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Arena, V. "New Acquisitions at the British Museum: additions to Price, Alexander, and the 1870 Larnaca Hoard" in NC 2003.
Bellinger, A. “Philippi in Macedonia” in ANSMN 11 (1964).
Cohen, E. Dated Coins of Antiquity: A comprehensive catalogue of the coins and how their numbers came about. (Lancaster, 2011). Cohen DCA
Davesne, A. & G. Le Rider. Le trésor de Meydancikkale. (Paris, 1989).
Duyrat, F. Arados Hellénistique: Étude historique et monétaire. (Beirut, 2005).
Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber, Volume II. (London, 1924).
Gaebler, H. Die antiken Münzen von Makedonia und Paionia, Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands Vol. III. (Berlin, 1906). AMNG III
Head, B. British Museum Catalogue of Greek Coins, Macedonia, etc. (London, 1879). BMC Macedonia
Hersh, C. "Additions and Corrections to Martin J. Price’s ‘The Coinage in the name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus’" in Studies Price. Hersh
Houghton, A., C. Lorber & O. Hoover. Seleucid Coins: A Comprehensive Catalog. (Lancaster, 2002 - 2008).
Le Rider, G. Alexander the Great: Coinage, Finances, and Policy. (Philadelphia, 2007).
Le Rider, G. Le monnayage d’ argent et d’ or de Philippe II frappé en Macédoine de 359 à 294. (Paris, 1977).
Le Rider, G. Monnayage et finances de Philippe II. Un état de la question. (Athens, 1996). Le Rider 1996
Liampi, K. "A Hoard of Bronze Coins of Alexander the Great" in Studies Price.
Liampi. K. "Zur Chronologie der sogenannten 'anonymen' mekedonischen Münzen des späten 4. Jhs. v. Chr." in JNG XXXVI. (1986).
Lindgren, H & F. Kovacs. Ancient Bronze Coinage of Asia Minor and the Levant. (San Mateo, 1985).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins: European Mints. (San Mateo, 1989).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
Mamroth, A. "Die Bronzemünzen des Königs Philippos V. von Makedonien" in ZfN 42. (1935). Mamroth Bronzemünzen
Mamroth, A. "Die Silbermünzen des Königs Perseus" in ZfN 38. (1928). Mamroth Perseus
Mamroth, A. "Die Silbermünzen des Königs Philippos V. von Makedonien" in ZfN 40. (1930). Mamroth Philip
Mildenberg, L. & S. Hurter, eds. The Dewing Collection of Greek Coins. ACNAC 6. (New York, 1985).
Müller, L. Die Münzen Des Thracishen Konigs Lysimacus. (Copenhagen, 1858).
Müller, L. Numismatique d'Alexandre le Grand; Appendice les monnaies de Philippe II et III, et Lysimaque. (Copenhagen, 1855-58). Müller Numismatique
Mørkholm, O. Early Hellenistic Coinage. From the Accession of Alexander to the Peace of Apamea (336-188 BC). (Cambridge, 1991). Mørkholm
Newell. E. The Coinage of Demetrius Poliorcetes. (London, 1927). Newell
Prieur, M. & K. Prieur. The Syro-Phoenician Tetradrachms and their fractions from 57 BC to AD 258. (Lancaster, PA, 2000).
Price, M. The Coinage of in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. (London, 1991). Price
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol. 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979). SGCV II
Svoronos, J. Ta Nomismata tou Kratous ton Ptolemaion. (Athens, 1904-08).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Austria, Klagenfurt, Landesmuseum für Kärnten, Sammlung Dreer, Part 3: Thracien-Macedonien-Päonien. (Klagenfurt, 1984). SNG Dreer
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 2: Macedonia and Thrace. (West Milford, NJ, 1982). SNG Cop
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, München Staatlische Münzsammlung, Makedonien - Könige, 10/11 Heft. (Berlin, 2001). SNG Munchen
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Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece II. The Alpha Bank Collection, Macedonia I: Alexander I - Perseus. (Athens, 2000). SNG Alpha Bank
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece IV, Numismatic Museum, Athens, The Petros Z. Saroglos Collection, Part 1: Macedonia. (Athens, 2005).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part 8: Macedonia 2 (Alexander I - Philip II). (New York, 1994).
Thompson, M. "The Mints of Lysimachus," in Essays Robinson. Thompson
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Wartenberg, U. & J. Kagan, "Some Comments on a New Hoard from the Balkan Sea" in Travaux Le Rider.
Westermark, U. "Remarks on the Regal Macedonian Coinage ca. 413-359 BC" in Kraay-Mørkholm Essays.
Alexander I, B.C. 498-454. With the possible exception of certain coins struck at Aegae, the old capital of Macedon, with the letters ΑΛ, ΑΛΕ, etc. (Babelon, Traité, II. i. p. 1098), there are no coins of Alexander I of an earlier date than B.C. 480, about which time, by his conquest of the Bisaltae, he made himself master of those prolific mines which are said to have yielded him as much as a talent of silver daily. 219 This fresh influx of money, and the opening up of a new commercial route from Macedon to the Greek towns of the Thracian coast, by way of the valley of the Strymon, doubtless occasioned the change in standard from Babylonic to Phoenician, which now took place in the Macedonian currency. The earlier coins of Alexander’s long reign resemble in their rude and forcible style, and frequently also in type, the inscribed octadrachms of the Bisaltae. The specimens assignable to the latter part of his reign are much more refined in style, but as they are frequently without inscriptions it is in many cases impossible to draw a line between these and the coins of his successor Perdiccas. Earlier issues. Style rude.
|Naked horseman wearing kausia and armed with two spears, riding r.|
[Electrotype in B. M.]
|ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟ written round an incuse square within which is a linear sq. containing a goat to r.|
|Similar type l. [BMC Macedonia, 158.]||No inscr. Goat’s head and caduceus in incuse containing linear square|
AR Tetradrachm, 192 grs.
|Similar type r. [N. C., 1896, Pl. II. 5.]||No inscr. Granulated incuse square containing head in crested helmet.|
AR Tetradrachm, 197.6 grs.
|Warrior wearing kausia and chlamys, and armed with two spears, standing beside his horse, as on coins of the Bisaltae. [Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. 12. 11; BMC Macedonia, p. 157.]||ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟ written round an incuse square within which is a quadripartite linear sq. in low relief (Fig. 130)|
AR Octadrachm, 448 grs.
AR Octobol (?), 66 grs.
|Horseman wearing kausia and chlamys and armed with two spears, riding r.; beneath horse, a dog (Spitz ?), or, on ruder specimen, a frog or toad. [Montagu Cat., 207; Hunter, I. Pl. XX. 5.]||Similar.|
AR Octadrachm, 417 grs.
|Similar (no animal beneath).|
[N. C., 1897, Pl. XIV. 2.]
|ΑΛΕ in three corners of incuse and linear sq. containing forepart of goat, etc.|
AR Tetradrachm, 202.3 grs.
|Similar. Α beneath horse (sometimes uninscribed). [Montagu Cat., 209.]||No inscr. Similar.|
AR Tetradrachm, 197 grs.
|Horseman; dog (sometimes) beneath horse, as on octadrachm.|
[BMC Macedonia, 161.]
|incuse square containing forepart of lion; symbol, sometimes, caduceus.|
AR Tetrobol, 44-36 grs.
|Free horse, with (sometimes) Α, above or beneath. [BMC Macedonia, 159.]||incuse square quartered, or incuse and linear sq. containing crested helmet.|
AR Tetrobol (?), 33-25 grs.
|Free horse. [BMC Macedonia, 160.]||Inc. and linear sq. containing caduceus.|
AR Tetrobol, 30.8 grs.
|Forepart of prancing horse.|
[BMC Macedonia, 160.]
|Inc. and linear sq. containing crested helmet.|
AR Diob., 16.2 grs.
|Young head in kausia.|
[BMC Macedonia, 158.]
|incuse square quartered.|
AR Obol, 8.2 grs.
For illustrations of these and other varieties of Alexander’s coins see Babelon, Traité, Pls. XLVII, XLVIII.
Perdiccas II, B.C. 454-413. There are various, mostly uninscribed, Macedonian coins of Phoenician weight, with types resembling those here assigned to Alexander I, but of more recent style, which probably belong to the reign of Perdiccas. The absolutely certain and inscribed coins of this king are less numerous.
[BMC Macedonia, p. 162.]
|ΠΕΡΔΙΚ Helmet in incuse square.|
|Horse fastened to ring. [Ibid.]||Π]ΕΡ Forepart of lion in incuse square.|
|Head of bearded Herakles.|
[Ibid., p. 163.]
|ΠΕΡ Club and bow in incuse square.|
Archelaus I, B.C. 413-399. From the beginning of the fifth century we have seen that the Phoenician stater (wt. 230-220 grs.) had been in use for the royal coinage of Macedon, but with the accession of Archelaus this stater was exchanged for one of 170 grs., which, from its weight (equivalent to two Persian sigli), has been designated as the Persic stater. The money of the two important cities of Abdera and Maroneia also underwent a like transformation at the same time. The causes of this change of standard remain unexplained.
|Horseman prancing, wearing kausia and chlamys, armed with two spears.|
[BMC Macedonia, 163.]
|ΑΡΧΕΛΑΟ Forepart of goat in incuse and linear square (Fig. 131).|
AR Stater, 160 grs.
|Young male head, wearing taenia.|
[BMC Macedonia, p. 164.]
|ΑΡΧΕΛΑΟ Horse with loose rein in incuse and linear square |
|Horse. [Ibid.]||ΑΡΧΕΛΑΟ Helmet in incuse square.|
AR Diobol, 28 grs.
|Id. [Ibid., p. 165.]||ΑΡΧΕΛ Eagle in incuse square.|
|Head of bearded Herakles. [Ibid.]||ΑΡΧ Forepart of wolf; above, club.|
AR Obol, 14 grs.
|Head of young Herakles. [Ibid.]|| „ Wolf’s head and club.|
AR ½ Obol, 6 grs.
|Id. [Ibid., p. 166.]||ΑΡ Lion’s head and club.|
AR ½ Obol (?), 5.5-4.7 grs.
|Id. [Ibid.]||ΑΡΧΕΛΑΟ Club, quiver, and bow.|
Æ Size .7
|Lion’s head facing.|
[Berlin Catalog, II. 188.]
|ΑΡΧΕ Forepart of boar or forepart of butting bull.|
Aëropus (= Archelaus II), B.C. 396-392.
|Young male head bound with taenia.|
[Berlin Catalog, II. Pl. VIII. 75.]
|ΑΕΡΟ[Π]Ο Horse with loose rein.|
AR Stater, 159 grs.
|Head of bearded Herakles in lion skin. [Sestini, Descr., Pl. III. 6.]||ΑΕΡΟ Forepart of wolf; above, club.|
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.|
[N. C., 1888, 1.]
|ΑΕΡΟ Wolf’s head and club.|
AR ½ Obol, 7 grs.
|Young male head in kausia.||ΑΕΡΟΠΟ Horse walking.|
|Id. [BMC Macedonia, p. 167.]|| „ Forepart of lion.|
Amyntas II, B.C. 392-390. See Amyntas III.
Pausanias, B.C. 390-389.
|Young male head bound with taenia (Fig. 132).||ΠΑΥΣΑΝΙΑ Horse standing in linear sq.|
AR Stater, 160 grs.
|Free horse prancing. [B. M.]|| „ Forepart of lion.|
AR 47.9 grs.
|Young male head bound with taenia.|
[BMC Macedonia, p. 170.]
| „ Id.|
|Id. [Berlin Catalog,, Pl. VIII. 77.]|| „ Forepart of boar.|
Amyntas III, First Reign, B.C. 389-383.
„ „ Second Reign, B.C. 381-369.
Some of the coins bearing the name of Amyntas may belong to the short reign of Amyntas II.
|Head of bearded Herakles in lion skin (Fig. 133).||ΑΜΥΝΤΑ Horse standing in linear and incuse square|
AR Stater, 143 grs.
|Head of young Herakles.||ΑΜΥΝΤΑ Eagle looking back.|
AR Diobol, 22 grs.
|Head of bearded Herakles.|
[BMC Macedonia, p. 172.]
| „ Forepart of boar; above, club.|
|Head of Pan with short horns.||ΑΜΥΝΤΑ Forepart of wolf.|
|Young male head bare.|| „ Helmet.|
|Horseman prancing, striking with javelin. [BMC Macedonia, p. 173.]||ΑΜΥΝΤΑ Lion breaking spear.|
AR Stater, 162 grs.
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.|
[Ibid., p. 174.]
| „ Eagle devouring serpent.|
|Id. [Ibid.]|| „ Bow and club crossed.|
|Id.|| „ Club.|
Alexander II, B.C. 369-368. No coins can be certainly attributed to this king; but see Imhoof, Porträtköpfe, p. 13.
Perdiccas III, B.C. 365 or 364-359.
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin (Fig. 134).||ΠΕΡΔΙΚΚΑ Horse trotting; beneath, club.|
AR Stater, 159 grs.
|Id. [BMC Macedonia, p. 175.]||ΠΕΡΔΙΚΚΑ Lion breaking spear.|
|Id. [Ibid., p. 176.]|| „ Eagle looking back.|
Philip II, B.C. 359-336. Philip of Macedon, having obtained possession of the hitherto unworked gold mines of Pangaeum (B.C. 356), the immense output of which rapidly brought down the market price of gold in relation to silver in European Greece from 12: 1 (its then rate of exchange at Athens) to 10: 1, found it politically as well as financially expedient to reorganize the Macedonian currency on a new system modelled upon, though not identical with, that of Athens. His new gold stater, which was destined to obtain a world-wide reputation, rivalling that of the old Persian daric, he made equivalent to the Athenian gold stater of 135 grs., which had, hitherto, at the existing ratio of 12:1, been tariffed at 24 Attic drachms of 67.5 grs.
In order to preserve the customary Greek (though not Asiatic) habit of exchanging 1 gold stater against 24 silver drachms, while, at the same time taking account of the sudden fall in the silver value of gold, he now issued side by side with his gold stater, silver drachms of c.56.25 grs., thus abandoning the Persic silver stater of 173 grs., which had for about half a century been established in the Kingdom of Macedon, in favor of the so-called ‘Phoenician’ stater of 225 grs. (drachm 56.25 grs.), which was at the time prevalent in the silver coining cities included in Philip’s dominions (e. g. the money of the Chalcidian league). On the whole of this subject see Th. Reinach (L'Histoire par les monnaies, pp. 41-73). Philip’s gold staters, soon popularly known as ‘Philippi’, continued to be issued in some districts long after his death, like the posthumous gold and silver coins of his son Alexander the Great in other districts.
|Head of Apollo, laureate, with short hair (Fig. 135).||ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Biga.|
AV Stater, 133 grs.
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.|| „ Forepart of lion.|
AV ½ Stater.
|Id.|| „ Club and bow.|
AV ¼ Stater.
|Id.|| „ Various types, Fulmen— Trident — Club — Kantharos-Goat’s leg.|
AV 1/8 Stater.
|Head of Apollo as on stater.|| „ Fulmen.|
AV 1/12 Stater.
|Head of Zeus, laureate (Fig. 136).||ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Naked boy-rider bearing palm or crowning his horse, κελης.|
AR Tetradrachm, 224 grs.
|Id.||ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Bearded Macedonian horseman wearing kausia and chlamys, right hand raised.|
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.||ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Youth on horse.|
AR Didrachm, 112 grs.
|Id.|| „ Id.|
AR Octobol, 66 grs.
|Id.|| „ Id.|
AR Drachm, 56 grs.
|Id.||„ Macedonian horseman|
|Head of Apollo, laureate, or bound with plain taenia.||ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Naked horseman prancing|
AR Tetrobol, 40 grs.
|Head of Artemis, facing.|| „ Youth on horse.|
|Head of Apollo with plain taenia.||Id.|
AR Triobol, 28 grs.
|Id.||„ Half-horse AR Diobol, 18 grs.|
|Id.||„ Horse’s head.|
|Head of young Herakles.|| „ Club.|
AR Obol (?).
|Head of Apollo with plain taenia.||ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Naked horseman.|
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.|| „ Club.|
The reverse-types of Philip’s coins are nearly all agonistic, and refer either to the games celebrated by him at Dium in honor of the Olympian Zeus (Müller, Mon. d'Alex., pp. II and 344), or, preferably, to the great Olympian games where his chariots were victorious. We have, indeed, the direct assertion of Plutarch (Alex., c. 4) in favor of the latter hypothesis, τας εν ‘Ολυμπια νικας των αρματων εγχαραττων τοις νομισμασιν. Philip was also successful at Olympia with the race-horse (ιππω κελητι; Plut., Alex., 3), a victory of which he perpetuated the memory on his tetradrachms. The horseman with kausia and chlamys is less certainly agonistic, and may (perhaps with a play upon his name) represent the king himself as a typical Macedonian ιππευς.
Philip’s coins were struck at many mints in various parts of his empire. For the various mint-marks which they bear see Müller’s Num. d'Alex. le Grand, the local attributions in which are, however, to be accepted with great caution. They continued to circulate in Europe long after his death, and the Gauls, when they invaded and pillaged Greece, took vast numbers of them back into their own land, where they long continued to serve as models for the native currency of Gaul and Britain.
Alexander the Great, B.C. 336-323. The coinage of Alexander is a branch of Numismatics too extensive and complicated for discussion in detail in the present work. The gold Philippi and the silver tetradrachms (225 grs.) of his father Philip had, for a period of about twenty years, been the chief currency throughout Philip’s European dominions, and it is hardly likely that Alexander would have abolished these coins and introduced a new standard (the Attic) for his silver money until he found himself compelled to do so for commercial reasons. The fall in the price of gold in relation to silver was probably one, though not perhaps the chief, of these reasons. The general depreciation of gold made it no doubt impossible for him to maintain, by royal decree, the old relation of 13.3: 1 to silver which had prevailed in the East down to the fall of the Persian Empire, according to which 1 gold Daric of about 130 grs. was tariffed as equivalent to 20 silver sigloi of about 86½ grs., or to 10 silver staters of Persic wt., of about 173 grs. The inveterate conservatism of the East, which could brook no change in the number of silver coins exchangeable for a gold piece, would not however be startled by a modification of the weights of the two denominations.
The duodecimal exchange system of Philip’s coinage, which might havesatisfied the European portion of Alexander’s empire, where gold had always been subject to variations in its market price, being thus unsuitable for countries where a fixed legal exchange rate had been established for centuries, it became necessary to substitute for it a decimal coinage which would satisfy both East and West. Alexander’s choice of the Attic standard for both gold and silver met every requirement, and was, at the same time, in harmony with the existing relation (10: 1) of the two metals. Athens alone was the sufferer. Her ‘Owls’ were gradually superseded on all the foreign markets and her mint was practically closed.
There were, however, some countries, such as Phoenicia and probably India, where the Attic standard had never taken firm root and where the new Alexandrine coinage would be less welcome, and it is to an Indian satrapy shortly after Alexander’s death, B.C. 323, that I would attribute the rare tetradrachms of Indian weight (227 grs.), obv. Head of Zeus, rev. ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Eagle with head reverted on fulmen, which Imhoof (Imhoof MG, Pl. D. 8) believed to have been Alexander’s first coinage in Macedon, issued immediately after his father’s death. A cogent argument in favor of giving these tetradrachms to one of the Eastern satrapies rather than to Macedon is the adjunct symbol, a satrapal tiara, in front of the eagle on the reverse. This very characteristic symbol, formerly mistaken for a prow, would seem to specialize the issue as that of a governor of one of the satrapies of Alexander’s empire between B.C. 323 and 305, and the Eagle with head reverted on fulmen as the reverse-type points distinctly to India. On this attribution see N. C., 1906, 1 sqq. The following smaller denominations of Attic weight with Eagles on their reverses are probably also Indian, though perhaps not struck at the same mint as the tetradrachm with the satrapal tiara.
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.||ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Eagle on fulmen, his head usually turned back; symbols, caduceus, eagle’s head, bull’s head facing, ear of corn.|
AR Drachm (Attic).
|Id.||ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Eagle on fulmen; symbols, pentalpha, caduceus, crescent.|
AR ½ Drachm.
|Id.||ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Two eagles face to face, on fulmen; symbol, ivy-leaf.|
|Id.|| „ Eagle on fulmen, head turned back.|
|Head of Apollo, hair long.||ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Fulmen.|
For convenience I describe these coins in this place because Imhoof's attribution of the series to Macedon has been generally accepted. For my own part I would include them among the post-Alexandrine issues of Eastern and probably Indian origin.
It was doubtless after his invasion of Asia that Alexander instituted his vast international currency, of which the following are the principal types:—Antigonus Gonatas, B.C. 277-239
|Head of Athena in crested Corinthian helmet, adorned with serpent, griffin, or sphinx (Fig. 137).||ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ (rarely with ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ) Winged Nike holding mast with spar (naval standard, Z. f. N., xxv. p. 215); various mint-marks and monograms.|
AV Distater, 266 grs.
|Id. [Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. XXX. 4.]||Id.|
AV Stater 133 grs.
AV ½ Stater, 66 grs.
AV ¼ Stater, 33 grs.
|Head of Athena.||Club and bow.|
AV ¼ Stater, 33 grs.
AV 1/8 Stater, 16 grs.
The usual denomination is the stater; the rest are only exceptionally met with. The types of Athena and of her attendant Nike were introduced by Alexander, before whose time there is no trace of them on Macedonian coins.
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.|
[Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. XXX. 5, 6, 7.]
|ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ (often with ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ) Zeus seated on throne, holding eagle and resting on scepter.|
Dekadrachms with similar types also exist, but are of great rarity; didrachms, triobols, and obols occur somewhat more frequently. All coins of these unusual denominations appear to be of Eastern origin.
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.||ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Club, and bow in case|
|Id.|| „ Club, bow, and quiver.|
|Young male head, wearing taenia.|| „ Free horse.|
Other varieties less frequent than the above are the following, for the most part of post-Alexandrine style:—
|Head of Herakles.||ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Biga.|
|Head of Athena.|| „ Nike.|
|Young head wearing taenia.|| „ [ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ] Horseman.|
|Head of Herakles.|| „ Horseman.|
|Head of Apollo.|| „ Id.|
|Head of Herakles.||Β Α Bow, club and quiver.|
|Id.|| „ Horseman.|
|Head of Athena.|| „ Prow.|
|Head of Poseidon.|| „ Prow.|
|Macedonian shield.|| „ Helmet.|
The difficulties with which we are confronted in attempting a systematic classification of the enormous series of coins which bear the name of Alexander, are of two kinds:— (i) We have to decide as to whether a particular coin belongs to the reign of Alexander himself, or, if not, to what subsequent period it should be assigned, for in some parts of the ancient world silver coins continued to be struck in the name and with the types of Alexander for some centuries after his death. (ii) We have to determine the geographical attribution.
The tetradrachms have been arranged by Müller in seven classes, which he distinguishes in the main by the following characteristics:—
These classes belong in part to Europe, and in part to Asia, and may be arranged somewhat as follows :—
|Class I. Kingdom of Macedon, etc.|
„ III. „ „
|Class II. Cilicia, Syria, Phoenicia.|
„ III. „ ,,
|Class IV. Macedon, etc., Peloponnesus, and Islands.||Class IV. Cilicia, Syria, Phoenicia, and Egypt.|
|Class V. Thrace||Class V. Greek cities of western Asia Minor (Fig. 138).|
Phoenician cities (circ. 244-183).
|Classes VI, VII. Thrace, down almost to Imperial times.||Class VI. Free cities of western Asia Minor (B.C. 190-133).|
The conjectural attributions to individual cities depend upon the correspondence of the adjunct symbols with known coin-types of the cities in question. On the coins of the later classes these symbols in the field of the reverse are undoubtedly mint marks, but there is not sufficient evidence to show that this was always the case on the coins of Classes I-IV, and in many cases we have no safer guide to the local attribution than a knowledge of the countries from which certain sorts of tetradrachms usually come to us.
No gold or bronze coins bearing Alexander’s name would seem to have been issued after circ. B.C. 280.
Philip III (Aridaeus), B.C. 323-316. The coins of this king are identical in type with those of Alexander of Classes III and IV. Inscr., ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ or ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ. They were issued both in his European dominions and in Asia Minor, Cilicia, Syria, Phoenicia, and Egypt. [Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. XXVII. 9, 10; Pl. XXX. 8, 9.] (Fig. 139, AV Stater.)
Alexander IV, son of Roxana, B.C. 323-311. See below under Ptolemy Soter.
Cassander, B.C. 316-297. This king did not place his name upon the gold or silver money, which continued to be issued in the name of Alexander the Great (Class IV). He struck in bronze as follows :—
|Head of Herakles.||Seated lion.|
|Head of Apollo.||Tripod.|
|Head of Herakles.||Boy on horse.|
To the reign of Cassander belong also the bronze coins struck in the name of his general, Eupolemus, B.C. 314-313, probably at Mylasa in Caria (BMC Caria, Pl. XXI. 11).
|Three Macedonian shields.||ΕΥΠΟΛΕΜΟΥ Sword with belt.|
Philip IV, B.C. 297-296, son of Cassander.
Alexander V, B.C. 295, son of Cassander.
To these reigns no money can be confidently assigned, though some of the coins of late style, bearing the types of Philip II and Alexander the Great, may belong to this period.
Antigonus, B.C. 306-301, the father of Demetrius Poliorcetes, was acknowledged ‘King of Asia’ in B.C. 311. In B.C. 306 he first assumed the title Βασιλευς. In all his Asiatic mints it is probable that he continued the issue of gold and silver with Alexander’s types and name unchanged (Class IV).
There are, however, gold staters of the Alexandrine type (except that Nike holds in her right hand an acrostolion instead of a wreath), reading ΑΝΤΙΓΟΝΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, and tetradrachms, the latter probably struck in Peloponnesus, in the year B.C. 303, by Demetrius in the name of his father Antigonus.
|Head of Herakles (Fig. 140).||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΓΟΝΟΥ Zeus seated on throne, holding eagle.|
See also Antigonus Gonatas.
Antigonus, ‘King of Asia.'
Tetradrachm of Alexander’s types. Rev. ΑΝΤΙΓΟΝΟΥ; in field l., trident-head; beneath throne, Α~ (Num. Chron., 1909, Pl. XX. 1).
Demetrius Poliorcetes, B.C. 306-283.
|Head of Athena.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ Nike.|
|Head of Demetrius diademed and with bull’s horn.|
[Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. XXX. 15.]
|ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙ.ΟΥ Armed horseman with spear.|
|Nike blowing trumpet, and holding naval standard standing on prow.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ Athena Promachos with shield and spear.|
|Nike on prow, as above (Fig. 141).||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ Poseidon wielding trident.|
|Head of Demetrius horned.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ Poseidon, as above.|
|Head of Demetrius horned (Fig. 142).||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ Poseidon resting foot on rock, and leaning on trident.|
|Id.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ Poseidon seated on rock, holds apluster and trident.|
The types of these coins refer to the naval victory gained by the fleet of Antigonus, commanded by Demetrius, over that of Ptolemy off the island of Cyprus in B.C. 306. The same victory is commemorated by a monument discovered in the island of Samothrace, now in the Louvre, consisting of a colossal Nike standing on a prow, as on the coins. See Conze, etc., Samothrake, Bd. ii. pp. 47 sqq.
With very few exceptions the bronze coins of Demetrius Poliorcetes have a prow on the reverse, and the letters ΒΑ (for ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ). The obverse type is usually a head of Athena or of Zeus.
Pyrrhus was king of all Macedon, B.C. 287-286, and of west Macedon until B.C. 284, and again B.C. 274-272. If he issued silver coins in Macedon, they were probably, like those of Cassander, impressed with the name of Alexander (Class IV). His Macedonian bronze coins are of the following types:—
|Macedonian shield, with monogram of Pyrrhus in the center (ΠΥΡ).||ΒΑΣΙ Helmet and monogram ΠΥΡ, all in oak wreath.|
Interval, B.C. 286-277. During this period, while the government of Macedon passed rapidly from Pyrrhus to Lysimachus, Seleucus, Ptolemy Keraunos, Antipater, Sosthenes, etc., few coins were struck in Macedon.
Lysimachus, it is true, appears to have struck tetradrachms at some of the Macedonian mints in his own name, but of the rest no coins are known. There is, however, one series of Alexandrine tetradrachms of Class IV (Müller, Nos. 225-236, and Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. XXX. 11) with a Macedonian helmet in the field on the reverse, which I would attribute to this date, together with a corresponding set of bronze coins:—
|Macedonian shield; in center, various symbols.||ΒΑ Macedonian helmet.|
|Head of young Herakles.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ Bow in case, and club; symbol: Race-torch.|
Antigonus Doson, B.C. 229-220
It is not as yet possible to distinguish from one another the coins of these two kings.
Dr. Imhoof-Blumer is in favor of attributing all the silver money to Gonatas.
|Head of Poseidon, with flowing locks bound with marine plant (Fig. 143).||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΓΟΝΟΥ inscribed on prow, upon which Apollo is seated naked, holding bow.|
|Similar head of earlier style. [Imhoof, Choix, Pl. I. 23.]||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΓΟΝΟΥ Athena Alkis of archaistic style, hurling fulmen, and holding shield.|
|Macedonian shield, in center of which, head of Pan horned, with pedum at shoulder.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΓΟΝΟΥ Similar type (Fig. 144).|
The types of the first of the above tetradrachms refer clearly to a naval victory. Imhoof (Imhoof MG, p. 128) thinks that the victory recorded is that of Gonatas over the Egyptian fleet off the island of Cos, B.C. circ. 253 (Beitr. zur alt. Gesch., I. pp. 289 ff.). On the mainland, opposite Cos, was the hieron of Apollo Triopios, where games were celebrated in honor of Apollo and Poseidon, the two divinities represented on the coins, ‘C'était là sans doute, que le vainqueur a consacré sa trière; et c'est là aussi, suivant une inscription trouvée près de l'hiéron, qu'existait plus tard un autre sanctuaire, très riche et très vénéré des Cnidiens, celui du héros Antigone fils de l'Epigone (Démétrius).’ This sanctuary doubtless owed its origin to some exploit, such as the victory off Cos, by means of which Antigonus had rendered himself the benefactor of the town of Cnidus and its temple of Apollo.
But if, on the other hand, as the late style of the head of Poseidon on
For varieties and details see Gaebler (op. cit.).the majority of these coins might lead us to infer, they belong to the later Antigonus, the reverse type is still capable of explanation as containing an allusion to the fortunate naval expedition which Antigonus Doson undertook in B.C. 228 against Caria. I was at one time inclined to adopt the last mentioned attribution (Brit. Mus. Guide, p. 75 sq.), but I admit that Dr. Imhoof’s arguments in favor of the attribution of these coins to Gonatas are more convincing than those which I urged for their later date.
The coins mentioned in the Inventory of the Asklepieion at Athens as τετραχμα ‘Αντιγονεια, specimens of which appear among the dedications in the years B.C. 261-0, 256-5, 255-4, and 254-3, are probably those with the head of Pan on the Macedonian shield (Babelon, Traité, I. 485, and Ferguson in University of California Publ., Class. Phil., I. 148).
The bronze coins of the two Antigoni most frequently met with are of the following types :—
|Head of Athena.||ΒΑ and ΑΝΤΙ (in monogram) Pan erecting a trophy.|
|Head of Poseidon as on silver.||Prow.|
|Head of young Herakles.||ΒΑ and ΑΝΤΙ (in monogram) Naked rider crowning his horse.|
|Id.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΓΟΝΟΥ Id.|
|Macedonian shield, on which ΑΝΤΙ (in monogram).||ΒΑΣΙ Macedonian helmet.|
Demetrius II, B.C. 239-229. Apparently no gold or silver coins.
|Macedonian shield, in center of which monogram composed of the letters ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙ.||ΒΑΣΙ Macedonian helmet|
Æ .65 and .35
|Id., but in center, star.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ Id.|
|Head of young Herakles.||ΒΑ ΔΗ Rider crowning horse.|
Philip V, B.C. 220-179
Gold staters (Rev. Num., 1883, p. 65).
|Head of the hero Perseus r., beardless, wearing winged helmet ending at top in griffin’s head; in front, harpa.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Club, in field, monogram . Paris|
AV 132 grs.
|Head of Philip V r., diademed.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Herakles beardless, laureate, standing l., holding in r. rhyton, and in l. club and lion-skin. Paris (De Luynes)|
AV 132.5 grs.
|Head of king diademed and slightly bearded (Fig. 145).||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Athena Alkis Armed with shield, hurling fulmen.|
|Macedonian shield, with portrait of Philip’s son Perseus, slightly bearded, as the hero Perseus, in the center, wearing winged cap of Phrygian form, ending at top in griffin’s head. (See N. C., 1896, p. 35.)||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Club in oak wreath, three monograms, and adjunct symbol in margin (Fig. 146).|
|Head of king diademed.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Id.|
|Id.|| „ Id.|
AR ½ Drachm
For varieties of the tetradrachm attributed to the Pretender Andriscus under name of Philip see below, p. 239.
|Head of Zeus in oak-wreath.||ΒΑ ΦΙ Rider crowning horse.|
|Head of Poseidon.|| „ „ Athena Alkis.|
|Id.|| „ „ Prow.|
|Head of Helios, radiate.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Fulmen in oak-wreath.|
|Head of Artemis.||ΒΑ Φ Eagle on fulmen in oak-wreath.|
|Head of bearded Herakles.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Harpa in oak-wreath.|
|Id.||ΒΑ Φ Prow.|
|Head of young Herakles.|| „ Two goats at rest.|
|Head of Pan.|| „ Id.|
|Head of young Herakles.|| „ Rider crowning horse|
|Do., laureate, lion-skin round neck but not over his head.||ΒΑ ΦΙ Prow.|
|Head of hero Perseus.||ΒΑ Φ Eagle on plough or fulmen.|
|Id.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Horse.|
|Id.|| „ „ Harpa in oak-wreath.|
|Id.||ΒΑ Harpa and club.|
|Macedonian shield with wheel-ornament in canter.||ΒΑ ΦΙ Club.|
|Id.||ΒΑ Φ Helmet.|
|Similar; head of Perseus in center.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Helmet surmounted by star.|
H. Gaebler (Zeit. f. Num., xx. 169 ff., and Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands, Band iii. 1 and Tafel I) has proved that Philip, probably about B.C. 185, allowed his subjects to issue small silver and bronze coins in the name of the whole people, ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ, his own name being omitted. That these issues are contemporary with the royal coinage is clear from the identity of the symbols and monograms which they bear with those on the regal money. The chief varieties are the following :—
|ΜΑΚΕ and Club in center of Macedonian shield.||Macedonian helmet, around which usually three monograms and symbol as on coins bearing Philip’s name.|
AR Tetrobols and Diobols.
|Macedonian shield with crescent-rayed star in center.||ΜΑΚΕ ΔΟΝΩΝ After-part of ship.|
|Head of Maenad in vine-wreath, as on contemporary coins of Histiaea in Euboea.||Id. Id.|
|ΜΑΚΕ (in monogram) in center of Macedonian shield.||Macedonian helmet and (monogram of Amphaxitis). [Gaebler, Münz. N. Gr., Taf. I. 4.].|
|Head of Poseidon, trident at shoulder.||ΜΑΚΕ ΔΟΝΩΝ Club in oak-wreath [Gaebler, op. cit., Taf. I. 28.].|
Æ .95 (serrated).
|Head of Poseidon, with lank hair; no trident.||Similar.|
|Head of Strymon to front, crowned with reeds.||ΜΑΚΕ ΔΟΝΩΝ Artemis standing, holding long torch. [Gaebler, op. cit., Taf. I. 14.].|
|Head of Strymon in profile, crowned with reeds.||ΜΑΚΕ ΔΟΝΩΝ Trident. [Ibid., Taf. I. 22.].|
|Head of Apollo.||ΜΑΚΕ ΔΟΝΩΝ Lyre and bow. [Ibid., Taf. I. 19.].|
|Id.||ΜΑΚΕ ΔΟΝΩΝ Tripod (monogram of Amphaxitis). [Ibid., Taf. I. 21.] Æ .8|
|Head of Dionysos in ivy-wreath.||ΜΑΚΕ ΔΟΝΩΝ Goat standing (monogram of Amphaxitis). [Ibid., Taf. I. 15.].|
|Head of Pan with pedum at shoulder.|| (monogram of Bottiaea) Two goats recumbent in oak-wreath. [Ibid., Taf. XII. 10.].|
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.||ΜΑΚΕ ΔΟΝΩΝ Naked rider crowning his horse. [BMC Macedonia, p. 13.].|
|Head of Zeus.||ΜΑΚΕ ΔΟΝΩΝ Winged fulmen. [Ibid.].|
|Head of Zeus.||Eagle on fulmen (on larger coins with head reverted). Monogram , and another varying monogram or symbol. [Ibid., p. 15.].|
T. Quinctius Flamininus. B.C. 196-190. Of this illustrious Roman general a gold stater of Attic weight is known. It is of great rarity, only three specimens having up to the present time been discovered. Friedländer (Zeit. f. Num., xii. p. 2) was of opinion that it was struck in Macedon after the battle of Cynoscephalae, but there is nothing to prove that it was not issued during the sojourn of Flamininus in Peloponnesus, perhaps on the occasion of the great Convention at Corinth, when the Romans proclaimed the freedom and independence of Greece. As, however, the reverse-type is that of the gold staters of Alexander the Great, I prefer to describe it in this place. The obverse type is specially interesting as presenting us with the first portrait of a living Roman known on coins. (See Maonald, Coin Types, pp. 153 ff.)
|Head of Flamininus to r., slightly bearded [Zeit. f. Num., xii. Pl. VII. 2].||T. QVINCTI Nike standing, holding wreath and palm.|
Perseus. B.C. 178-168.
|Head of king Perseus, diademed (Fig. 147).||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΓΙΕΡΣΕΩΣ Eagle on fulmen, all in oak-wreath.|
|Id.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣΠΕΡΣΕΩΣ Harpa in oak wreath.|
|Id.||„ Club in oak-wreath.|
|Head of hero Perseus.||ΒΑ ΠΕ (or ΠΕΡ) Eagle on plough or fulmen.|
|Head of young Herakles.|| „ Rider crowning horse|
|Macedonian shield; wheel-ornament in center.|| „ Harpa.|
Adaeus. Perhaps a dynast in Macedonia not mentioned in history. His coins appear to have been struck either at Heracleia Sintica or at the town of Scotussa (Plin. iv. 17, s. 18) on the road between Heracleia and Philippi (Berlin Catalog, II. p. 90).
|Head of Apollo.||ΑΔΑΙΟΥ Tripod.|
|Head of Herakles.|| „ Club.|
|Head of Athena.|| „ Owl.|
|Head of boar.|| „ Spear-head.|
The death of Perdiccas III, King of Macedon (B.C. 359), was followed by a period of confusion during which the Paeonians rose and shook off the yoke of the royal house of Macedon.
The independent kings of Paeonia between this date and B.C. 286 are as follows:—
Lycceius. Circ. B.C. 359-340. Silver coins of debased Macedonian weight. Tetradrachms 214-188 grs.
|Head of Apollo.||ΛΥΚΠΕΙΟ or ΛΥΚΚΕΙΟΥ Herakles and lion (Fig. 148).|
|ΔΕΡΡΩΝΑΙ ΟΣ Young male head laur. with short hair.||ΛΥΚΚΕΙΟΥ Same type. [Rev. Num., 1897, Pl. III. 2].|
AR Tetradrachm 197 grs.
|Head of Zeus. [Coll. de Hirsch.]||ΛΥΚΚΕΙΟΥ Same type.|
|Head of Apollo. [Berlin Catalog, II. Pl. I. 2.]||ΛΥΚΚΕΙΟΥ Lion.|
|Female head. [Berlin Catalog, II. Pl. I. 3.]||ΛΥΚΚ[ΕΙ]Ο Lion standing.|
A fragment of an inscription found some years ago at Athens (Hicks and Hill, Gk. Hist. Inscr., p. 255) mentions a treaty of alliance between the Athenians, on the one part, and Cetriporis of Thrace, Lyppeius of Paeonia, and Grabus of Illyris on the other. There can be no doubt about the identity of the Lyppeius of the inscription with the Lycpeius or Lycceius of the coins. The coin with the head of Apollo (?) accompanied by the inscr. ΔΕΡΡΩΝΑΙΟΣ seems to prove that the district in habited by the Derrones (see supra, p. 201) was included in the dominions of Lycceius.
Patraus. Circ. B.C. 340-315.
|Young male head with short hair, usually laureate.||ΠΑΤΡΑΟΥ Horseman spearing prostrate foe (Fig. 149).|
|Young male head, wearing taenia.||ΠΑΤΡΑΟΥ Forepart of boar.|
|Young male head, laureate.|
[Berlin Catalog, II. p. 4.]
Bastareus. An unknown king of some tribe bordering upon the Paeonian district. Two tetradrachms only known, found with coins of Patraus:—
|Large crested helmet r.; circle of dots.|
[Sotheby Sale Cat., May, 1904, Lot 232.]
|ΒΑΣΤΑΡΕΟΣ Bull butting r.; circle of dots.|
AR Tetradrachm 203 grs.
Audoleon. Circ. B.C. 315-286.
|Head of Athena, facing.||ΑΥΔΩΛΕΟΝΤΟΣ Free horse (Fig. 150) AR Tetradrachm|
|Head of Athena in Corinthian helmet to right, as on gold staters of Alexander the Great.||„ Id.|
|Head of Athena, facing.|| „ Forepart of horse.|
|Head of young Dionysos.|| „ Id.|
There are also barbarous imitations of the tetradrachms of Philip of Macedon, obv. Head of Zeus, rev. Horseman, with the inscr. ΑΥΔΩΛΕΟΝΤΟΣ (Berlin Catalog, II. Pl. I. 9).
After circ. B.C. 306 Audoleon followed the example of the Diadochi, and adopted the title Βασιλευς. He then struck Attic tetradrachms, similar in type to the money of Alexander the Great, but with the inscription ΑΥΔΩΛΕΟΝΤΟΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ. Audoleon’s coins were frequently imitated by barbarians of the interior.
Dropion (?), after circ. B.C. 279. See J. P. Six, Annuaire de Numismatique, 1883, p. 5.
|Head of Zeus.||ΠΑΙΟΝΩΝ Fulmen, beneath which ΔΡ.|
In 1877 an inscription was discovered at Olympia, on the base of a statue, stating that it was set up by the community of the Paeonians in honor of their king and founder, Dropion, who probably reconstituted the country after the invasion of the Gauls. The monogram ΔΡ also occurs on tetradrachms of Lysimachus (Müller, No. 489). There is however, in the British Museum, a coin similar to that described above, except that it reads ΠΑΟΝΩΝ and has the monogram (Audoleon (?)). This casts some doubt upon the attribution to Dropion proposed by Six.
Nicarchus. An unknown dynast, probably contemporary with Patraus.
|Head of Apollo, r. laureate.|
[Bull. Corr. Hell., vi. 211.]
AR Tetradrachm 204 grs.