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Acarnania is in west-central Greece along the Ionian Sea, west of Aetolia, with the Achelous River for a boundary, and north of the gulf of Calydon, which is the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth. In Greek mythology it was founded by Acarnan, son of Alcmaeon. In the 7th century B.C., Corinth settled Anactorium, Sollium and Leucas, and Kefalonia settled Astacus. The original inhabitants were driven into the interior, lived in villages, and retired, when attacked, to the mountains. United by the Acarnanian League, their hatred for the Corinthians, who had deprived them of all their best ports, led the Acarnanians to side with the Athenians. The Acarnanians were frequently at war with the Achaeans. They joined the Second Athenian League in 375 B.C. Akarnania sided with the Boeotians in their fight against Sparta, and with Athens against Philip II of Macedon at Chaeronea. In 314 B.C., villages near the Aetolian border were conglomerated into fewer, larger settlements. Still, border conflicts with the Aetolians were frequent, and c. 250 B.C. Acarnania was partitioned between Aetolia and Epirus. After the fall of the king of Epirus, Acarnanian territory that had been given to Epirus regained independence, and Leucas became the capital. The Acarnanians allied with the Macedonian kings. They joined Philip against Rome, and it was not till after the capture of Leucas, their principal town, and the defeat of Philip at the Battle of Cynoscephalae that they submitted to Rome. They supported Antiochus III king of Syria when he invaded Greece in 191 B.C. Upon the expulsion of Antiochus from Greece, they came again under Rome. After the defeat of Perseus in 168 B.C., Leucas was separated from Acarnania, and Thyrreion was made the new capital. In the 1st century B.C., Acarnania suffered greatly from pirates and in Rome's civil wars. After the Battle of Actium, the inhabitants of several towns were removed by Augustus to Nicopolis and Akarnania became merely a part of Epeirus.