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XXI

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Coins of Probus with coded markings of AEQVITI

By Chip Scoppa

Hidden within the numerous coins of the emperor Probus there is a sub-grouping with some extremely interesting aspects. This grouping gets its name from the inclusion of the letters of the word AEQVITI on these coins. The coins were produced at two separate mints with most but not all of the aspects duplicated.Edit

While there is a lot of information about the AEQVITI series from the two mints of the empire that produced them, I could not find one source that gave an overall understanding of this series. It is my intent to bring data from all of the sources together here to present a more comprehensive source for someone learning about this interesting aspect of these ancient coins. I gleaned information from many sources including, but not limited to Roman Imperial Coinage (RIC) Volume V, Part II, published by Spink and Roman Coins and their Values, authored by David R. Sear. Along with many Internet sources such as  Doug Smith’s AEQVITI page coupled with his "XXI and Other Letters" page. I have distilled and combined the knowledge base into this one article. It is intended to help others in their quest for a more concise and compact grouping of the AEQVITI coded series of Probus from the two mints of Rome and Ticinum.

Also attached is a listing in tabular form of charts spelling out the various coins attributed to these series. Sometimes within these tables a RIC number is used to define a multiple group of coins. If this type of definition occurs a suffix is added to denote a difference for each individual coin. These suffixes are lower case alpha characters starting with "a" and proceeding as far into the alphabet as necessary to complete the distinction. In only one case was it necessary to restart the alphabet and use a double character. Suffixes allow for an individual number to be tied with each coin with a different inscription, whether it is an obverse or reverse, different bust used, different lettering, placement of mintmarks or reverse types. I will never cease to be amazed on how well this ancient hobby blends with the use of modern technology; without the aid of today’s computers this task, albeit not quite Herculean, would have been next to impossible to complete.

Probus was raised to the position of Augustus in 276 AD and became the sole ruler of the empire at the end of the short-lived reign of Florian, who "wore the purple" for not quite 3 months. Marcus Aurelius Probus was a highly respected military leader who was an excellent horseman. He held in high regard the responsibility to do projects for the good of the empire, and he was credited with many "public works" type of building and agricultural projects during his reign. His reign and life were ended by a group of soldiers who were so frustrated about this "do good" type of work and not fighting that they plotted against him and killed him. All good soldiers should like to fight. Right?   There is little written about Probus prior to being raised to the level of Augustus. The exception to this is the documentation about how he had held high rank in the forces lead by Aurelian, who ruled the Empire from 270 to 275. There is little if any knowledge why Probus, or some Moneyer to honor him, would have had a code built into the coins coming from two of the Imperial Mints, but the very fact that this code was issued is exciting and intriguing.

As I set the stage by defining some terms and giving some facts, I will attempt to keep it from become too "dry". First of all let me dredge up some of my "ancient" Latin (I care not to think about how many years ago I sat learning in high school about Julius Caesar and how all of Gaul was divided into three parts.). The word AEQVITI is the dative case of the word meaning horseman or knight. Was Probus appealing "to" the horsemen, did he have an affection "for" the horsemen or was he trying to plead "for the sake of" the horsemen with this series; any of these would be a correct use of the dative case. There is little thought, if any at all, that the code could be associated with Aeqvitae the personification of equity. Only the first series from Ticinum would have a relationship by spelling out AEQVIT, but that would not tie into the other groupings of these coins with more letters or dropping the leading A in the other series.

Imperial Mints were set up in certain cities to control the making of coins and the two to which I refer are the mints of Rome and Ticinum. Rome is a city with no explanation required, and Ticinum is a smaller city in which a mint was popularize and increased its production after 274. Each of these mints had multiple workshops or "Officina". In the case of Rome, we will discuss the first seven Officina and in Ticinum all of the six Officina within the mint will be addressed. The individual in charge of the mint was called a Moneyer, and the workmen who created the tools to make the coins were called celators. The objects that they both focused their talents on making were coins of various denominations. The toolsthat were made by the celators were dies to "coin" (impart by pressure an image) a design on both sides of a piece of metal. This piece of metal prior to the coining process is called a flan. The front of the coin is called the obverse, and the back of it is called the reverse. Other slang names such as heads and tails may come from the obvious. The front is where the issuer’s likeness was placed and it was usually a bust or a head figure. The reverse is where propaganda or tales were told, or maybe even the reverse is where there would be animals with tails. The tails theories are only to be considered side tracks as they are just thoughts and were not substantiated by any proof. If you consider the process that is needed to make the images come out correct on a coin, you realize that image must be made by the celators in reverse on the die. A lot of credit should be given to these artisans; because they have created many wonderful works of art on these small ancient coins, while working in mirror image.

The AEQVITI series was made within one denomination of Roman Imperial Coinage. We do not know the ancient name for this denomination, but in modern times we call it Antoninianus after the Emperor during whose reign in which it first appeared. A special radiate headpiece worn by the emperor depicted on the obverse denotes this denomination. The "Ant" started out being made of silver but was continually debased until it was only a bronze base metal coin. The time in which we are investigating these "Ants" were made of a billon (copper, tin & silver alloy) that was of a lower percentage of silver and sometimes had a silver "wash" on the surface of the coin. The metal and its coining process had just been restored to this higher level of consistency during the reign of Aurelian.

The areas around the figure or figures on the coin are called the "fields". If we look at the reverse of a coin there are three possibilities for the position of this field, on the right, on the left or in the center of the coin. The AEQVITI series uses the right and left fields as some of the places to have the code embedded as well as an area underneath the figures. This lower area is called the exergue.  In the case of the Rome mint all of the coding is contained within the exergue. While the Ticinum mint placed letters in multiple areas of the left and the right fields as well as that of the exergue.

Bust Type CBust Type FBust Type GBust Type H

There are two main elements on the obverse of the coins the inscription or legend and the likeness of which the coins were being minted for the emperor. The emperor is shown on the face of the coin wearing a radiate headpiece, in the case of Probus either a crown or a helmet and is facing either right or left. The figure is most often a bust and is decorated with a cuirass, a protective breastplate, and/or draperies. Sometimes the emperor is holding onto various implements (or infrequently multiple numbers of them) such as a scepter, a shield or a spear. RIC has defined a shorthand for the various ways the emperor could be shown and denotes them by a capital lettering sequence. Most of the poses in this series are F, G & H with very few exceptions. The  F Bust listed in RIC is described as a Radiate and cuirassed bust facing right. The G Bust is listed as a Radiate helmeted, cuirassed bust facing left with a spear and a shield. The H Bust is listed as a Radiate bust facing left wearing an imperial mantle holding a scepter surmounted by an eagle. RIC also denotes the various legends in shorthand. This shorthand is Arabic numerals 1 through 9, with the exceptions written out as they are seen. In this series there are eight non-standard legends as well as the ones in the standard shorthand. This combination of letters and numbers leads to a very short and concise description of the obverse of the coin. The reverse is described by its legend and the description of the scene along with the lettering of the mintmark in the fields and in the exergue. In the AEQVITI series there is a different reverse for each Officina of a mint.

There are at least four different series with some evidence of a fifth having been produced from the two imperial mints of Rome and Ticinum. Rome was the first to issue the series, but Ticinum issued the most series, three possibly four. Each mint had many workshops or "Officina"; in the case of Rome, this series was produced from seven workshops. They were labeled with Greek style letters and were: A, B, G, D, E, V  and Z.  Each of the workshops took one of the letters of the code word and embedded it along with its name letter plus the R for Rome into a three letter mint marking. A few examples of this three letter mark would be: "RAA" with the R for Rome mint, the middle A for the first letter in the code word AEQVITI and the second A for the "alpha" or first workshop. Another would be "REB" or Rome, the second letter of the code and the second or "beta" workshop in that order. This same pattern was used to produce coins with the balance of the letter combinations, "RQΓ", "RVD", "RIE, "RTV" and "RIZ".

Typical reverse types, code, and exergue mark for the series from Rome.


   

VICTORIA GERM  

   

A

   

RAA

   

(alpha or first officina)

   

IOVI CONS PROB AVG

   

E

   

REB

   

(beta or second officina)

   

MARTI PACIF

   

Q

   

RQ

   

(gamma or third officina)

   

ROMAE AETER

   

V

   

RVD

   

(delta or fourth officina)

   

FIDES MILITVM

   

I

   

RIE

   

(epsilon or fifth officina)

   

PROVIDENTIA AVG

   

T

   

RTV

   

(stigma or sixth officina)

   

AETERNITAS AVG

   

I

   

RIZ

   

(zeta or seventh officina)


There were only six workshops at Ticinum so some third century ingenuity had to have gone in to deciding how to complete the series at this mint. The early series took the seven-letter word and left off the last letter so only the A, E, Q, V, I or T was used as a field marking. In the second group, a later series, the leading A wasremoved and the lettering was E, Q, V, I, T and another I still keeping the code markings in the fields. This second "I" posed a slight problem for the die engraver as it would not be able to be distinguished form the first I in the code word. Again a bit of ingenuity was used to differentiate this character by placing it in a different spot, the right field instead of the left field on the coin form this Officina. For the three documented series at Ticinum the workshop designation in Latin ordinal abbreviations were used for the first four workshops and are P, S, T and Q; one of these was placed along with the standard XXI (see Doug Smith’s paper on this marking) in the exergue. If the same type of designation was to proceed, confusion would be communicated in that the next two letters should be Q and S thus duplicating the original Q & S from forth and second workshops. So the Roman Numerals of V and VI were used to keep all of the lettering different. Again like at the Rome mint there was extreme care put into the planning to keep these coins so each and every code was a distinct issue. There had to be a very distinct purpose to put this lettering on all of these coins because one must remember that the average person on the street who used these coins would not have been able to read. Even if someone could read they would have had to figured out the "code" and put one coin from each Officina together to form the word. Since I am a detail type of person in a detailed oriented hobby, this extreme planning and amount of origination is what attracted me to this series of coins from centuries ago.

Typical reverse types, letter in field with exergue mark for the first series from Ticinum.

   

CONCORD MILIT 

   

A

   

PXXI 

   

(primus or first officina)

   

PROVIDENT AVG

   

E

   

SXXI  

   

(secundus or second officina)

   

SALVS AVG

   

Q

   

TXXI  

   

(tertius or third officina)

   

MARTI PACIF

   

V

   

QXXI 

   

(quartus or fourth officina)

   

PAX AVGVSTI

   

I

   

VXXI

   

(quintus or fifth officina)

   

SECVRIT PERP

   

T

   

VIXXI

   

(sextus or sixth officina)


The third series is similar to the second, but it incorporates a star in the opposite field from the code letter. A fourth series is alluded to in footnotes in RIC and is thought to be an early series (using the AEQVIT) with Greek designations for the workshops in place of the Latin. There has been no documentation found by the author to support this theory. There is no listing of obverse or reverse descriptions, legends, bust types or the like, only the fact that the typical XXI would have an added Greek letter in the exergue coupled with a code letter in the fields.

 The second series of Ticinum is by far the largest in terms of numbers of different coins, followed by the third or "star" series. The Rome and the first Ticinum series are next. And the fourth series of Ticinum, if it exists, would be last. In total there are about 150 coins listed in RIC associated with these coded words, AEQVITI, AEQVIT or EQVITI.

Typical reverse types, letter in fields with exergue mark for the second and third (star) series from Ticinum.

   

CONCORD MILIT 

   

E

   

PXXI 

   

(primus or first officina) note: * in right field for third series

   

PROVIDENT AVG

   

Q

   

SXXI  

   

(secundus or second officina) note: * in right field for third series

   

SALVS AVG

   

V

   

TXXI  

   

(tertius or third officina) note: * in right field for third series

   

MARTI PACIF

   

I

   

QXXI 

   

(quartus or fourth officina) note: * in right field for third series

   

PAX AVGVSTI

   

T

   

VXXI

   

(quintus or fifth officina)  note: * in right field for third series

   

SECVRIT PERP

   

I

   

VIXXI

   

(sextus or sixth officina) note: I in right field and * in left field

In the author’s opinion there are several ways to collect and sort this series of coins. The easiest is to combine one coin of each letter to make the coded word with no thought paid to mint or to the series. Another step would be to find coins with the same bust to make up the coded word. Still another would be to find coins with the same legend to make up the coded word. It maybe possible to find different legends for every letter used to make up the word. If someone wanted to pursue the ULTIMATE AEQVITI challenge there would be more than a gross (a dozen-dozen, 144) of coins to have one of each variant listed.

Still there would be variants that are not listed in RIC and that would also increase the size of the collection. Here is a coin that is one of those that just bucks the system. The I code letter for the VI coin of the sixth Officina is most frequently found in the right field to set it apart form the first I on the Q coin of the forth Officina. Even though RIC lists some coins with this configuration showing the I in the left, the legend on this one does not match any of those. A collector could hunt for a very long time, if not a lifetime, just to complete this one series of one emperor, PROBVS "the horseman".

                                                                                                                                                                                                    




                                       

Codeword Checklists

 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
   

        AEQVITI – Series I of Rome

   

        Checklist                                   Copyrighted 2003 by CJ Scoppa II

   

        AEQVITI markings

   

        Bust Type

   

        Obv Inscription

   

        Rev Inscription

   

        Rome Attributions

   

        Checklist

   

R     A Alpha

   

    F

   

        PROBVS P F AVG

   

        VICTORIA GERM

   

RIC V part II, 223b

   

 

   

R     E Beta

   

    F

   

    IMP PROBVS    AVG

   

    IOVI CONS    PROB AVG

   

RIC V part II, 174a

   

 

   

R     E Beta

   

    F

   

    IMP PROBVS    AVG

   

    IOVI CONS    PROBI AVG

   

RIC V part II, 174b

   

 

   

R     E Beta

   

    F

   

    PROBVS P F    AVG

   

    IOVI CONS    PROB AVG

   

RIC V part II, 175

   

 

   

R     E Beta

   

    F

   

    PROBVS P F    AVG

   

    IOVI    CONSERVAT

   

RIC V part II, 176

   

 

   

R     Q Gama

   

    F

   

    PROBVS P F    AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

RIC V part II, 177

   

 

   

R     V Delta

   

    H

   

    PROBVS P F    AVG

   

        ROMAE AETER

   

RIC V part II, 187e

   

 

   

R     I  Epilon

   

    F

   

    PROBVS P F    AVG

   

    FIDES    MILITVM

   

RIC V part II, 170b

   

 

   

R     T Stigma

   

    F

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG

   

        PROVIDENTIA AVG

   

RIC V part II, 180

   

 

   

R     T Stigma

   

    F

   

    PROBVS P F    AVG

   

        PROVIDENTIA AVG

   

RIC V part II, 181

   

 

   

R     I Zeta

   

    C

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    ADVENTVS    AVG

   

RIC V part II, 156k

   

 

   

R     I Zeta

   

    F

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    ADVENTVS    AVG

   

RIC V part II, 156v

   

 

   

R     I Zeta

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    ADVENTVS    AVG

   

RIC V part II, 156ah

   

 

   

R     I Zeta

   

    F

   

    PROBVS P F    AVG

   

    ADVENTVS    AVG

   

RIC V part II, 158b

   

 

   

R     I Zeta

   

    F

   

    PROBVS P F    AVG

   

    AETERNITAS    AVG

   

RIC V part II, 168

   

 

   

R     I Zeta

   

    F

   

    PROBVS P F    AVG

   

    HVMANITAS    AVG

   

RIC V part II, 171

   

 

 

 

 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
   

        AEQVIT – Series I of Ticinum

   

            Checklist                                   Copyrighted 2003 by CJ Scoppa II

   

        AEQVIT  markings

   

        Bust Type

   

        Obv Inscription

   

        Rev Inscription

   

        Ticinum

   

        Attributions

   

        Checklist

   

        A_/PXXI

   

    F

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 464

   

 

   

        A_/PXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG CONS III

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 465

   

 

   

        E_/SXXI

   

    C

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 466

   

 

   

        E_/SXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 467

   

 

   

        Q_/TXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 468

   

 

   

        Q_/TXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 469

   

 

   

        V_/QXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 470a

   

 

   

        V_/QXXI

   

    But Victory    on a globe in place of scepter

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 470b

   

 

   

        V_/QXXI

   

    F

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 471

   

 

   

        V_/QXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 472

   

 

   

        I_/QXXI

   

    F

   

    unknown

   

    PAX AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 473

   

 

   

        I_/QXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    PAX AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 474

   

 

   

        I_/QXXI

   

    H

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI INVICTI AVG

   

    PAX AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 475

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 476

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    H

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 477

   

 

 

 

 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
   

        EQVITI – Series II of Ticinum

   

                                                                        Checklist                                   Copyrighted    2003 by CJ Scoppa II

   

        EQVITI  markings

   

        Bust Type

   

        Obv Inscription

   

        Rev Inscription

   

        Ticinum

   

        Attributions

   

        Checklist

   

        E_/PXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 478

   

 

   

        E_/PXXI

   

    F

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 479a

   

 

   

        E_/PXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 479b

   

 

   

        E_/PXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 480a

   

 

   

        E_/PXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 481a

   

 

   

        E_/PXXI

   

    Radiate    cuirassed bust l.

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 481b

   

 

   

        E_/PXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI INVICTI AVG

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 482a

   

 

   

        E_/PXXI

   

    Sometimes    with spear only

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI INVICTI AVG

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 482b

   

 

   

        E_/PXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG CONS III

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 483

   

 

   

        E_/PXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG CONS III

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 484a

   

 

   

        E_/PXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG CONS IIII

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 485

   

 

   

        E_/PXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG CONS V

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 486

   

 

   

        Q_/SXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS P F AVG

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 487

   

 

   

        Q_/SXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 488

   

 

   

        Q_/SXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 489

   

 

   

        Q_/SXXI

   

    F

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 490a

   

 

   

        Q_/SXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 490b

   

 

   

        Q_/SXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 491a

   

 

   

        Q_/SXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI INVICTI AVG

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 492a

   

 

   

        Q_/SXXI

   

    Radiate    cuirassed bust l.

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI INVICTI AVG

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 492b

   

 

   

        Q_/SXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG CONS III

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 493

   

 

   

        Q_/SXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG CONS IIII

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 494

   

 

   

        Q_/SXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG CONS IIII

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 495

   

 

   

        Q_/SXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG CONS V

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 496a

   

 

   

        V_/TXXI

   

    F

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 497a

   

 

   

        V_/TXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 497b

   

 

   

        V_/TXXI

   

    F

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 498a

   

 

   

        V_/TXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 498b

   

 

   

        V_/TXXI

   

    F

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 499a

   

 

   

        V_/TXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 499b

   

 

   

        V_/TXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 500a

   

 

   

        V_/TXXI

   

    Radiate,    cuirassed bust l., with spear and shield, seen from back

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 500b

   

 

   

        V_/TXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI INVICTI AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 501a

   

 

   

        V_/XXIT

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI INVICTI AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 501b

   

 

   

        V_/TXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG CONS III

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 502

   

 

   

        V_/TXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG CONS IIII

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 503a

   

 

   

        V_/TXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG CONS IIII

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 504

   

 

   

        I_/QXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS P F AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 505

   

 

   

        I_/QXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 506

   

 

   

        I_/QXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 507a

   

 

   

        I_/QXXI

   

    but scepter     surmounted by globe

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 507b

   

 

   

        I_/QXXI

   

    but scepter    surmounted by hand

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 507c

   

 

   

        I_/QXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 508a

   

 

   

        I_/QXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 509a

   

 

   

        I_/QXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI INVICTI AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 510a

   

 

   

        I_/QXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG CONS III

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 511

   

 

   

        I_/QXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG CONS IIII

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 512a

   

 

   

        I_/QXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG CONS IIII

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 513

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG

   

    PAX AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 514a

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG

   

    PAX    AVGVSTI

   

    RIC V part    II, 514b

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

    PAX AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 515a

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

    PAX    AVGVSTI

   

    RIC V part    II, 515b

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    PAX AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 516a

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    PAX    AVGVSTI

   

    RIC V part    II, 516b

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    PAX AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 517a

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    PAX    AVGVSTI

   

    RIC V part    II, 517b

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI INVICTI AVG

   

    PAX AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 518a

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI INVICTI AVG

   

    PAX    AVGVSTI

   

    RIC V part    II, 518b

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG CONS III

   

    PAX AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 519a

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG CONS III

   

    PAX    AVGVSTI

   

    RIC V part    II, 519b

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG CONS IIII

   

    PAX AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 520a

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG CONS IIII

   

    PAX    AVGVSTI

   

    RIC V part    II, 520b

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG CONS IIII

   

    PAX AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 521a

   

 

   

        T_/VXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG CONS IIII

   

    PAX    AVGVSTI

   

    RIC V part    II, 521b

   

 

   

        _I    /VIXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS P F AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 522a

   

 

   

        I_/VIXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS P F AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 522b

   

 

   

        _I    /VIXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 523

   

 

   

        _I    /VIXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 524a

   

 

   

        I_/VIXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 524b

   

 

   

        _I    /VIXXI

   

    F

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 525a

   

 

   

        _I    /VIXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 525b

   

 

   

        _I    /VIXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 526a

   

 

   

        I_/VIXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 526b

   

 

   

        _I    /XIXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 526c

   

 

   

        _I    /VIXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI INVICTI AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 527a

   

 

   

        _I    /VIXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG CONS III

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 528a

   

 

   

        I_/VIXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG CONS III

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 528b

   

 

   

        _I    /VIXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG CONS IIII

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 529

   

 

   

        _I    /VIXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG CONS V

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 530a

   

 

 

 

 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
   

        EQVITI – Series III (or the    “Star” Series) of Ticinum

   

                                                                       Checklist                                   Copyrighted 2003 by CJ Scoppa II

   

        EQVITI markings

   

        Bust Type

   

        Obv Inscription

   

        Rev Inscription

   

        Ticinum w/ Star

   

Attributions

   
   

        Checklist

   

        E*/PXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 480b

   

 

   

        E*/PXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 481c

   

 

   

        E*/PXXI

   

    Radiate    cuirassed bust l.

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 481d

   

 

   

        E*/PXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG CONS III

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    RIC V part    II, 484b

   

 

   

        Q*/SXXI

   

    F

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 490c

   

 

   

        Q*/SXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 490d

   

 

   

        Q*/SXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 491b

   

 

   

        V*/TXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG CONS V

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 496b

   

 

   

        V*/TXXI

   

    F

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 499c

   

 

   

        V*/TXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 499d

   

 

   

        V*/TXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 500c

   

 

   

        V*/TXXI

   

    Radiate,    cuirassed bust l., with spear and shield, seen from back

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 500d

   

 

   

        V*/XXIT

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI INVICTI AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 501c

   

 

   

        V*/TXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI INVICTI AVG

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 501d

   

 

   

        V*/TXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG CONS IIII

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 503b

   

 

   

        I*/QXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 507c

   

 

   

        I*/QXXI

   

    but scepter     surmounted by globe

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 507d

   

 

   

        I*/QXXI

   

    but scepter    surmounted by hand

   

    IMP C    PROBVS P F AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 507c

   

 

   

        I*/QXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 508b

   

 

   

        I*/QXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 509b

   

 

   

        I*/QXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI INVICTI AVG

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 510b

   

 

   

        I*/QXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG CONS IIII

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    RIC V part    II, 512b

   

 

   

        T*/VXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    PAX AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 516c

   

 

   

        T*/VXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    PAX    AVGVSTI

   

    RIC V part    II, 516d

   

 

   

        T*/VXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    PAX AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 517c

   

 

   

        T*/VXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    PAX    AVGVSTI

   

    RIC V part    II, 517d

   

 

   

        T*/VXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI INVICTI AVG

   

    PAX AVG

   

    RIC V part    II, 518c

   

 

   

        T*/VXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI INVICTI AVG

   

    PAX    AVGVSTI

   

    RIC V part    II, 518d

   

 

   

        *I/VIXXI

   

    F

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 525c

   

 

   

        *I/VIXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 525d

   

 

   

        *I/VIXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 526d

   

 

   

        I*/VIXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 526e

   

 

   

        *I    /XIXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 526f

   

 

   

        *I/VIXXI

   

    G

   

    VIRTVS    PROBI INVICTI AVG

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 527b

   

 

   

        *I/VIXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG CONS III

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 528c

   

 

   

        I*/VIXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C M    AVR PROBVS AVG CONS III

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 528d

   

 

   

        I*/VIXXI

   

    H

   

    IMP C    PROBVS AVG CONS V

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    RIC V part    II, 530b

   

 

 

 

 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
   

        Probable AEQVIT – Series I    Greek of Ticinum with Greek lettering for Officina

   

        No listing in RIC only a    footnote at the end of the Series II & III table

   

                                                                               Checklist                                   Copyrighted 2003 by CJ Scoppa II

   

        AEQVIT  markings

   

        Bust Type

   

        Obv Inscription

   

        Rev Inscription

   

        Ticinum

   

        Attributions

   

        Checklist

   

A_/AlphaXXI

   

    unknown

   

    unknown

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    Footnote in    RIC V-II

   

 

   

A_/Alpha

   

    unknown

   

    unknown

   

    CONCORD    MILIT

   

    Footnote in    RIC V-II

   

 

   

E_/BetaXXI

   

    unknown

   

    unknown

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    Footnote in    RIC V-II

   

 

   

E_/Beta

   

    unknown

   

    unknown

   

    PROVIDENT    AVG

   

    Footnote in    RIC V-II

   

 

   

Q_/GammaXXI

   

    unknown

   

    unknown

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    Footnote in    RIC V-II

   

 

   

Q_/Gamma

   

    unknown

   

    unknown

   

        SALVS AVG

   

    Footnote in    RIC V-II

   

 

   

V_/DeltaXXI

   

    unknown

   

    unknown

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    Footnote in    RIC V-II

   

 

   

V_/Delta

   

    unknown

   

    unknown

   

    MARTI    PACIF

   

    Footnote in    RIC V-II

   

 

   

I_/EpsilonXXI

   

    unknown

   

    unknown

   

    PAX    AVGVSTI

   

    Footnote in    RIC V-II

   

 

   

I_/Epsilon

   

    unknown

   

    unknown

   

    PAX    AVGVSTI

   

    Footnote in    RIC V-II

   

 

   

T_/StigmaXXI

   

    unknown

   

    unknown

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    Footnote in    RIC V-II

   

 

   

T_/Stigma

   

    unknown

   

    unknown

   

    SECVRIT    PERP

   

    Footnote in    RIC V-II

   

 

 


Click for Printable Versions of Codeword Checklists

Sources and References:

On the Forum Ancient Coins Website:

Doug Smith’s EQVITI page
Doug Smith’s XXI and other Letters page
The Scott Collection of "Aequiti" Probus Embedded Codeword Antoniniani   
Probus coins in The Forum Ancient Coins Shop
  
Translation of the Codewords AEQVITI, IOBI and HPKOYΛI
   

Printed:

Mattingly, H., E. Sydenham & P. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part II, Probus to Amandus. (London, 1933).
Sayles, W. Ancient Coin Collecting. (Iola, WI, 2003).
Sayles, W. Ancient Coin Collecting III: The Roman World-Politics and Propaganda. (Iola, WI, 2007).
Sayles, W. Ancient Coin Collecting IV: Roman Provincial Coins by Wayne Sayles. (Iola, WI, 1999).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. Three, The Accession of Maximinus I to the Death of Carinus AD 235 - AD 285. (London, 2005).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).
Van Meter, D. Handbook of Roman Imperial Coins: A Complete Guide to the History, Types and Values of Roman Imperial Coinage. (New Hampshire, 1991).

Other Online:

Virtual Catalog of Roman Coins (Probus)
Wildwinds Probus Page

Finally, I would like to thank all of those who encouraged me to proceed with this adventure. First and foremost my thanks go out to "Magistra", my wife and truly my teacher, who has encouraged and inspired me to look beyond the boundaries of engineering. In her encouragement she has had to give-up heading for bed early several evenings. She has been an excellent editor, which she so freely does for all who ask. I would also like to thank those who gave me well thought out comments about the countless drafts of this manuscript. "TKE96" got me started here. "Tacitvs" your questions about a coin made me think about how to start putting all of this together; also your comments about the draft were taken to heart. Thank you to Doug Smith for opening my eyes to such an interesting series of coins. Doug thanks for your help and comments, all of which added the final touches. And I must not forget Joe Sermarini who thought that this effort was worthy of inclusion on the FORVM, as well as his encouragement to use photos of coins on the FORVM within the text, some of which I hear have recently moved to the sold column.