled horse, with horns. [Babelon Rois, Pl. II. 9.]||Elephant walking.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. II. 1.]||Anchor.|
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. II. 11.]||Bow and quiver.|
|Tripod. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. II. 2.]||Anchor.|
|Id. [Berlin.]||Bow and quiver.|
Antiochus I (Soter), called βασιλευς in the cuneiform inscriptions of Babylon at least as early as B.C. 289, was associated with his father in the government circ. B.C. 293-281, the provinces beyond the Euphrates being committed to his care. To this period doubtless belong the AR coins with ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ. ĎAntiochus, son of King Seleucus.í They are of Bactrian or Indian provenance, and are either (α) tetradrachms with Alexandrine types (N. C., 1880. Pl. X. 2) or (β) tetradrachms, drachms, and hemidrachms with types of Seleucus; obv. Head of Zeus, rev. Athena in elephant-car (N. C., 1879, Pl. I. 4). The latter are not on the usual Attic standard, but on a form of the light Phoenician, which we know on other grounds to have been used in India in early times (N. C., 1906, p. 9). Rare drachms of class (β) with ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (N. C., 1906, Pl. II. 14) must have been struck after Antiochus actually became βασιλευς.
It is quite possible that among the many coins inscribed ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ there may be some that were issued by Antiochus I as viceroy of the East; this is notably so with those that have his father's head on the obv. The great majority must, however, have been struck during his own tenure of the supreme power, B.C. 281-261. All are of Attic weight. Alexandrine types are found both on AV (Hunter Cat., iii, Pl. LXIII. 21) and on AR (tetradrachms, drachms, and hemidrachms). Nor were the characteristic types of Seleucus abandoned, all the coins on which these appear being seemingly of Central Asian origin :ó
|Head of Seleucus I, with bullís horn.|
[Hunter Cat., iii. Pl. LXIII. 20.]
|Head of horned horse.|
|Head of Antiochus I.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVIII. 15.]
|Helmeted head: barbarous.|
[N. C., 1904, Pl. XVII. 1-7.]
|Nike crowning trophy: barbarous.|
AR Dr., Ĺ Dr., and Obol
|Head of Seleucus I, with bullís horn. [N. C., 1883, Pl. IV. 1.]||Apollo, naked, seated on omphalos, looking along bow.|
|Head of Antiochus I (cf. Fig. 333).||Similar; but Apollo looks along arrow.|
The latter variety of rev. is the one which became conventional, but sometimes Apollo holds two or three arrows, as he does on Fig. 333. Differences of style and fabric prove that coins with this rev. were minted at various widely separated centers. But it is remarkable that
1 The average weight of seven tetradrachms is 212.5 grs., the maximum 214.5.
2 The barbarous imitations of Fig. 332 come from Baluchistan (N. C., 1904, pp. 317 f.) the whole of the AV seems to come from the far East (J. H. S., xxiii. p. 108). The portraits of Antiochus show him at various ages. On rare tetra- drachms with ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ he appears as an old man with sharply-defined features and deep-set eyes (Hunter Cat., iii, Pl. LXIV. 4). These, and ∆ with the same inscr., were issued towards the end of his reign when he assumed the title Soter in honor of a victory over the Galatai (Appian, Syr., 65). The following, which has the usual inscr. and the mint-mark of Cyme in Aeolis, belongs to the same period (J. H. S., xxvii. p. 147) :ó
|Head of Antiochus I.|
[J. H. S., xxvii. Pl. XIII. 5.]
|Herakles seated on rock; in field, one- handled vase.|
Seleucus, son of Antiochus I, appears as βασιλευς in the cuneiform inscriptions of Babylon from B.C. 275 to 269, when he held the vice- royalty of the East. No coins can be identified with certainty as his; see, however, J. H. S., xxiii. p. 110.
Antiochus II (Theos) ruled jointly with Antiochus I, circ. B.C. 266- 261; alone, B.C. 261-246. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ. Wt., Attic. A head formerly supposed to be that of Antiochus Hierax or of Antiochus III is apparently that of Antiochus II (J. H. S., xxiii. Pl. I. 3 and 5). Characteristic likenesses, whose identity is absolutely certain, occur also on the better executed among the following, all struck about the beginning of the reign at Cyme, Myrina, or Phocaea (J. H. S., xxvii. pp. 145 ff.):ó
|Head of Antiochus II. [Op. cit., Pl. XIII. 7-14, and Pl. XIV. 4-13.]||Herakles seated on rock; mint-marks.|
Other varieties of portrait attach themselves more or less closely to those already mentioned, while others again have become associated with Antiochus II simply because they obviously do not represent either his father or his grandson. A remarkable AV stater has: obv. Head of Antiochus II, rev. Athena Nikephoros (Babelon Rois, Pl. VI. 1). But the usual types are :ó
|Head of Antiochus II.|
|Apollo seated on omphalos.|
Regarding the variations of this rev. see Babelon Rois, p. lxii. On one set of tetradrachms (J. H. S., xxiii. Pls. I and II), struck chiefly at Alexandreia Troas, the kingís diadem is winged, a peculiarity which is local, not personal (op. cit., p. 102). On the majority of these, as well as on a certain number of other specimens, the head itself is idealized, perhaps an indication that they were struck after Antiochus was dead; see infra under Antiochus Hierax. All such pieces seem to have been minted in Western Asia Minor (op. cit., p. 116). On the other hand, the whole of the AV with the seated Apollo probably comes from Bactria (op. cit., p. 108), where, however, if iconography can be trusted, the peculiarly Eastern type of Seleucus I also survived :ó
|Head of Antiochus II.|
[N. C., 1881, Pl. II. 5-7.]
|Head of bridled horse, with horns and plume.|
During the reign of Antiochus II Bactria, under Diodotus, revolted against Seleucid rule. Before the revolt the vassal may have placed his own portrait on the obv. of certain AV and AR coins with rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, Zeus hurling fulmen (
|Head of Seleucus II, sometimes with slight whisker.|
[Hunter Cat., iii. Pl. LXIV. 18.]
|Apollo, naked, standing leaning on bow.|
AV Stater, AR Dr., and ∆
|Head of Athena, in close helmet.||Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. VI. 6].|
AR Dr. and ∆
|Head of Seleucus II, rarely with slight whisker. (Fig. 334.)||Apollo, naked, standing leaning on tripod.|
AR Tetradrachm., Dr., and ∆
|Head of Seleucus II, bearded (Πωγων, cf. Polybius, ii. 71).||Id. [N. C., 1886, Pl. XI. 18, and BMC Seleucid, Pl. VI. 14].|
The exceptional attitude here assumed by Apollo may be due to the conventional type having been usurped by Hierax (Six, N. C., 1898, p. 235). For other varieties, particularly of ∆, see Imhoof-Blumer MG, pp. 426 f., and also London, Paris, and Hunter Catalogues.
Antiochus Hierax, B.C. 246-227, revolted from his brother Seleucus II, and declared himself king of Asia Minor. It is probable that some of the tetradrachms with rev. Apollo on omphalos, and inscr. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, were really issued by him. The probability is strongest in the case of those that bear an idealized head of his father, Antiochus II, and the mint-marks of cities like Alexandreia Troas, Cyzicus, Lampsacus, and Abydus (J. H. S., xxiii. p. 116). Various attempts to identify his own portrait have also been made (Bunbury, N. C., 1883, p. 83; Babelon Rois, p. lxxii; Macdonald, J. H. S., xxiii. p. 114).
Seleucus III (Soter, Keraunos), B.C. 226-223, eldest son of Seleucus II. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ. Wt., Attic.
|Head of Seleucus III, with slight whisker. [||Apollo on omphalos, sometimes with l. elbow on tripod.|
AR Tetradrachm, Dr., and ∆
Other varieties of ∆ are more doubtfully assigned to this king.
Antiochus III (the Great). B.C. 223-187, second son of Seleucus II, regained much of the territory that his predecessors had lost. Owing to the extent of his dominions and the length of his reign, his coins exhibit great differences in style and fabric. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ. Wt., Attic. The usual rev. type is the traditional one :ó
|Head of Antiochus III, rarely with slight whisker.|
[Hunter Cat., iii. Pl. LXV. 6.]
|Apollo on omphalos.|
The AV octadrachms (Fig. 335), which weigh 528.5 grs. max., were issued at two distinct periods (Hunter Cat., iii. p. 30). A standard portrait is furnished by dated ∆ struck in Phoenicia. Many varieties, however, occur on the AR, and identity is sometimes doubtful. On the coins of one well-marked group (cf. Fig. 335) one end of the diadem usually falls forward over the shoulder, while the obv. has a fillet- border. These are probably Syrian (Hunter Cat., iii. p. 31). Others, which show the king with thin, sharp features and elongated neck, are generally classed as Bactrian (N. C., 1883, p. 93, Pl. V. 8 f.). A minority appear to be certainly of Asia Minor (BMC Seleucid, Pl. VIII. 6) or of Phoenicia (Babelon Rois, Nos. 344 f.). On the following, which are much less common, the portrait sometimes approximates to the ĎBactrianí model :ó
|Head of Antiochus III.|
[Babelon Rois, Pl. X. 1-3.]
The types of the ∆ are very varied (Babelon Rois, Pls. X and XI), and the serrated edge is now first met with. Some numismatists recognize the head of Antiochus III on coins struck at various European mints (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVIII. 2-4; Babelon Rois, pp. lxxxii f.).
Molon, B.C. 221-220, satrap of Media, revolted from Antiochus and struck ∆ with inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΟΛΩΝΟΣ.
|Head of Zeus. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. X. 1.]||Apollo Musegetes.|
|Head of Apollo. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. X. 2.]||Nike, crowning name of Molon.|
|Head of Achaeus. [Munich: Imhoof, PortrĀštkĀŲpfe, Pl. III. 19.]||Athena Promachos; in field, head of horse.|
|Id. (?). [Babelon Rois, p. lxxxviii.]||Apollo standing, with arrow.|
|Head of Apollo. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. X. 3.]||Eagle, with palm or wreath.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. X. 4.]||Tripod.|
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XI. 12.]||Head of horse.|
Seleucus IV (Philopator), B.C. 187-175. Inscr, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ. Wt., Attic. The AR coins of this king are tetradrachms and drachms, with rev. Apollo on omphalos. The former fall into two groups, a large one with fillet-border on obv., and a much smaller one with border of dots. Here again, as in the case of his father, a standard portrait is furnished by dated ∆ coins of Phoenicia. The ordinary rev. of these is the stern of a galley (Hunter Cat., iii. Pl. LXVI. 5), but one very rare variety has a lyre and the title ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ. For ∆ with serrated edges see Hunter Cat., iii. pp. 39 f. Cf. also Babelon Rois, pp. xci and 64 ff.Antiochus IV (Epiphanes), B.C. 175-164, a younger son of Antiochus III, seized the throne upon his brotherís death. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, either alone or with ΘΕΟΥ (Babelon Rois, Pl. XII. 5), ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ, ΘΕΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ, ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ, or ΘΕΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ. Wt., Attic. Few of the portraits of this king present a genuine likeness; see Babelon Rois, p. xciii. For the most part the head is idealized as befits a Ďgod incarnateí. The occasional appearance of a star above it on the tetradrachms, or of twin stars at the ends of the diadem, also indicates deification, while the diadem itself is often radiate on the smaller AR and usually so on the ∆. The predominance of the fillet-border is even more decided than it had been in the previous reign. Henceforward the border of dots hardly occurs on Seleucid tetradrachms, always excepting those of Phoenician weight, where it is never absent. The traditional Seleucid rev. seems to have been used throughout the reign, being found with all forms of inscr.:ó
|Head of Antiochus IV.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XI. 1-5.]
|Apollo on omphalos.|
AR Tetradr., Dr., ∆
There are other types which never have the simple ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ:ó
|Head of Antiochus IV.|
[Babelon Rois, Pl. XII. 9 f.]
|Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
AV Stater, AR Tetradr., ∆
|Id. [Op. cit., Pl. XII. 7.]||Aegis (cf. Paus. v. 12. 4).|
AR Ĺ Dr., ∆
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XI. 6.]||Tripod-lebes.|
|Head of Zeus. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XI. 9.]||Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
|Head of Apollo.|
[Babelon Rois, Pl. XII. 12.]
A notable episode in the reign of Antiochus IV was his invasion of Egypt (B.C. 170-168). With this the following are evidently connected :ó unique AR drachm (Hunter Cat., iii. Pl. LXVI. 19) and five denominations of Ptolemaic ∆ (Svoronos, Νομ. των Πτολ., Pl. XLVIII. 1-5), all with rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ, Eagle on thunderbolt; also unique ∆ with rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, Two eagles on thunderbolt (op. cit., Pl. XLVIII. 7). For details as to the ordinary ∆ of Antiochus IV see London, Paris, and Hunter Catalogues. The occurrence of value-marks (= 1, 2, or 4 chalkoi) deserves mention; see Imhoof, Z. f. N., iii. pp. 347 ff. Occasionally the mint can be determined by the type. But the most remarkable feature is the inauguration of an extensive system of municipal coinage, with head of king on obv. and city-name on rev. It falls into two classes :ó (α) With royal name: struck at Gebal (Byblus), Laodiceia in Canaan (Berytus), Sidon, Tyre, and Ascalon. The city-name is usually in Phoenician script, but sometimes in Greek and sometimes also in both. [
Antiochus V (Eupator), B.C. 164-162, had been made βασιλευς in 170 B.C., when his father set out for Egypt. He was then but three years old, and he may well be the child whose head appears on AR tetra- drachms with rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, Apollo on omphalos (Six, N. C., 1897, pp. 215 f.; Maonald, J. H. S., xxiii. p. 113). These were formerly attributed to a mythical son of Seleucus II, but seem certainly to belong to the early part of the second century B.C. The ordinary AR of Antiochus consists of Attic tetradrachms and drachms with inscr. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ. Rev. either Apollo on omphalos, or Zeus seated (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIII. 11-14). For AV octadrachm with the latter type see Friedlaender and von Sallet, Das KĀŲnigl. MĀŁnzkab., No. 426. The Berlin Museum likewise possesses a highly interesting AR tetradrachm with rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ, Ptolemaic eagle upon thunderbolt. Unfortunately it is plated, so that the standard cannot be determined. But in any event it forms an important link between the money struck by Antiochus IV in Egypt and the systematic issue of Seleucid coins on the Phoenician system, afterwards inaugurated by Alexander I (q. v.). The rare ∆ of Antiochus V includes municipal of Gebal (Byblus) and of Tripolis.
1 Is it possible that the very rare AV staters of Antiochus IV form part of the spoils of Egypt? Polybius (xxviii. 17) records that the king presented Ďa gold pieceí to each of the Greek inhabitants of Naucratis.
Demetrius I (Soter), B.C. 162-150, was the son of Seleucus IV. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ, either alone or with ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ. AR tetra- drachms, drachms, diobols, and obols have rev. Apollo on omphalos (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIV. 3 and 5). But novel types are more common:ó
|Head of Demetrius I. [||Tyche enthroned, holding sceptre and cornucopia.|
There are other changes. The fillet-border on the obv. is often replaced by a laurel-wreath, while dates (hitherto confined to Phoenician ∆) become frequent. The monograms on the rev. also lend themselves more readily to interpretation as mint-marks, although some of the attributions made on this basis are doubtful. Barbarous imitations of the drachm with rev. Cornucopia are fairly numerous. The weight of the AR is Attic, but there are very rare AV coins (Babelon Rois, p. cxx, Pl. XVII. 1), with obv. Tyche enthroned and rev. Ptolemaic double cornucopia, struck on a different standard, perhaps the Phoenician. Besides municipal ∆ of Tyre and of Sidon (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIV. 6-8), there are several varieties of ordinary ∆. Conspicuous among these are some with heads of animals (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIV. 12-15); the king was a mighty hunter (Polybius, xxxi. 22. 3).
Demetrius married his sister Laodice, widow of Perseus of Macedon, and the heads of king and queen appear jugate on AR tetradrachms with rev. Tyche enthroned (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XV. 1 f.); also on ∆ with rev. Nike (Babelon Rois, Pl. XVII. 7).
Timarchus, B.C. 162, satrap of Babylon, declined to acknowledge Demetrius, and issued coins in his own name. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΤΙΜΑΡΧΟΥ, an Oriental form of title, used at this time in Parthia and also by Eucratides of Bactria, from whose coins the types of the tetradrachm are borrowed (see infra, p. 839). Wt., Attic.
|Head of Timarchus.|
[Babelon Rois, p. cxv.]
|Nike in galloping quadriga.|
|Helmeted bust. [E. F. Weber, Sale-Cat., Pl. LIII, No. 4078.]||The Dioskuri charging.|
|Head of Timarchus. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVIII. 6.]||Artemis, with bow and arrow.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XV. 3.]||Nike, with wreath and palm.|
Alexander I (Bala), B.C. 150-145, was a usurper who professed to be the son of Antiochus IV. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, either alone or with ΘΕΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ, ΕΥΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ (Hunter Cat. iii. p. 61, note), or ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ (Babelon Rois, Pl. XVIII. 8), all reminiscent of his pretended parentage. One series is very complete :ó
|Head of Alexander I.|
[Babelon Rois, Pl. XVII. 9 f.]
|Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XVI. 2.]||Apollo on omphalos.|
|Id., radiate. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XVI. 3.]||Apollo standing.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id.; no rays.|
[Babelon Rois, Pl. XVII. 13.]
|Head of Alexander I.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XV. 6.]
|Zeus enthroned, holding fulmen (Sidon).|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XV. 5.]||Athena Nikephoros standing.|
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XVII. 8.]||Tyche Nikephoros seated.|
|Id. [Imhoof-Blumer MG, p. 433.]||Sandan on lion (Tarsus).|
|Head of Zeus. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XVI. 1.]||Thunderbolt within wreath (Seleuceia in Pieria).|
Many of the preceding are dated. All are of Attic weight. But the reign of Alexander witnessed a fresh departureóthe systematic striking,
For details as to the abundant and varied ∆ of Alexander I see London, Paris, and Hunter Catalogues. Many pieces have the serrated edge. A few are dated, and some have value-marks. Of special interest is the revival of the municipal coinage inaugurated by Antiochus IV (q. v.). Thus, coins of class (α) were struck at Berytus, Gebal (Byblus),
1 Coincidences of date and mint-mark in this and subsequent reigns show they were not intended to supersede the AR of Attic weight. Both kinds of money were issued simultaneously at the same cities. Except on the coins of Tryphon (q.v.) the dates are reckoned from the Seleucid era.Sidon; coins of class (β) at Cyrrhus, Antioch, Apameia, Laodiceia ad Mare, and Seleuceia in Pieria.
Demetrius II (Nicator), B.C. 146-140 (first reign), son of Demetrius I, seized the kingdom with the aid of Ptolemy, who had quarreled with Alexander and who now transferred Cleopatra to the new ruler. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ, either alone or with ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ, ΘΕΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ, ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ, ΘΕΟΥ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ, or ΘΕΟΥ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ. For AV double-stater of Phoenician weight, rev. Anchor, said to be of Persian provenance, see Walcher de Molthein, Cat., Pl. XXVII, No. 2979. AR of Phoenician weight, rev. Eagle, were struck at Berytus, Sidon, and Tyre. The types of the Attic AR are very various. The following apparently form a series :ó
|Head of Demetrius II.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XVII. 8, 11.]
|Apollo on omphalos.|
|Id. [Imhoof-Blumer MG, p. 435.]||Apollo standing.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XIX. 5.]||Ear of corn on stalk.|
A very rare variety of the tetradrachm (Babelon Rois, Pl. XIX. 16) has a laurel-wreath in place of the usual fillet-border on the obv., a reminiscence of the coinage of Demetrius I (q. v.). This is also recalled by the rare tetradrachm with rev. Tyche enthroned (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XVIII. 2), to which belongs a drachm with rev. Zeus enthroned (ibid., 3). Other rev. types areóon tetradrachms (ibid., 1, 11, and 12): Athena Magarsis (Mallus), Zeus Nikephoros enthroned, Athena Nikephoros standing; and on drachms (Babelon Rois, Pl. XIX. 4 and 6): Cornucopia and Anchor. The ∆ coins (not always easily distinguished from those of the second reign) are numerous, and include municipal of Berytus and of Tyre; see London and Hunter Catalogues.
The footing of Demetrius had never been other than precarious. Ultimately he withdrew to Babylon, and was made prisoner in a war with the Parthians.
Antiochus VI (Dionysos), B.C. 145-142, son of Alexander I, was set upon the throne, when a child of seven, by Tryphon, his fatherís minister. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, seldom with ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ, usually with ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΥ. Wt., Attic. There are very rare AR tetra- drachms of B.C. 145 with rev. Zeus Nikephoros enthroned (Babelon Rois, Pl. XX. 6). But his ordinary issues do not begin until the next year, when he assumed the title Διονυσος :ó
|Head of Antiochus VI, radiate (Fig. 337).||The Dioskuri, within wreath; dates.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIX. 7.]||Helmet with ibex-horn; no dates.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIX. 3.]||Apollo on omphalos; dates.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIX. 4.]||Apollo standing.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIX. 5.]||Panther.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIX. 6.]||Thyrsos.|
The use of the wreath on the rev. of these tetradrachms is an early example of a practice that subsequently became common. They all bear the letters ΤΡΥ, which also appear regularly on the undated drachms. During B.C. 144 ΤΡΥ, which obviously represents Tryphon, is accompanied only by single letters and monograms, which are apparently mint-marks. Thereafter ΣΤΑ is added beneath ΤΡΥ on the larger denomination. Simultaneously it begins to be placed on the dated drachms (on which ΤΡΥ never occurs), while it is also very prominent on the smaller AR with Dionysiac types (undated) and on the ∆. But there are tetradrachms of B.C. 142 struck from a die from which this name has been erased (Regling, Z. f. N., xxiv. p. 135). The inference is that ΣΤΑ was an important minister who fell from power abruptly. For ∆, often with Dionysiac types, see Hunter Cat., iii. pp. 74 ff.
Tryphon (Diodotus), B.C. 142-139, killed his ward and declared himself βασιλευς αυτοκρατωρ, a remarkable title, the importance of which is shown by the fact that it is written in full on the Phoenician AR (see supra, p. 765). Tryphon's abandonment of the Seleucid era for dates is also significant. His best-known coins are AR Attic tetradrachms and drachms, and ∆, all having rev. Helmet with ibex-horn (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XX. 1-3). AR Phoenician tetradrachms were struck at Byblos, Ptolemais, and Ascalon: rev. Eagle, with regnal dates (Babelon Rois, Pl. XXI. 4 f.). There are also ∆ of Ascalon (ibid., 6). Inscription, always ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΤΡΥΦΩΝΟΣ ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΟΡΟΣ.
Antiochus VII (Sidetes), B.C. 138-129, younger brother of Demetrius, overthrew Tryphon and married Cleopatra. Inscription, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟ- ΧΟΥ, either alone or with ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ. Phoenician AR was struck at Sidon and at Tyre (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XX. 4); rev. Eagle. The types of the Attic AR are as follows :ó
|Head of Antiochus VII.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XX. 6.]
|Athena Nikephoros standing (Tyre, etc.)|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XX. 7.]||Nike (Tyre, &c.).|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVIII. 8.]||Pyre of Sandan (Tarsus).|
|Id. [Hirsch, Auct. Cat. xiii, No. 4467.]||Sandan on lion (Tarsus).|
|Id. [Petrowicz Coll.]||Athena Magarsis (Mallus).|
|Id. [Brit. Mus.]||Tyche seated.|
1 These hemidrachms read simply ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ.Pieria, of Sidon and of Tyre, with or without the royal name. Small pieces with obv. Flowering lily and rev. Anchor were minted at Jerusalem, which Antiochus captured circ. B.C. 132. See London, Paris, and Hunter Catalogues.
Demetrius II (Nicator), B.C. 129-125 (second reign), was liberated by the Parthian king in order to make trouble for Antiochus. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ, either alone or with ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ, ΘΕΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ, or ΘΕΟΥ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ. Phoenician AR, rev. Eagle, was struck at Ptolemais, Sidon, and Tyre. The Attic AR was of several varieties :ó
|Head of Demetrius II, bearded.||Zeus Nikephoros enthroned (Fig. 338)|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXI. 5.]||Athena Magarsis (Mallus).|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXI. 6.]||Pyre of Sandan (Tarsus).|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXI. 7.]||Sandan on lion (Tarsus).|
|Id. [Berlin.]||Thunderbolt within wreath (Seleuceia in Pieria).|
AR Ĺ Dr.
With rare exceptions (N. C., 1883, Pl. VI. 7) the coins of Phoenician weight retain the beardless portrait of Demetrius which they had borne during his first reign. On all others belonging to the second reign he is represented with a beard. If he began to grow his beard after his return, as is perhaps indicated by N. C., 1883, Pl. VI. 4, then the earliest of his new Attic tetradrachms had rev. Apollo on omphalos (Babelon, Rois, Pl. XIX. 15). But for the most part this once familiar type figures only on the ∆ of his second reign: see Hunter Cat., iii. pp. 87 ff., where other types of ∆ are recorded, the most interesting being that with a figure in Parthian dress (op. cit., Pl. LXVII. 22). There are municipal coins of Sidon and Tyre, the former without the royal name.
Alexander II (Zebina), B.C. 128-123, was set up by Ptolemy Physcon as a rival to Demetrius. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ. On the unique AV stater in the British Museum, rev. Zeus Nikephoros enthroned, he adds ΘΕΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ, a reminder that he claimed to have been adopted by Alexander I, the pretended son of Epiphanes. This piece is perhaps to be connected with the kingís plundering of the golden Nike held by the statue of Zeus at Antioch (Wroth, N. C., 1897, p. 115 [citing Pl. V. 8]). Phoenician AR, rev. Eagle, was struck at Ascalon (Babelon, Rois, p. cl). But the great mass of the AR is Attic:ó
|Head of Alexander II.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXII. 2.]
|Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXII. 3.]||Double cornucopia.|
|Id. Hunter Cat., iii. Pl. LXIX. 9.]||Single cornucopia.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXII. 5.]||Nike.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XXIII. 8.]||Anchor.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXII. 4.]||Athena Nikephoros standing.|
|Id. [Petrowicz Coll.]||Pyre of Sandan (Tarsus).|
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XXIII. 6.]||Sandan on lion (Tarsus).|
Cleopatra, B.C. 125-121, was successively the wife of Alexander Bala, of Demetrius Nicator, and of Antiochus Sidetes. The eldest of her sons by Demetrius assumed the diadem as Seleucus V upon his fatherís death. His mother straightway had him murdered, and took the supreme power into her own hands. The British Museum possesses an AR tetradrachm of Attic weight, dated ΖΠΡ (= B.C. 125), and reading ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑΣ ΘΕΑΣ ΕΥΕΤΗΡΙΑΣ. The rev. type is Egyptian:ó
|Head of Cleopatra (Fig. 339).||Double cornucopia, filleted.|
The queen soon associated with her in the government a younger son of Demetrius, Antiochus VIII (Grypus). Their jugate heads appear on Phoenician AR struck at Sidon: rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, Eagle. Inscr. on their Attic AR, ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑΣ (ΘΕΑΣ) ΚΑΙ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ:ó
|Heads jugate of Cleopatra and Antiochus VIII [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXIII. 3.]||Zeus Nikephoros enthroned (Sidon, &c.)|
|Id. [N. C., 1900, Pl. I. 14.]||Pyre of Sandan (Tarsus).|
For ∆ with the joint names see Hunter Cat., iii. pp. 97 ff.
Antiochus VIII (Grypus), B.C. 121-96, finally compelled his mother to drink poison which she had prepared for himself. His nickname is
1 ΘΕΑΣ is usually omitted on the ∆, and occasionally on the AR. A few of the tetradrachms have a border of dots, instead of a fillet-border, on the obv. The group so formed stands alone in the later coinage of the Seleucidae (see supra, p. 762) well illustrated by his later coins, which show him as a middle-aged man with an extremely hooked nose. Phoenician AR coins, struck at Ascalon and Sidon, have rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ. Eagle. On the Attic AR ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ is added:ó
|Head of Antiochus VIII [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXIV. 1.]||Zeus Ouranios standing (Sidon, &c.)|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXIV. 2.]||Athena Nikephoros standing (Seleuceia ad Calycadnum, &c.).|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXIV. 3.]||Pyre of Sandan (Tarsus).|
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XXV. 6.]||Sandan on lion (Tarsus).|
|Id. [Petrowicz Coll.]||Tyche standing (Tripolis).|
|Head of Antiochus VIII (Fig. 340).||Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVI. 4.]||Tripod.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XX. 8, and XXVI. 5.]||Nike.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id. [Imhoof-Blumer MG, p. 436.]||Ear of corn on stalk.|
The ∆ coins are numerous, but none of the types are noteworthy. One group, however, is remarkable for the inscr. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟ- ΧΟΥ ΦΙΛΟΜΗΤΟΡΟΣ (Hunter Cat., iii. p. 103). There are ∆ of Sidon without the royal name (Babelon Rois, Pl. XXIV. 16.).
Antiochus IX (Cyzicenus), B.C. 114-95, son of Antiochus VII and Cleopatra, after a struggle divided the kingdom with his half-brother Grypus (B.C. 111), taking as his share Coele-Syria and Phoenicia. His Phoenician AR, rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, Eagle, is fairly common (Sidon, Ascalon, &c.). But he was the last Seleucid king to strike coins of this class. The title ΦΙΛΟΠΛΤΟΡΟΣ is used on his Attic AR, the obol having ΒΑ ΑΝ ΦΙ:ó
|Head of Antiochus IX (Fig. 341).||Athena Nikephoros standing (Sidon, &c.)|
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XXVI. 11.]||Nike.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id. [Petrowicz Coll.]||Ear of corn on stalk.|
|Id. [Petrowicz Coll.]||Athena Nikephoros standing.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXV. 1.]||Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XXVI. 5 f.]||Tyche standing (Tripolis).|
AR Tetr., Dr.
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XXVI. 12.]||Pyre of Sandan (Tarsus).|
|Id. [Ibid., 13.]||Sandan on lion (Tarsus).|
Seleucus VI (Epiphanes Nicator), B.C. 96-95, succeeded his father Grypus, and renewed the war with Cyzicenus. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ, with occasional omission of ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ For ∆ see Hunter Cat., iii. pp. 109 f. His AR coins (Attic weight) are:ó
|Head of Seleucus VI.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVIII. 11.]
|Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XXVII. 3.]||Nike.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXV. 13.]||Double cornucopia.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id. Imhoof-Blumer MG, p. 437.]||Ear of corn on stalk.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXV. 12; cf. Imhoof-Blumer KM, ii. p. 482.]||Athena Nikephoros standing (Seleuceia ad Calycadnum).|
Antiochus X (Eusebes Philopator), B.C. 95-83, son of Cyzicenus, spent his reign in warfare first with Seleucus VI, and then with the other sons of Grypus. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΣΕΒΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΟ- ΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ. Wt., Attic.
|Head of Antiochus X.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVI. 1.]
|Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
|Id. [Hunter Cat., iii. Pl. LXX. 12.]||Tyche standing (Tripolis).|
|Id. [Berlin.]||Nike standing.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
Antiochus XI (Philadelphus), B.C. 92, second or third son of Grypus, struck AR Attic tetradrachms with rev. Zeus Nikephoros enthroned; also ∆ with rev. Athena Nikephoros standing: see Babelon Rois, Pl. XXVII. 11 f. Inscr. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ, ΕΠΙ- ΦΑΝΟΥΣ being usually omitted on the AR. Other coins sometimes attributed to this king belong more probably to his father (op. cit., p. clxvii). But there are very rare tetradrachms (Attic) which show his head jugate with that of his brother Philippus: rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ, Zeus Nikephoros enthroned (op. cit., Pl. XXVII. 13).
Philippus (Philadelphus), B.C. 92-83, another son of Grypus, struck AR Attic tetradrachms with rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ, Zeus Nikephoros enthroned (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXIV. 9). Some are dated from an era beginning in B.C. 111, when Grypus re- turned from exile in Aspendus, and divided the kingdom with Cyzicenus (cf. Wilcken, Hermes, xxix. pp. 436 ff.).
Demetrius III (Philopator), B.C. 95-88, fourth son of Grypus, also took the field against Antiochus X, and proclaimed himself king. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ, with either ΘΕΟΥ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΣΩ- ΤΗΡΟΣ or ΦΙΛΟΜΗΤΟΡΟΣ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ ΚΑΛΛΙΝΙΚΟΥ. Wt., Attic.
|Head of Demetrius III.|
[Babelon Rois, Pl. XXVIII. 4.]
|Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVI. 10.]||Archaic simulacrum of Asiatic goddess, facing.|
The last type probably represents Atargatis (Dea Syra) of Damascus: see Rev. archĀťol., 1904, p. 250. This city was the capital of Demetrius. It seems to have temporarily borne the name of ĎDemetriasí (Wroth, BMC Galatia, pp. lxxv f.), and to have issued municipal ∆: obv. Head of Demetrius III, and rev. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ. For this and ordinary ∆ see Hunter Cat., iii. pp. 114 f.
Antiochus XII (Dionysos), circ. B.C. 87-84, the youngest of the five sons of Grypus, aspired to succeed Demetrius III as king of Coele-Syria. His very rare AR Attic tetradrachms have rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΝΙΚΟΥ, Bearded divinity standing, facing, on a base between two recumbent bulls (N. Z., 1902, Pl. I. 3, 4). This is probably Hadad of Damascus (see Journ. Asiat., 1904, p. 200). Antiochus, too, made Damascus his capital, and his head appears on municipal ∆ of ĎDemetriasí (cf. Demetrius III, supra), for which, as well as for other varieties of ∆, see Hunter Cat., iii. pp. 115 ff.
Tigranes, B.C. 83-69, King of Armenia (B.C. 97-56), was invited to put an end to the internecine strife in Syria. This he did, and ruled the country peaceably till his defeat by Lucullus. His coins, Attic AR and ∆, fall into three classes (N. C., 1902, pp. 193 ff.):ó
|Head of Tigranes, wearing lofty Armenian tiara (Fig. 342).||Tyche of Antioch seated; river-god swimming at her feet.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVII. 9; Babelon Rois, Pl. XXIX. 13.]||Nike, or Palm.|
|Head of Tigranes as above; less good work. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XXIX. 15.]||Tyche with river-god, as above; less good work.|
AR Tetradrachm, Dr.
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVII. 10 f.]||Id., or Herakles standing.|
|Head of Tigranes as above; poor work.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVII. 5.]
|Tyche with river-god, as above, but l.; poor work.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVII. 7; Babelon, Pl. XXIX. 14.]||Id., or Tyche standing.|
The rev. of Fig. 342 represents the famous statue of the Tyche of Antioch by Eutychides of Sicyon (Paus. vi. 2). The corresponding type on coins of class (iii) is rather the Tyche of Damascus; cf. the Imperial coins of that city and also those of Aretas III.
The coinage of the whole region between the Euphrates and the sea may be described by dividing it into districts in the order which Eckhel adopted:
|I. Commagene.||VII. Trachonitis.|
|II. Cyrrhestica.||VIII. Decapolis.|
|III. Chalcidice.||IX. Phoenicia.|
|IV. Palmyrene.||X. Galilaea.|
|V. Seleucis and Pieria.||XI. Samaria.|
|VI. Coele-Syria.||XII. Judaea.|
Throughout the whole of this vast extent of territory, bounded on the north by offshoots of the Taurus, on the north-east by the Euphrates, and on the east and south by the deserts of Arabia, the royal gold coinage of Persia probably passed current down to the age of Alexander the Great. In the latter half of the fifth century the Persian gold coinage was supplemented by the substantial silver money of the wealthy Phoenician cities of the sea-coast, governed for the most part by their own kings, who seem to have been more or less independent of the King of Persia. The coinage of these towns, Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos, inscribed with Phoenician characters, is regulated according to the standard, hence called Phoenician, of about 56 grs. to the drachm, or 224 grs. to the shekel. Aradus, on the other hand, the most northern town on the Phoenician coast, accommodated her money to the standard which prevailed in Cyprus and Cilicia, striking shekels of about 168 grs. equivalent to three-quarters of the Tyrian and Sidonian shekel.
On the Macedonian conquest all the old coinages, both Persian and Phoenician, were abolished, except at Tyre, and mints were set up by Alexander or his immediate successors at all the chief coast-towns of Phoenicia and Palestine, viz. Marathos, Aradus, Sidon, Tyre, Ace, Joppa, Ascalon, and Gaza, as well as at some of the chief cities of the interior. This Alexandrine coinage lasted down to about B.C. 266, when Ptolemy Philadelphus, who had obtained possession of Phoenicia, established mints of his own at the chief cities along the coasts of Palestine and Phoenicia; the issues of the various mints being distinguished by mono- grams. The Ptolemaic coinage in Phoenicia was superseded early in the second century B.C. by the Seleucid coinage; but it is observable that, although the new currency consisted partly of coins of the Attic standard with ordinary Seleucid types, it also included a series of issues which in general appearance and weight were closely modeled upon the previous Ptolemaic coinage (see supra, p. 765). This shows that under the Seleucid rule the commercial susceptibilities of the Phoenician cities were carefully consulted. Later still, complete freedom and independence were accorded to a great number of them, as is evident from the dated autonomous issues of Byblos, Marathus, Aradus, Sidon, Tripolis, Tyre, Ace, Ascalon, Jerusalem, &c., some of them continuing to strike their own silver money even in Imperial times. Although nearly all the Syrian and Phoenician coins bear dates, the eras from which they reckon are not always the same.
|Head of king, diademed and radiate.|
[Babelon Rois, p. 217, Pl. XXX. 1.]
|ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΑΜΟΥ ΘΕΟΣΕΒΟΥΣ ΚΑΙ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ in ex. ΓΛ Nike advancing. [Hunter].|
|Head of king in pointed head-dress.|
[Hunter Cat., Pl. LXX. 20.]
|Same inscription. Thyrsos between two interlaced cornucopias.|
|Head of king in pointed head-dress.|
[BMC Galatia, p. 104; Babelon Rois, Pl. XXX. 2.]
|ΒΑCΙΛΕΩC ΜΙΘΡΑΔΑΤΟΥ ΚΑΛΛΙ- ΝΙΚΟΥ Athena standing, holding Nike.|
|Eagle with palm.|
[Babelon Rois, p. 217, No. 4.]
|Same inscription. Caduceus. [Paris]|
|Eagle with palm.|
[Babelon Rois, p. 218, No. 5.]
|Same inscription. Palm. [Paris].|
Mithradates Philhellen Philoromaios, circ. B.C. 92 (?). Son of Mithradates I Callinicus (?).
|Head of king in pointed head-dress.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩ(ς) ΜΙΘΡΙΔ ΦΙΛΟ[ρω- μαιου ?]. Club. ∆ Size .7. [Brit. Mus.; Berlin.]|
Antiochus I (Theos), circ. B.C. 69-38 (or 31 ?). Son of Mithradates Callinicus by Laodice Thea Philadelphus, daughter of Antiochus VIII, Grypus, of Syria. Antiochus I struck the following bronze coin :ó
|Bust of king in Armenian tiara on which star between two eagles (cf. tiara of Tigranes).||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ Lion walking.|
On a height of Mount Taurus, now the tumulus of Nemroud Dagh, Antiochus established a sacred precinct and royal mausoleum (BMC Galatia, p. xliv). On the Nemroud Dagh reliefs he wears an Armenian tiara ornamented with a lion. Another relief shows a star-spangled lion, Antiochus having been born under the zodiacal sign of the Lion.
The successor of Antiochus I was a king, probably his son, named Mithradates, circ. B.C. 31. Reinach (p. 245) supposes the following bronze at Berlin and Paris (Invent. Wadd., p. 447) to have been issued by Antiochus I and Mithradates in conjunction:óobv. [ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ] ΑΝ- ΤΙΟΧΟΥ Bust of Antiochus in tiara, rev. ΜΙΘΡΑΔΑ[ΤΟΥ] Humped bull, rushing.
Two or three kings followed Mithradates in rapid succession. In B.C. 20 Augustus placed upon the throne another Mithradates, who was succeeded by his son (or brother) Antiochus III. On the death of this Antiochus in A.D. 17, Commagene became a Roman province, but in 38 Caligula restored the kingdom for the benefit of his friend Antiochus IV, son of Antiochus III.
Antiochus IV of Commagene (Epiphanes), A.D. 38-72. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΜΕΓ[ΑΣ] ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΣ ΕΠΙΦΑ[ΝΗΣ]; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΜΕΓΑΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΣ; ΒΑ- ΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΣ.
|Head of king diademed.||ΚΟΜΜΑΓΗΝΩΝ Scorpion within laurel-wreath.|
|Id.||ΚΟΜΜΑΓΗΝΩΝ Capricorn within laurel-wreath.|
|Id.||ΚΟΜΜΑΓΗΝΩΝ Two cornucopias.|
The Scorpion was the zodiacal sign under which Commagene stood. Cilicia formed part of the kingdom of this ruler, who issued money at Anemurium, Celenderis, Corycus, Sebaste, Lacanatis, and Cetis. He also struck coins in Lycaonia (BMC Galatia, p. xlvi, p. 108).
|ΒΑΙCΙΛΙCCΑ ΙΩΤΑΠΗ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛ- ΦΟC Bust of Iotape.||ΚΟΜΜΑΓΗΝΩΝ Scorpion.|
|ΒΑCΙΛЄΩC ΥΙΟΙ Epiphanes and Callinicus on horseback.||ΚΟΜΜΑΓΗΝΩΝ Capricorn.|
|ΒΑCΙΛЄΩC ΥΙΟΙ Anchor between two crossed cornucopias, each containing a youthful head (Epiphanes and Callinicus).||Ą Armenian tiara, ornamented with scorpion: laurel- wreath.|
|ΒΑCΙΛЄΥC ΜЄΓΑC ЄΠΙΦΑΝΗC Head of Epiphanes. CЄΛΙ (Selinus).||ΒΑCΙΛЄΥC ΜЄΓΑC ΚΑΛΛΙΝΙΚΟC Head of Callinicus. Paris. [Cf. BMC Galatia, p. xlvii.]|
Commagene in genere. Bronze coins of first century A.D. (? circ. A.D. 41, Rev. des Āťtudes gr., 1899, p. 402), struck probably at Samosata (BMC Galatia, p. xlviii): Capricorn, rev. Scorpion. Capricorn, rev. ΚΟΜΜΑΓΗΝΩΝ Armenian tiara. ΠΙΣΤΙΣ, Two hands clasped holding caduceus, rev. ΚΟΜΜΑΓΗΝΩΝ, Anchor.
Germanicia Caesareia (Marash). Imperial, M. Aurelius to Commodus. Inscr., ΚΑΙCΑΡ. ΓЄΡΜΑΝΙΚЄWΝ ΚΟ; ΚΑΙC. ΓЄΡΜΑ. ΚΟΜ. Typesó City seated, with river-god swimming at her feet; Inscr. in laurel-wreath. (Contrast the coins of Caesareia Germanica in Bithynia.)
Samosata (Samsat), on the Euphrates, the capital of the kings of Commagene. Autonomous bronze of the period of the Commagenian kings (Antiochus I-IV). Inscr., CΑΜΟCΑΤW; CΑΜΟCΑΤΩ ΠΟΛΕΩC. TypesóZeus; Lion; City seated on rock; Eagle. Imperial, Hadrian to Philip jun. Inscr., ΦΛΑ. CΑΜΟ. ΜΗΤΡΟ. ΚΟΜ. (i.e. Flavia Samosata Metropolis Commagenes); Φ. CΑΜΟC. ΙЄΡ. ΑCΥ. ΑΥΤΟΝΟ. ΜΗΤΡ. ΚΟΜ.; CΑΜΟCΑΤЄΩΝ. Usual typeóCity seated; at her feet, river-god Euphrates or running Pegasos. Era dates from autumn of A.D. 71 (BMC Galatia, p. 117 n.).
Zeugma, on the right bank of the Euphrates, opposite Apameia (Birejik), both cities founded by Seleucus I and connected by a bridge of boats. Imperial, Trajan to Philip jun. Inscr., ΖЄΥΓΜΑΤЄΩΝ. TypesóTetrastyle temple with peribolos encircling the sacred grove (BMC Galatia, p. li), sometimes with capricorn in ex.; Inscr. in laurel-wreath.Silver coin of Caracalla, rev. Eagle and ΖЄV (Antioch type). The numerals that appear on the Imperial ∆ of Zeugma and other Syrian towns probably indicate the month of issue: see Macdonald, N. C., 1903, p. 105. DieudonnĀť (Journ. int., 1907, pp. 273 ff.) has, however, suggested that they indicate the numbers of the dies.
Beroea, now Aleppo (Haleb). Imperial bronze with or without heads of Emperors, Trajan to Antoninus Pius. Rev. ΒЄΡΟΙΑΙWΝ within wreath. Also AR of Macrinus, rev. Eagle (Antioch type), ΒΕ and fantastic bird. (BMC Galatia, p. 132.)
Cyrrhus. Regal bronze of Alexander I, Bala, of Syria (q. v.). Inscr., ΚΥΡΡΗCΤΩΝ, rev. Zeus standing with wreath, also rev. Athena standing holding Nike BMC Galatia, p. lii). Imperial, Trajan to Philip jun. Inscr., ΚΥΡΡΗCΤΩΝ, rev. ΔΙΟC ΚΑΤΑΙΒΑΤΟΥ (or ΚΑΤЄΒΑΤΟΥ), Zeus Kataibates seated on rock holding his thunderbolt and sceptre, before him, eagle. Also Temple containing his statue. This Zeus had altars at Olympia, Athens, &c.; rocks and places struck by lightning were regarded as sacred to him (BMC Galatia, p. lii). Also rev. Inscr. in laurel-wreath. On some later coins, symbol, ram.
Hieropolis (Membij). The ancient name Bambyce was changed to Hieropolis by Seleucus Nicator, who built a new temple for Atargatis (Astarte), the great goddess of the city (cf. the treatise De dea Syria). The following Attic didrachms with Aramaic inscriptions have been attributed (BMC Galatia, p. liii) to Bambyce :ó(α) Coins of the sacerdotal dynasty of Abd-Hadad, circ. B.C. 332: Bust of Atargatis, rev. inscr., Abd-Hadad, King and driver in chariot; Bust of Atargatis (with name inscribed), rev. Abd-Hadad, Abd-Hadad standing in temple. (β) Coins with name ĎAlexanderí [the Great ?]. TypesóBust of Atargatis, rev. Lion devouring bull; Bust of Atargatis facing, rev. King and driver in chariot; Baal enthroned, rev. Atargatis riding on lion; Warrior on horse, rev. Lion walking, in front, bird perched on flower.
In the second century B.C. there are bronze coins of Antiochus IV of Syria (q. v.), rev. ΙЄΡΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ, Zeus standing holding wreath. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Trajan to Philip jun. Inscr., ΙЄΡΟ- ΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ. Types (often accompanied by ΘЄΑC CΥΡΙΑC)óAtargatis riding on lion or enthroned between two lions; Temple, within which, Roman standard, on one side of the temple, Baal Kevan seated between two oxen, on the other, Atargatis seated between two lions, inscr., ΘЄΟΙ CΥΡΙΑC (Imhoof, Gr. M., p. 759, No. 773, cf. No. 772). Also silver (Antioch class) of Domna, Caracalla (symbol, lion), Macrinus (symbol, lion), and Diadumenian. Also bronze of Imperial times dated from Seleucid Era. The inscr. ΘЄΑC CΥΡΙΑC, which frequently appears within a laurel- wreath and without any type, probably indicates the Festival in connexion with which the coins bearing it were issued.
Chalcis (Kinnesrin), near Beroea (Aleppo). ImperialóTrajan to L. Verus. Inscr., ΦΛ. ΧΑΛΚΙΔЄWΝ. TypesóLaurel-wreath; Standing figure radiate holding palm-branch, spear, and shield, with inscr. ΗΛΙΟ- CЄΙΡΟC, Hunter Cat., Pl. LXXI. 27. Date ΚЄ (25) on coins of Trajan and of Hadrian = A.D. 117, from era beginning A.D. 92.
Palmyra struck small bronze coins without the names or heads of Emperors. These were probably issued from the first century A.D. till the time of Sept. Severus and his family. Inscr., when present, ΠΑΛ- ΜVΡΑ. TypesóPalm-tree; Bearded male head in modius, radiate = the Malachbelos of Palmyra (?); Female figure (Atargatis ?) on lion; Lion and crescent; Head of Tyche of Palmyra; and other types described by De Saulcy (see BMC Galatia, pp. lvi-lviii). For coins with the heads of Zenobia and Vaballathus see infra, Egypt under the Romans.
Tetrapolis of Seleucis. The four cities of Antiocheia, Seleuceia, Apameia, and Laodiceia, all founded by Seleucus I, used a joint bronze coinage during part of the second century B.C., beginning B.C. 149. Inscr., ΑΔΕΛΦΩΝ ΔΗΜΩΝ (cf. Strabo, xvi, p. 749 αιπερ και ελεγοντο αλληλων αδελφαι δια την ομονοιαν). TypesóHead of Zeus, rev. Fulmen; Head of Apollo, rev. Tripod; Bearded heads (? Demoi of Antiocheia and Seleuceia), rev. Tyche crowning the inscription, or rev. Zeus seated. Dates according to the Seleucid Era. Mint, apparently Seleuceia (Hunter Cat., iii. p. 141).
Antiocheia ad Orontem, on the right bank of the Orontes, about twenty miles from its mouth, was the capital of the Seleucid Empire, and one of the most splendid cities of the ancient world. It was a mint-place for the regal coinage of the kings from the time of Antiochus IV or earlier. In the second century B.C. it shared in the Tetrapolis coinage (see above), and during the first century B.C. issued bronze coins dated according to (i) the Seleucid Era, B.C. 312, (ii) the Caesarian (autumn, B.C. 49), or, possibly, the Pompeian (B.C. 64). Inscr., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΜΗ- ΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ, &c. Typesóobv. Head of Zeus, or of Tyche of Antioch; rev. Zeus seated holding Nike; Tripod; Tyche standing with rudder; Poppy-head with ears of corn. There are silver coins (weight 240-200 grs.) of M. Antonius and Cleopatra, with portrait- heads: Cleopatra, ΒΑCΙΛΙCCΑ ΚΛЄΟΠΑΤΡΑ ΘЄΑ ΝЄWΤЄΡΑ, wears a profusion of pearls (BMC Galatia, p. 158). Imperial, Augustus to Valerian. Silver and bronze. Like Alexandreia in Egypt and Caesareia in Cappadocia, Antioch was an important Roman mint, whence the issue of silver coins and the Roman character of the types. Antioch was the principal mint for Syria, but Imhoof-Blumer has shown (Gr. M., p. 758; Revue Suisse, viii. pp. 40 f.) that about the time of Caracalla many silver and billon coins of Antiochene types and fabric, but with special symbols, were issued at various mints, chiefly in Syria and Phoenicia, e. g. Hieropolis in Cyrrhestica, Beroea, Zeugma, Aradus, Berytus, Sidon, Tripolis, Tyre, Gaza.
I. SILVER. Tetradrachms weighing at first 236 to 220 grains. From the time of Caracalla the silver deteriorates, weight 220 to 200 grains or less. Didrachms and drachms under Nero. The tetradrachm was tariffed as equivalent to three Roman denarii (BMC Galatia, p. lxiii). Usual inscr., ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ЄΞ (or ЄΞΟΥCΙΑC) ΥΠΑΤΟC ΤΟ Β (Γ, Δ, &c.)=Trib. Pot. Cos. ii (iii, iv, &c.). Coins of Augustus have ΕΤΟΥΣ ΝΙΚΗΣ, with dates of the Era of Actium, B.C. 31; also ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ, with double dates of the Actian and Caesarian Eras (B.C. 31 and B.C. 49). ΕΤΟΥΣ ΝΕΟΥ ΙΕΡΟΥ occurs, Galba to Nerva (Pick, Z. f. N., xiv. 331). On coins of Geta, VΠΑΤΟC ΑΠΟΔЄΔЄΙΓμενοσ=Consul designatus. On coins of the Philips, MONeta VRBica or ΑΝΤΙΟΧΙΑ are found. Usual type, Eagle. The type of the Tyche of Antioch seated on a rock with the river-god Orontes swimming at her feet (Fig. 343) occurs under Augustus and in some later reigns. It is found still earlier on the AR of Tigranes, q. v. These coins reproduce the group of Tyche and Orontes made by Eutychides of Sicyon, a pupil of Lysippus, and set up at Antioch soon after the foundation of the city by Seleucus I in B.C. 300. The marble statue in the Vatican is one of the best reproductions of this group (BMC Galatia, pp. lxi f.).
II. BRONZE. (α) Without heads of emperors. First and second century A.D., some dated from Actian Era, B.C. 31, but most from the Caesarian Era, autumn, B.C. 49, which is also found in class (β). Inscr., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ, and names of the Legati of Syria, also ΑΝ- ΤΙΟΧЄWΝ ΤΗC ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄWC. Types referring to Zeus, Artemis, Apollo; also Tyche and Orontes group; Running ram looking back with crescent and star above it (BMC Galatia, p. lix); Boule (?) dropping pebble into urn (ib., Pl. XIX. 11); Tripod with human heads (Pl. XX. 8). On this quasi-autonomous coinage see Macdonald in N. C., 1904, pp. 105 f., where it is shown that the most remark- able group belongs to the year A.D. 129, when Hadrian visited Antioch.(β) Imperial. Inscr., ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ; ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ. From time of Elagabalus, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟ. ΚΟΛΩΝ. Typesó Commonly the letters SC (Senatus consulto) within a laurel-wreath; also, Crown of the αρχιερευς, inscr., ΑΡΧΙΕΡΑΤΙΚΟΝ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΙΣ (BMC Galatia, p. 167); Laurel-wreath encircling name of Legatus of Syria; Bust of the Tyche of Antioch, above, running ram; Tyche and Orontes, sometimes in shrine. On the coins from Domitian to Caracalla various numerals appear, see Zeugma, supra, p. 777. They probably indicate the month of the issue, or possibly the die-number. ∆ coins of Trajan, rev. ΚΟΙΝΟΝ CΥΡΙΑC, Bust of Tyche of city, were doubtless minted at Antioch (BMC Galatia, p. xliii).
Antiocheni ad Daphnen. See supra, p. 763, under Antiochus IV.
Apameia (Kul'at el-MudĀÓk), on the Orontes or an affluent (the Axius), originally called Pharnake and then Pella. It was renamed by Seleucus I in honor of his wife Apame. It was a regal mint-place of Antiochus IV and later Syrian kings (Inscr., ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΩΙ ΑΞΙΩΙ and ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ), and shared in the Tetrapolis coinage (p. 778, supra). Autonomous ∆, second and first centuries B.C., with dates of Seleucid Era, B.C. 312: cf. BMC Galatia, p. lxiv, and Hunter Cat., iii. p. 191. Inscr., ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ, ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ, ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ. Types relate to Zeus, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Dionysos, Nike. Elephant as rev. type. BMC Galatia, p. 233, No. 3, &c.; also rev. Warrior advancing, Ib. No. 1. Imperial. Imhoof, N. Z., xxxiii, p. 5, attributes the following ∆ to Apameia in the time of Claudius :óHead of Zeus, rev. ΚΛΑΥΔ[ΙЄWΝ] ΑΠ[ΑΜ]ЄWΝ, Goddess of city seated, hand resting on shield, at feet, Orontes (Axius) (Hunter Cat., iii. Pl. LXXIII. 28). Also with the name Claudia only :óobv. ΚΛΑΥΔΙЄWΝ, Head of Helios; rev. ΚΛΑΥΔΙЄWΝ, Head of Selene (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. rĀŲm. MĀŁnzk., p. 236).
|Female head.||ΒΑΛΑΝΕΩΝ CΥ[ριασ] Zeus seated holding Nike. Date Ď104í = B.C. 209/8.|
|Head of City. [Fox, Engr., ii. p. 30.]||ΒΑΛΑΝΕΩΤΩΝ CΥ Nike standing. Date Ď104í = B.C. 209/8.|
Emisa (Homs), on the Orontes, celebrated for its temple of Elagabal, the Syrian divinity identified by the Romans with Sol and Jupiter. Imperial, Antoninus Pius to Uranius Antoninus. Inscr., ЄΜΙCΗΝΩΝ, and from Caracallaís time, ЄΜΙCΩΝ ΚΟΛΩΝΙΑC, or ΜΗΤΡΟ. ΚΟΛ. ЄΜΙCΩΝ. Dates of Seleucid Era. TypesóEagle standing on the black conical stone of Elagabal; Great altar of Elagabal richly decorated (J. Domna); Temple of Elagabal, within which the sacred stone, sur- rounded by a balustrade and shaded by two parasols (BMC Galatia, p. 239, Caracalla and Elagabalus). (This stone, transported to Rome by Elagabalus, priest of the god of Emisa, is shown on the Roman coins of that Emperor and also on those of Uranius Antoninus.) Gamesó ΗΛΙΑ, ΠVΘΙΑ. Silver of Uranius Antoninus with Antiochene eagle- type. Lenormant (L'Alphabet phĀťnicien, ii. p. 4) attributes to Emisa during Imperial times the following ∆, modelled on AR of Antioch :ó Obv. Dabel Malka (in Estrangelo characters), Bust of radiate Sun-god. Rev. S. C, and Eagle within wreath. On the coinage of Emisa, see, further, DieudonnĀť in Rev. Num., 1906, p. 132 f.
Epiphaneia, on the Orontes, the Hamath of the Old Testament, received its Greek name from Antiochus IV, Epiphanes. Autonomous ∆ of second century B.C. Inscr., ΕΠΙΦΑΝΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥ- ΛΟΥ. TypesóHead of Tyche of city, rev. Zeus seated, holding Nike; Bust of Athena, rev. Apollo standing. Some with dates (of era of Aradus ?) as at Paltus.
Gabala (Jebeleh), south of Laodiceia ad Mare. Inscr., ΓΑΒΑΛΕΩΝ. Autonomous ∆ of first century B.C.; obv. Head of Helios; rev. Fore- part of galley and date ΗΚ; obv. Bearded head, rev. Crab and crescent (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. rĀŲm. MĀŁnzk., p. 236; BMC Galatia, p. 243). ImperialóAugustus to Macrinus (or later ?). Era begins B.C. 47. Types chiefly relate to a Syrian goddess (Astarte or Aphrodite ?), who appears seated holding flower, poppy-head, &c. Also Veiled cultus-statue of the same goddess, accompanied by two sphinxes and crescent and star. Also Athena; Owl and sphinx (BMC Galatia, p. 244; cf. N. Z., xxxiii. p. 6); &c.
Laodiceia ad Mare (Latakiyeh), refounded by Seleucus I and named after his mother Laodice, was an important and well-built city of Syria with an excellent harbor. Second century B.C. Inscr., ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ (or ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ) ΘΑΛΑΣΣΗΙ. Coins of the Seleucid kings and autonomous ∆, obv. Head of the Tyche of Laodiceia, rev. Nike. Also coins of the Tetrapolis (p. 778, supra). First century B.C. AR tetra- drachms, weight 230-220 grains., obv. Bust of the Tyche, veiled and turreted, rev. Zeus seated holding Nike, all in wreath. Also AR Drachm (56-60 grains) with obv. Bust of Tyche, rev. ΛΑ ΘΕ Aplustre (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. rĀŲm. MĀŁnzk., p. 237). ∆, Head of Zeus, rev. Tripod with lebes; Radiate head (Helios?), rev. Artemis huntress; Head of Artemis, rev. Boarís head (cf. BMC Galatia, p. lxvii); Head of Dionysos, rev. Pharos (ib., p. 250, No. 24). Inscr., ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΝΟ- ΜΟΥ, and after B.C. 47 (when Julius Caesar visited Syria and conferred various honors on the cities), ΙΟΥΛΙΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕΩΝ.
Imperial and Colonial, Augustus to Trebonianus Gallus (or Valerian?). (α) Without name of emperor. ∆ first and second century A.D. Inscr., ΙΟΥΛΙЄWΝ ΤWΝ ΚΑΙ ΛΑΟΔΙΚЄWΝ. Bust of Athena, rev. Bust of Sarapis. (β) With name of Emperor. Inscr., ΙΟΥΛΙΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕΩΝ; under Sept. Severus, ΙΟΥΛ∑ΛΑΟΔΙ∑CЄΟV∑ΜΗΤΡΟ- ΠΟΛЄWC. From time of Caracalla, inscr., chiefly in Latin, COL. LAOD. METROPOLEOS or LAVDICEON. Types chiefly relate to the Tyche of Laodiceia, whose head is sometimes wreathed with bunches of grapes, the vineyards of the neighborhood being famous (Strabo, xvi. p. 752). The Tyche seated, with river-god at feet, and four Cities standing before her. Also, Two Wrestlers; Two Centaurs supporting agonistic crown; Modius and inscr., AETERNVM BENEFICIVM (an Imperial benefaction of corn to the city: N. C., 1900, p. 100); Armed female figure standing between two stags, probably reproducing the old statue of Artemis Brauronia that Seleucus I brought from Susa to Laodiceia, where it was in existence in the time of Pausanias (BMC Galatia, p. lxviii). There are AR tetradrachms of Augustus and later emperors, rev. Bust of Tyche. Era, Caesarian. B.C. 48. GamesóΑΝΤΟΝΙΝΙ- ΑΝΑ, ΡVΤΗΙΑ (BMC Galatia, p. 259).
Larissa (Kul'at es-SeijĀ‚r), on the Orontes. Autonomous ∆ of first century B.C. Inscr., ΛΑΡΙΣΑΙΩΝ ΤΗΣ. ΙΕΡΑΣ. TypesóHead of Zeus, rev. Throne of Zeus; Head of City, rev. Horse walking (BMC Galatia, p. lxviii f.).
Nicopolis Seleucidis (BMC Galatia, p. lxix). Imperial, Com- modus to Philip. Inscr., ΝЄΙΚΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ ΤΗC CЄΛЄΥΚΙΔΟC Τ. ΙЄΡΑC; ΝЄΙΚΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ CЄΛЄΥΚΙΔΟC. TypesóWreath; Nemesis in shrine; Artemis (?) and nymph; beneath, river-god, above, Eros flying with torch.
Paltus (Baldeh), between Gabala and Balanaea. Imperial, Septimius Severus to Herenenius Etruscus. Inscr., ΠΑΛΤΗΝΩΝ. TypesóDioskuri; Athena; Nike; Bust of J. Domna (?) as Tyche. Era begins in autumn of B.C. 259 or 258 (Imhoof, Rev. Suisse, viii. p. 44 f.; BMC Galatia, p. lxx).
Raphanea (Rafniyeh), south-west of Epiphaneia (Hamah). Imperial, Caracalla to Severus Alexander. Inscr., ΡЄΦΑΝЄΩΤΩΝ. Chief typeó Male figure (Genius of the city ?), seated or standing, holding phiale and cornucopia; in front, bull; on either side, eagle.
Rhosus, on the Gulf of Issus. Autonomous ∆, second and first centuries B.C. Chief typeóObv. Head of the Tyche of Rhosus, rev. ΡΩΣΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙЄΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ. Syrian divinity (Hadad ?) horned standing between two recumbent bulls (BMC Galatia, p. lxx); cf. similar types described under Dium in Decapolis infra. Also Head of Zeus, rev. ΡΩΣЄΩΝ ΙЄΡΑΣ, Bust of the Tyche. Imperial, Commodus to Caracalla. Inscr., ΡΩCЄΩΝ ΙЄΡΑC, Bust of Artemis or Selene, &c. Era begins B.C. 39 (Macdonald, Journ. Internat., 1903, p. 47).
Seleuceia Pieria (Seleukiyeh), the port of Antioch. Founded by Seleucus I, it was a mint of the Syrian kings in the second century B.C. (inscr. on ∆, ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΕΜ ΠΙΕΡΙΑΙ). Autonomous AR of second and first century B.C. :ó
|Bust of Tyche of Seleuceia.||ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ Thunderbolt (with fillet attached) on cushion placed on stool.|
AR Tetrad. 230-215 grs.
|Id.||ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ Thunderbolt.|
AR Drachm; also 1/2Drachm with rev. Nike.
|Head of Zeus. [Z. f. N., iii. 350.]||ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ Thunderbolt.|
Also ∆ of second century. Inscr., ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ; ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΕΜ ΓΙΙΕΡΙΑΙ; ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ. TypesóHead of Zeus, rev. Thunderbolt; Head of Apollo, rev. Tripod; Head of Zeus, rev. Three naked Kuretes (Hirsch, Auct. Cat., xiii. 4115). Also ∆ of the Tetrapolis, see supra, p. 778. ErasóOn the ∆, Seleucid; on the AR are years probably reckoned from the era of the autonomy of the town, beginning B.C. 108 (or 109).
Imperial, Augustus to Severus Alexander. (Tetradrachms were struck under Augustus, and there are also quasi-autonomous ∆ of the second century.) Inscr., usually CЄΛЄΥΚЄΩΝ ΠΙЄΡΙΑC, also CЄΛЄΥ- ΚЄΩΝ ΤΗC ΙЄΡΑC ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ. TypesóThunderbolt on stool or on roof of shrine, each type sometimes with inscr. ΖЄΥC ΚЄΡΑΥ- ΝΙΟC; Sacred stone with shrine, which is surmounted by eagle, or within temple, generally with inscr. ΖЄΥC ΚΑCΙΟC. EraóActian (B.C. 31); also (on coin of Augustus) the era of Seleuceia (B.C. 108 or 109). The types (BMC Galatia, p. lxxi) of this city mainly relate to Zeus Keraunios and to Zeus Kasios, the latter a Semitic divinity identified with Zeus and honored with annual festivals on Mount Kasios, south of Seleuceia. The thunderbolt was a cultus-object of Zeus Keraunos, and, according to one account, was connected with the foundation of the city; cf. Appian, Syr. 58 φασι δε αυτω τας Σελευκειας οικιζοντι, την μεν επι τη θαλασση, διοσημλαν ηγησασθαι κεραυνου και δια τουτο θεον αυτοις κεραυνον εθετο και θρησκευουσι και υμνουσι και νον κεραυνον.
Chalcis sub Libano (Mejdel ĎAnjar), at the foot of Antilibanus (BMC Galatia, p. lxxiii, cf. liv). This city, together with the neighbouring Heliopolis, the valley of the Marsyas and the mountainous region of Ituraea, constituted a Tetrarchy, the whole or portions of which were governed in the first century B.C. by rulers who took the titles of τετρορχης and αρχιερευς.
|Head of Zeus, laureate.||ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΤΕΤΡΑΡΧΟΥ Eagle flying.|
|Id.||ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΤΕΤΡΑΡΧΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΡΧΙΙΕΡ (sic) Two warriors standing facing, holding spears; laurel- wreath.|
|Head of Lysanias, diademed.||ΛΥΣΑΝΙΟΥ ΤΕΤΡΑΡΧΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΡ- ΧΙΕΡΕΩΣ Athena Nikephoros standing.|
From B.C. 36 to 30 the dominions of Lysanias were in the hands of Cleopatra. After her death they were farmed by Zenodorus, who, how- ever, in B.C. 24 lost Batanea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis on their being handed over by Augustus to Herod I. He retained Oulatha and Panea s till his death in B.C. 20.
|Head of Octavian.||ΖΗΝΟΔΩΡΟΥ ΤΕΤΡΑΡΧΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΡΧΙΕΡΕΩΣ Head of Zenodorus.|
With date Ď87í of an era beginning either B.C. 117 or B.C. 114 (BMC Galatia, p. 281).
Damascus. The earliest coins are Alexandrine tetradrachms, symbol, forepart of ram (MĀŁller, Nos. 1338-1346), belonging to circ. B.C. 300 or later. Autonomous ∆ of second and first centuries B.C. with dates of Seleucid era (cf. Demetrias). Inscr., ΔΑΜΑΣΚΗΝΩΝ. TypesóHead of Tyche; Tyche standing; Ram; Stag; &c. (see De Saulcy, Terre- Sainte, p. 30 f.). On Damascus as a probable mint of the later Seleucid kings see supra, p. 772, and as a mint of the Nabataean kings see under Arabia, p. 811.
Imperial, Augustus to Severus Alexander. Inscr., ΔΑΜΑCΚΗΝWΝ; ΔΑΜΑCΚΗΝWΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄWC; ΔΑΜΑCΚΟV ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄΟC; ΔΑΜΑCΚΟV ΙЄΡΑC ΚΑΙ ЄΝΔΟΞΟV. Colonial, Philip I to Gallienus. Inscr., COL ΔΑΜAS METRO. Types (BMC Galatia, p. lxxv; De Saulcy, op. cit.), chiefly representations of the Tyche of Damascus. Also, the river-god Chrysoroas (Barada) reclining, inscribed ΠΗΓΑΙ (Fig. 344) (cf. De Saulcy, p. 47, No. 9; Imhoof, Nymphen, p. 170, No. 470;
Heliopolis (Baalbek). Colonial, Sept. Severus to Gallienus (BMC Galatia, p. lxxvii; De Saulcy. op. cit., p. 6). Inscr., COL. HEL. COLL ∑ IVL ∑ AVG ∑ FEL ∑ HEL. TypesóTemple of Jupiter Heliopolitanus with inscr. I ∑ O ∑ M ∑ H = Jovi optimo maximo Heliopolitano; Propylaeum of the same temple, I ∑ O ∑ M ∑ H ∑; Temple on rock approached by lofty staircase; Mercury (the triad of Heliopolitan divinities consisted of Jupiter, Venus, and Mercury: Perdrizet, Comptes rendus de l'Acad. des inscr., 1901, p. 128); Bust of the Tyche; the Tyche standing, on each side a standing figure and two Victories holding veil over her head; Two figures (of Herakles?) each holding club and stag(?) (Brit. Mus.); Two naked figures each holding vexillum and stag (?) (Brit. Mus.); Three agonistic crowns, inscr. CERT ∑ SACR ∑ CAP ∑ OEC ∑ ISE ∑ HEL ∑ = Certamina Sacra Capitolina Oecumenica Iselastica Heliopolitana; Two athletes supporting crown; Athlete drawing lots from urn.
Laodiceia ad Libanum, on the Orontes (De Saulcy, T. S., p. 3 f.; cf. BMC Galatia, p. lxxviii). Imperial, Sept. Severus to Caracalla. Inscr., ΛΑΟΔΙΚЄΩΝ ΠΡΟC ΛΙΒΑΝΩ. Chief Type, ΜΗΝ standing beside horse.
Leucas on the Chrysoroas (BMC Galatia, p. lxxviii). Imperial, Claudius to Gordian III (some without emperorsí heads). Inscr., ΛΕΥ- ΚΑΔΙΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΚΛΑΥΔΙΑΙΩΝ; ΚΛΑΥΔΙΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΛΕΥΚΑ- ΔΙΩΝ; ΛΕΥΚΑΔΙΩΝ, &c. TypesóEmperor standing in quadriga; Herakles; Nike; River-god ΧΡΥCΟΡΟΑC. Erasó(i) Beginning B.C. 38-7; (ii) A.D. 48.
Posidium (el-Bouseit), on a bay at the south-west base of Mount Casius. The following small coin has been attributed to this town (cf. BMC Galatia, p. lxxix) :óObv. Baal seated holding grapes; in field, fulmen. Rev. ΠΟΣΙ[Δ]..... Bearded head in pilos. AR Size .55. Wt. 64.7 grains.
Caesareia Panias (Banias), at the foot of Mount Hermon (BMC Galatia, p. lxxx f.). This city, at first called Panias, formed part of the tetrarchy of Zenodorus (see Chalcis sub Libano). In B.C. 20 it was handed over to Herod the Great, who apparently changed the name to Caesareia and built, near its celebrated Grotto of Pan, a splendid temple in honor of Augustus. Herod Philip II rebuilt the city and called it Caesareia Philippi (cf. Matt. xvi. 13; Mark viii. 27). Agrippa II changed the name to Neronias. The coins prove that from about the time of M. Aurelius it was generally known as Caesareia Panias, or Caesareia Augusta sub Panio. Imperial, M. Aurelius to J. Maesa. Inscr., ΚΑΙ. CΕΒ. ΙΕΡ. ΚΑΙ ΑCΥ. ΥΠ. ΠΑΝΕΙΩ, or Τ. ΠΡ. ΠΑΝ Hunter Cat., iii. p. 222); ΚΑΙCΑΡ. ΠΑΝΙΑΔΟC; ΚΑΙCΑΡΙΑ ΠΑΝΙΑC. A coin of Severus Alexander Caesar, A.D. 221-222, reading COL. CESARIA ITVR[aeae], which has been attributed to this mint (Z. f. N., xxiv. p. 133), is more probably of Caesareia ad Libanum. TypesóZeus; Pan standing playing flute; Temenos of Pan, within which the god standing; Lagobolon and syrinx (N. C., 1900, p. 294). Dates of the era of the city beginning B.C. 3
∆ coins of Augustus (BMC Galatia, p. lxxx), with rev. C A within wreath (= ĎCaesareia Augustaí ?), have been attributed, with little probability, to Caesareia Panias, for these pieces are found not only in Palestine but also in Asia Minor (near Smyrna) and in Hayling Island, England, and C A may mean ĎCommune Asiaeí, i.e. κοινον ĎΑσιας (Froehnerís Mťlanges d'epigr., 1875, p. 76), or simply ĎCaesar Augustusí (Th. Reinach).
Gaba, probably identical with the ĎGabeí of Pliny, v. 18 (BMC Galatia, p. lxxxii; p. 300). Imperial, Titus to Caracalla. Inscr., ΚΛΑΥΔΙ. ΦΙΛΙΠ. ΓΑΒΗΝΩΝ; ΓΑΒΗΝΩΝ. Usual type, MÍn standing. Dates of era of Gaba beginning B.C. 61 (or B.C. 60?).
Abila (AbĀÓl), twelve miles east of Gadara. Imperial, M. Aurelius to Caracalla (De Saulcy, T. S., p. 309 f.). Inscr., CΕ. ΑΒΙΛΗΝΩΝ Ι. Α. Α. Γ. ΚΟΙ. CΥ (= CЄΛЄΥΚΕΩΝ ΑΒΙΛΗΝΩΝ ΙЄΡΑC ΑCΥΛΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΝΟ- ΜΟΥ ΓΝΩΡΙΜΟΥ (?) ΚΟΙΛΗC CΥΡΙΑC); CЄ. ΑΒΙΛΗΝΩΝ ΚΟΙ. CΥ. TypesóHerakles; Cornucopia; Bunch of grapes (cf. Euseb. πολις οινοφορος); Temple flanked by towers. Era, Pompeian (B.C. 64).
Antiocheia ad Hippum (Hippus). Site at Khurbet SŻsÓyeh, on the east of the Lake of Gennesaret (BMC Galatia., p. lxxxiii). Imperial, Nero to Caracalla. Inscr., ΑΝΤΙΟΧ. ΠΡ. ΙΠ. ΙЄΡ. ΑCΥΛΟ; ΙΠΠΗΝΩΝ. TypesóTyche of the city holding horse; Horse standing; Horseís head; Pegasos (Rev. Suisse, 1908, pp. 127, 128). Era, Pompeian (B.C. 64).
Canata or Canatha (Kunaw‚t). See BMC Galatia, p. lxxxiv. Imperial, Claudius to Commodus. Inscr., ΚΑΝΑΤΗΝΩΝ; ΚΑΝΑΘΗ- ΝΩΝ ΓΑΒЄΙΝ. (the epithet Gabinia was probably derived from Gabinius the Proconsul of Syria). TypesóTyche of the city; Head of Athena; Dionysos; Head of Zeus (probably the Ζευς μεγιστος of Canata); Astarte standing. Era, Pompeian (B.C. 64).Capitolias, probably at Beit-er-R‚s, south-east of Gadara. Imperial, M. Aurelius to Macrinus. Inscr., ΚΑΠΙΤΩΛΙЄΩΝ Ι. Α. Α (= ΙЄΡΑC ΑCΥΛΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ). Prevalent typeóAstarte (or the Tyche of the city?) standing in temple. Dates from local era beginning A.D. 97 or 98.
Dium (Eidun ?), near Pella. Imperial, Caracalla and Geta. Inscr., ΔЄΙΗΝΩΝ. TypeóHadad? (cf. Rev. arch., 1894, pt. 2, p. 250), horned, standing between two bulls. A somewhat similar type occurs on other Syrian coins, at Rhosus, Hieropolis in Cyrrhestica, Neapolis in Samaria, and on tetradrachms of Antiochus XII (BMC Galatia, p. lxxxv). Era, Pompeian (B.C. 64).
Gadara (Umm Keis), south-east of the Sea of Galilee, was rebuilt by Pompey circ. B.C. 63 and made a free city. Autonomous ∆ First century B.C. Obv. Head of Tyche, rev. ΓΑΔΑΡЄWΝ, Cornucopia and date Ď18í [Brit. Mus.]. Imperial, Augustus to Gordian III. Inscr., ΓΑΔΑΡЄΙΣ; ΓΑΔΑΡΑ; ΓΑΔΑΡЄWΝ; ΠΟΜΠΗΙЄWΝ ΓΑΔΑΡЄWΝ (or abbreviated), also with addition of Ι (=ΙЄΡΑC) Α (= ΑCΥΛΟΥ) Α (= ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ) Γ (= ?). Κ. CΥ (= ΚΟΙΛΗC CΥΡΙΑC). Typesó Bust of Tyche; Bust of Herakles; Two cornucopia; Zeus in temple; Male figure between two lions (De Saulcy. T. S., p. 303, No. 8); Galley with rowers and inscr. ΝΑΥΜΑ ? (= ναυμαχια). Era, Pompeian (B.C. 64).
Gerasa (Jerash). Imperial, Hadrian to Severus Alexander. Types relate to Artemis as Tyche of the city, with inscr. ΑΡΤЄΜΙC ΤΥΧΗ ΓЄΡΑCΩΝ (B. M.C., Galat., p. lxxxviii; N. C., 1900, p. 295). Coins of M. Aurelius and L. Verus are inscribed ΑΝ. ΤΩ. ΠΡ. ΧΡ. ΤΩ. ΠΡ. ΓЄ. (= ĎΑντιοχεων των προς Χρυσοροα (the local river) των προτερον Γερασηνων). The name of Antioch borne by Gerasa is known also from lapidary inscriptions of the second century A.D. (Perdrizet in Revue biblique, July, 1900, p. 441; cf. Rev. Num., 1900, p. 487).
Pella (Tubukat el Fahil), about twenty miles south of the Sea of Galilee. Imperial, Commodus, Lucilla, and Elagabalus (De Saulcy, T. S., p. 291 f.). Inscr., ΠЄΛΛΑΙΩΝ. TypesóAthena; Male figure standing holding phiale; Tyche of City seated, and River-god [Brit. Mus.]. Era, Pompeian (B.C. 64).
Philadelpheia (Amman), the Rahbath-Ammon of the Old Testament. The city as it existed in the third century B.C. was rebuilt and renamed by Ptolemy Philadelphus. Imperial, Hadrian to Severus Alexander (BMC Galatia, p. lxxxix). Inscr., ΦΙΛΑΔЄΛΦЄΩΝ ΚΟΙΛΗC CΥΡΙΑC; ΦΙΛ. ΚΟΙ. CΥΡΙ. Types relate chiefly to the Tyrian Herakles; Bust of Herakles; Four-horse car of Herakles, ΗΡΑΚΛЄΙΟΝ ΑΡΜΑ, doubtless employed in festal processions to carry cultus-objects, like the ΙЄΡΑ ΑΠΗΜΗ of Ephesian coins (supra, p. 577); Bust of ΘЄΑ ΑCΤЄΡΙΑ, the mother of the Tyrian Herakles.
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Syria, a maritime region of Asia, the most
interesting as well in a religious as in an historical
sense, of any in the world. It anciently
included Phoenicia and below it Palaestina, (the
latter afterwards called the Holy Land, as having
been the country of our Blessed Savior's
nativity, the theater of his miracles and labors
of love, the scene of his passion, death, burial,
glorious resurrection and ascension.) Syria was
bounded by Cilicia on the north, by Arabia and
the river Euphrates on the east, by Arabia and
Egypt on the south, and by the Mediterranean
on the west. This magnificent region had, for
ages before its subjugation by republican Rome,
been governed by a succession of independent
kings, conspicuous among whom were the
Seleucidae. The epoch when Syria became a
Roman province is not precisely known ; probably
it was Pompey the Great who reduced it
to that condition, as he appears to have invested
its municipal authorities with the privilege of
coining money (autonomes). It stands afterwards
recorded amongst the provinces of the
empire, under Julius Caesar and Augustus ; and
its famous city Antioch, (where Christians were
first distinguished by that appellation,) situate
on the Orontes, was by succeeding emperors
made not only its metropolis, but also the
metropolis of the whole East.-- The Syrians were
especially devoted to the worship of the Sun ;
at the same time acknowledging Jupiter and
Apollo as the chief, if not only, divinities.--
The Genius Urbis is represented on Imperial
colonial coins of cities in this province, particularly
those of the first rank, under the form
of a woman with turreted head.-- See Vaillant's
Num. Imp. in Col. ; also the words Antioch and