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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |The Twelve Caesars| ▸ |Caius & Lucius||View Options:  |  |  | 

Caius and Lucius Caesars

Caius Caesar, born in 20 B.C. and Lucius Caesar, born in 17 B.C., were the sons of Agrippa and Julia, and the grandsons of Augustus. Augustus adopted them and designated them as his successors. As boy's, they were declared consul elect, princeps juventutis, honored with priesthoods, and admitted to the senate. In 1 A.D. Caius was consul and was sent to Armenia, where he showed talent for both civil government and military enterprise. In 2 A.D., rather than invade, Gaius met with King Phraates V and concluded peace with the Parthians, who recognized Roman claims to Armenia. The brothers seemed destined for greatness. But Lucius, the younger of the two, died suddenly at Marseilles on 20 August 2 A.D. And, on his return from Armenia, Caius was treacherously wounded by a local Roman magistrate, fell into a lingering illness, and on 21 February 4 A.D., at the early age of 24, died at Limyra in Lycia. Augustus' wife, their step-mother, Livia, was rumored to have arranged both of their deaths to advance her son Tiberius, who was later adopted as Augustus' son and heir.

Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D., Unofficial Counterfeit, Hybrid With Augustus Reverse

|Caligula|, |Caligula,| |16| |March| |37| |-| |24| |January| |41| |A.D.,| |Unofficial| |Counterfeit,| |Hybrid| |With| |Augustus| |Reverse||denarius|
Tiberius left his estate and the titles of the principate to Caligula and to Tiberius' own grandson, Gemellus, who were to serve as joint heirs. Although Tiberius was 78 and on his death bed, some ancient historians still conjecture that he was murdered. Tacitus writes that the Praetorian Prefect, Macro, smothered Tiberius with a pillow to hasten Caligula's accession, much to the joy of the Roman people. Suetonius writes that Caligula may have carried out the murder himself, though this is not recorded by any other ancient historian. Seneca the elder and Philo, as well as Josephus, record that Tiberius died a natural death. Caligula had Tiberius' will nullified with regards to Gemellus on grounds of insanity, but otherwise he carried out Tiberius' wishes.
RS99189. Fouree silver plated denarius, cf. RIC I Caligula 2 (for obv., official, silver, Lugdunum, 37 A.D.), RIC I Augustus 207 (for rev., official, silver, Lugdunum, 2 B.C. - 4 A.D.), aVF, toned, bumps and marks, scattered plating breaks, crude, weight 3.535 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 315o, unofficial counterfeiter's mint, c. 37 - 41 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT COS, bare head of Caligula right; reverse AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT C L CAESARES, Caius and Lucius Caesars standing facing, two shields and two spears between them; above, on left, simpulum right, and on right, lituus left.; an interesting hybrid forgery of the types of Caligula and Augustus; ex CNG e-auction 500 (22 Sep 2021), 735 (part of); ex Mercury Group Collection; $500.00 SALE PRICE $450.00


Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D., Ancient Counterfeit

|Augustus|, |Augustus,| |16| |January| |27| |B.C.| |-| |19| |August| |14| |A.D.,| |Ancient| |Counterfeit||denarius|
 
RS99187. Fouree silver plated denarius, cf. RIC I 207, RSC I 43, BMCRE I 533, BnF I 1651, Hunter I 217, SRCV I 1597 (official, silver denarius, Lugdunum mint, 2 B.C. - 4 A.D.), gVF, toned, core exposures, light scratches, weight 3.484 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 180o, unofficial, counterfeiter's mint, c. 2 B.C. - 4 A.D.; obverse CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head right; reverse C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, Caius and Lucius Caesars stand facing, togate, each resting hand on a round shield with spear behind, above center on left a simpulum right and on right a lituus left; ex CNG e-auction 500 (22 Sep 2021), 735 (part of); ex Mercury Group Collection; $220.00 SALE PRICE $198.00


Gaius Caesar, Antiochia ad Maeandrum, Caria, 1 B.C. - 4 A.D.

|Caius| |&| |Lucius|, |Gaius| |Caesar,| |Antiochia| |ad| |Maeandrum,| |Caria,| |1| |B.C.| |-| |4| |A.D.||AE| |15|
The bare-headed young portrait is Gaius Julius Caesar, not Augustus. In this period, Augustus would be expected to wear a wreath, as he does on the other coins from this city. The youthful image better fits the younger man, who was both his grandson and adoptive son. Many cities issued coins for Gaius after he was made army commander in the East in 1 B.C. The winged caduceus commemorates the peace treaty he made that year with Phraates V. Attribution to Antioch on the Meander is likely but not entirely certain.
SH77422. Bronze AE 15, RPC I Supp. S-5478 (corr., 1 spec., head of Augustus, caduceus on a prow); Solidus Numismatik, auction 6, lot 209, VF, over-cleaned, porous, flan crack, weight 2.129 g, maximum diameter 14.9 mm, Antiochia ad Maeandrum (near Basaran Turkey) mint, 1 B.C. - 21 Feb 4 A.D.; obverse ANTIOXEΩN, bare head (Gaius Caesar?) right with slender neck and curved bust line; reverse winged caduceus in laurel wreath; extremely rare, only the 3rd known; SOLD







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REFERENCES

American Numismatic Society (ANS) Collections Database Online - http://numismatics.org/search/search
Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Burnett, A., M. Amandry & P. Ripolls. Roman Provincial Coinage I: From the death of Caesar to the death of Vitellius (44 BC-AD 69). (London, 1992 and supplement).
Calic, X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. One: From the Republic to Pertinax, 196 BC - 193 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Calic, X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. One: From the Republic to Pertinax, 196 BC - 193 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappes sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 1: Pompey to Domitian. (Paris, 1880).
Giard, J. Monnaies de l'Empire romain, I Auguste. Catalogue Bibliothque nationale de France. (Paris, 1998).
Mattingly, H. & R. Carson. Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum, Vol 1: Augustus to Vitellius. (London, 1923).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. I. Augustus to Nerva. (Oxford, 1962).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, The Millennium Edition, Volume One, The Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000).
Sutherland, C. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. I, From 39 BC to AD 69. (London, 1984).
Sutherland, C. & C. Kraay. Catalogue of Coins of the Roman Empire in the Ashmolean Museum, Part I: Augustus. (Oxford, 1975).
Toynbee, J. Roman medallions. ANSNS 5. (New York, 1944).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

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