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Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
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Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
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The Sign that Changed the World
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Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
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(N.) The North-western Coast of the Euxine and the Danubian District. Olbia; Tyra; Dacia; Viminacium; Callatis; Dionysopolis; Istrus; Marcianopolis; Nicopolis; Tomis; Odessus; Anchialus; Apollonia; Cabyle; Mesembria.
(O.) The Tauric Chersonesus. Carcine; Cercinitis; Cherronesus; Nymphaeum(?); Panticapaeum; Theodosia.
(P.) Thracian Kings and Dynasts. Sparadocus; Seuthes I; Metocus; Amadocus; Teres; Eminacus; Samma....(?); Saratocus; Bergaeus; Spoces; Cetriporis; Hebryzelmis; Cotys I; Cersobleptes;
Phile....; Seuthes III; Lysimachus; Orsoaltius; Cersibaulus; Cavarus; Mostis; Cotys II (?); Dixatelmeus; Cotys III; Sadales; Rhoemetalces I; Cotys IV and Rhaescuporis; Rhoemetalces II; Rhoemetalces III.
(R.) Kings of the Scythians, etc. Acrosandrus; Aelis; Canites; Charaspes; Coson; Pharzoïus; Sarias; Saumacus; Scilurus; Scostoces.
Adhering to the above classification, we now proceed to describe the principal coins of the several Macedonian and Thracian localities in detail.
Aenus was an important city which stood at the mouth of the Hebrus, and thus commanded the navigation of that river, which brought it into commercial relations with all the eastern regions of Thrace. It did not begin to coin money at so early a date as Abdera, the higher limit of its currency being the middle of the fifth century.
|Head of Hermes in profile, wearing close fitting petasos.
[Berlin Cat., I. p. 119.]
|Incuse square, within which ΑΙΝΙΟΝ (retrogr.) around a caduceus.|
|Id. (Fig. 154).||Incuse square ΑΙΝΙ Goat standing. Symbols various:—astragalos; crescent and ivy-leaf or star; term of Hermes on throne; dog; bipennis; caduceus; animal’s head; fly; amphora; crab; ivy-leaf; mask of Seilenos; infant Dionysos; owl;|
|Similar; ΑΙΝΙ on petasos.
[Z. f. N., v. 184.]
|Incuse square, within which linear square, containing goat. Magistrate, ΑΝΤΙΑΔΑΣ. Symbol : naked figure of Pan.|
|ΑΙΝ Bull on ear of corn.
[Berlin Catalog, I. 127.]
|Incuse square of'mill-sail’ pattern.|
The weight-standard of the coins of Aenus appears to be early Rhodian or a light form of the Euboïc-Attic. The tetradrachms of the first period range from 258 to 236 grs. The coin reading'Antiadas' is attributed by von Sallet (Zeit. f. Num., v. 187) to the period 411-409 B.C., during which an aristocratic form of government was set up under the auspices of the Four Hundred at Athens in some of the tributary Thracian, etc. cities.
In this period the weight of the tetradrachm ranges from 244 to 232 grs. It thus corresponds with the standard introduced about the same time at Rhodes, and has hence been called the Rhodian standard.
|Head of Hermes in profile.
[BMC Thrace, p. 77.]
|ΑΙΝΙΟΝ Terminal figure of Hermes standing on throne.|
AV 32.6 grs.
|Head of Hermes facing, in close-fitting petasos (Fig. 155).||ΑΙΝΙΟΝ Goat. Symbols: dolphin; amphora; monota; rhyton; star; caduceus and petasos; race-torch; trophy; vine; eagle; lyre; serpent; tripod; fly; helmet; wreath; laurel-branch; astragalos, etc.|
|Head of Hermes facing, in wide petasos.
[BMC Thrace, p. 80.]
|ΑΙΝΙΟΝ Terminal figure of Hermes on throne to left. Symbols: kantharos; goat’s head; corn-ear; star, etc.|
|Head of Hermes, in close or wide petasos. [BMC Thrace, p. 80.]||ΑΙ, ΑΙΝΙ or ΑΙΝΙΟΝ Caduceus. Symbols : astragalos; ear of corn; grapes; ram’s head, etc.|
|Id., in wide petasos. [Ibid., p. 81.]||ΑΙΝΙ or ΑΙΝΙΟΝ Goat. Symbols: caduceus; pentagram; torch, etc.|
|Head of Hermes in wide petasos.
[BMC Thrace, p. 81.]
|ΑΙΝΙΟΝ Hermes (?) seated on throne, holds apparently purse and caduceus.|
|Head of Apollo.||ΑΙΝΙΟΝ Forepart of Goat.|
|Head of Poseidon.
[BMC Thrace, p. 81.]
|ΑΙΝΙΩΝ Hermes standing between goats, or beside altar, holds purse and caduceus.|
Of the history of Aenus we know but little. During the Sicilian expedition (B.C. 415) it was one of the subject-allies of Athens, and it figures in the Athenian Quota-lists for 10-12 talents. After B.C. 350 it formed part of the Macedonian empire, and ceased to coin in its own name, at least in silver; but coins were struck there in the name of Lysimachus, though, perhaps, not until after the death of that monarch.
Some of the full-face heads of Hermes on the coins of this town are very fine as works of art. With regard to the curious terminal figure of Hermes standing on a throne, Leake has justly remarked that it exactly resembles the description which Pausanias has given of the statues of Apollo standing on thrones at Amyclae and Thornax in Laconia (Paus., Lac., x. 12). There was doubtless a similar cultus-statue at Aenus.
Mesembria. This place, which was evidently not of much importance, as it is mentioned only by Herod. (vii. 108) as a walled stronghold, τειχος, of the Samothracians, on the Thracian coast near the mouth of the river Lissus, is to be distinguished from the better known city of the same name on the Euxine (p. 278). The only coin which has, with much probability, been assigned to this Mesembria is a large bronze piece of the first century B.C.
|Head of Dionysos copied from late coins of Maroneia or Thasos.
[Rev. Num., 1900, 258.]
ΒΡΙΑΝΩΝ Bunch of grapes.
Maroneia was an ancient city situate on the coast about midway between the mouths of the Hebrus and the Nestus. It was named after Maron, son of Euanthes, a priest of Apollo, who in the Odyssey gives Odysseus the wine with which he afterwards intoxicates Polyphemos. Maron is also called a son of Dionysos. The coins of Maroneia prove that Apollo and Dionysos were both objects of especial worship there. The earliest coins of Maroneia seem to belong to the ancient Thraco-Macedonian or Babylonic standard.
|Forepart of prancing horse.
[Berlin Catalog, I. 175.]
|Incuse square diagonally divided.|
AR Stater, 148 grs.
|Incuse square quartered.|
AR Diobols, 27 grs.
[BMC Thrace, p. 123 sq.]
|Incuse square of'mill-sail’ pattern.|
AR. Obols, 14.5 grs.
|Inscr., ΜΑΡ, ΜΑΡΩ, ΜΑΡΩΝΟΣ. Forepart of prancing horse; two large pellets, sometimes, in field.
[BMC Thrace, p. 123 sq.]
|Incuse square containing a sun-flower or a ram’s head, or simply quartered. Sometimes with abbreviated magistrates’ names.|
AR Drachms, 57 grs., and ½ Drachms.
|Similar.||ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΕΩΝ (sometimes retrogr.) written round a quadripartite linear square. The whole in shallow incuse square.|
AR Didrachm, 112 grs.
Phoenician wt., Tetradrachms 220 grs. (max.); Didrachm 112 grs.; Drachms 50 grs. Inscr., ΜΑΡΩΝ, ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΩΝ, ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΕΩΝ, or ΜΑΡΩΝΕΙΤΕΩΝ.
|Horse prancing (rarely standing). Symbols, sometimes : kantharos; star; wheel; wreath; lyre; helmeted head; helmet; head of Dionysos (?) facing; head of a Satyr; crescent; owl flying; etc. (Fig. 156).||Incuse square, within which vine with bunches of grapes in linear square: around, magistrate’s name, occasionally in nom. case, but as a rule in the genitive preceded by ΕΠΙ.|
Magistrates: ΒΡΑΒΕΩΣ, ΔΕΟΝΥΣ, ΗΓΗΣΙΛΕΩΣ, ΜΗΤΡΟΔΟΤΟΣ or ΜΗΤΡΟΔΟΤΟ, ΜΗΤΡΟΦΩΝ, ΠΟΣΙΔΗΙΟ, ΠΥΘΟΔΩΡΟ, etc. On some specimens the inscription ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΕΩΝ stands on the reverse in place of the magistrate’s name.
|Forepart of prancing horse.
[Z. f. N., iii. 274.]
|Incuse square quartered; around, magistrate’s name ΕΠ ΑΡΧΕΜΒΡΟΤΟ.|
|Id.||Incuse square, in which, vine; around, magistrate’s name ΠΟΣΕΙΔΙΠΠΟΣ.|
|Id.||Incuse square, in which, grapes.|
The following exceptional coins of light Attic or Rhodian wt. must also be placed shortly before B.C. 400 :—
|Head of young Dionysos bound with ivy.
[N. C., 1888, Pl. I. 11, B. M.]
|ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΕΩΝ Linear square, within which, one large bunch of grapes with branch and leaves. Symbol, outside square, thyrsos.|
AR Tetradrachm, 249.5 grs.
|Head of young Dionysos bound with ivy.
[Z. f. N., iii. Pl. VI. 18.]
|ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΕΩΝ ΕΠΙ ΜΗΤΡΟΦΑΝΕΟΣ Vine growing out of the head of a Seilenos (Maron ?) to front.|
AR Tetradrachm, 255 grs.
About the end of the fifth century the Phoenician and Rhodian (?) standards were replaced by the Persic, of which the staters weigh about 175 grs. The standard of the gold coins is the Euboïc.
|Head of bearded Dionysos.||ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΕΩΝ Vine.|
AV 62 grs.
|Prancing horse; above, symbol, grapes.||ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΕΩΝ Vine.|
AV 48.5 grs.
|Prancing horse. Symbols on some specimens. Inscr. sometimes ΜΑΡΩ (Fig. 157).||Vine in square. Symbols on some specimens,— caduceus; scorpion; bee; ear of corn; dog.|
AR Staters 175 grs.
Magistrate names on reverse, preceded by ΕΠΙ:— ΑΠΕΛΛΕΩ, ΕΥΞΙΘΕΜΙΟΣ, ΕΥΠΟΛΙΟΣ, ΖΗΝΩΝΟΣ, ΗΓΗΣΑΓΟΡΕΩ, ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΔΟΥ, ΙΚΕΣΙΟ, ΚΑΛΛΙΚΡΑΤΕΟΣ, ΜΗΤΡΟΔΩΡΟ, ΜΗΤΡΩΝΟΣ, ΝΕΟΜΗΝΙΟΥ, ΠΑΤΡΟΚΛΕΟΣ, ΠΟΛΥΑΡΗΤΟΥ, ΠΟΛΥΝΙΚΟΥ, ΠΟΣΙΔΕΙΟΥ, ΧΟΡΗΓΟ, etc.
There are also Triobols or ¼ Staters (wt. 44 grs.), and Trihemiobols (wt. 22 grs.). Inscr., ΜΑ, usually on the reverse, and magistrates’ names generally abbreviated:— ΑΘΗΝΕΩ, ΑΡΙΣΤΟΛΕΩ, ΖΗΝΩΝΟΣ, ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΔΕΩ, ΜΗΤΡΟΔΩΡΟ, ΝΟΥΜΗΝΙΟΥ, etc.
|Forepart of horse.||Bunch of grapes on vine-branch, in dotted and incuse square.|
|Forepart of horse in plain circle.||ΜΑΡΩΝ Tripod in incuse square|
|Horse prancing.||ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΩΝ round linear square within which, vine. Monogram on both sides.|
|Head of young Dionysos, ivy-crowned.||ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΩΝ Grapes, in dotted sq. ΕΠΙ ΠΥΘΟΝΙΚΟ.|
On the coins of Maroneia the signification of the horse is doubtful, but it appears to be the παρασημον of the city. The vine is a symbol of Dionysos or Maron, and recalls the famous wine of Maroneia, which was said to be capable of mixture with twenty times its quantity of water.
The autonomous coinage of Maroneia ceased when it fell under the dominion of Philip of Macedon, but the town appears to have remained a place of mintage under Philip, Alexander, Philip Aridaeus, Lysimachus, etc. Not until the second century B.C., when the Romans were supreme in Greece, did Maroneia regain its autonomy (Polyb. xxx. 3). The exact date of the commencement of the new series of tetradrachms is doubtful, but it is presumable that neither Maroneia nor Thasos began to coin again until after the closing of the Macedonian mints for silver in
|Head of young Dionysos (Fig. 158).||ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΩΝ Dionysos standing, holding grapes and two narthex wands. In field, two monograms of magistrates.|
AR Attic tetradrachms; light wt. 255-230 grs.
|Head of young Dionysos.||Similar, with one monogram|
|Head of Apollo.||ΜΑΡΩΝΙΤΩΝ Asklepios standing.|
|Head of bearded Herakles.|| „ Horse galloping.|
|Bearded head of Dionysos (?) in close-fitting crested helmet with bull’s ear at side.||ΦΥΤΑΙΟΝ retrogr. round incuse square, within which, vine. (Baron de Hirsch, Ann. de Num., 1884, Pl. I. 9).|
AR 29.5 grs.
Dicaea was an ancient seaport not far from Abdera, with which it appears to have been in close commercial relations. See Num. Chron., N. S., xv. 99.
|Head of bearded Herakles in lion-skin, of very archaic style. [Z. f. N., xvii. Pl. I. 1; N. C., 1890, Pl. I. 1; BMC Thrace, p. 115.]||Incuse square quadrilaterally or diagonally quartered.|
|Similar [BMC Thrace, p. 115.]||ΔΙΚ Bull’s head and neck l., in incuse square.|
AR Stater, wt. 111.6 grs.
|„||ΔΙΚΑΙ Id. [Z. f. N., xvii. 3.].|
AR Stater, wt. 108 grs.
|Head of bearded Herakles in lion's scalp as above.||Cock in incuse square [BMC Thrace, p. 170.].|
AR 57 grs.
|Δ Id. [N. C., 1896, Pl. I. 14.]||Id.|
AR 27 grs.
|No letter. Id. [Ibid., Pl. I. 15.]||Id.|
AR 31.4 grs.
|Female head, hair rolled.
[B. M. C., Thrace. 115.]
|ΔΙΚΑΙΑ Bull’s head and neck r., the whole in incuse square.|
AR Drachm, 40 grs.
|Id. [Berlin Catalog, p. 166.]||ΔΙΚ Id.|
AR ½ Drachm, 18 grs.
|Id. [BMC Thrace, p. 233.]||Δ Bull’s head with neck, the head to front, in incuse square|
AR 10.2 grs.
This town is mentioned in the Athenian Quota-lists (Corp. Inscr. Att., ed. Kirchhoff, vol. i. p. III) as a member of the Athenian Confederation between B.C. 454 and 428. It is there called Δικαια παρ Αβδηρα, to distinguish it from the other Dicaea, the colony of Eretria in Chalcidice (p. 213). Compare also coins attributed to Selymbria (p. 271).
Abdera, on the southern coast of Thrace, not far from the mouth of the river Nestus, was originally a Clazomenian colony founded in the seventh century B.C. This first venture did not prove a success, but in B.C. 544 the site was reoccupied by the larger portion of the population of Teos, who preferred to leave their native land rather than submit to the Persian conqueror (Herod. i. 168). Abdera now rose to be a place of considerable importance and wealth, on which account it was selected by Xerxes as one of his resting places in his progress along the northern shores of the Aegean. This is the period to which its earliest coins belong.
The silver money of Abdera may be divided into the following classes:—
|Griffin seated, usually with rounded wing, plain or feathered, with one paw raised. Various adjunct symbols.||Shallow incuse square divided into four quarters.|
No name of town. Magistrates on obv.: Δ, ΕΚΑΤ, <Ι, ΠΕΡΙ, Σ, [Α]ΡΧ (?), Α, on Octadrachms;— ΑΝΤ, ΑΡΤΕ, ΑΣΠΑ, ΔΑΜ, ΔΕΟ, ΗΓΗ, ΗΡΑΚ, ΗΡΟ, ΜΕΓΑ, ΜΕΙΔΙ, ΠΡΩ, ΣΜΟΡ, ΤΕΛΕ, ΦΙΤΤΑΛΟ, ΣΥΜ, ΕΠΙ ΙΑ, on Tetradrachms (Fig. 159); and ΑΝΤ, ΔΕΟ, ΗΡΟ, ΗΓΗ, on Drachms. The obols (circ. 9-10 grs.) are uninscribed.
The griffin as a coin-type at Abdera is clearly copied from that on the coins of the mother-city Teos. It may be borrowed from the cultus of the Hyperborean Apollo. The magistrates whose names occur from the very earliest times on the coins of this town were probably members of the governing body, commissioned to superintend the coinage of the state, and not mere monetary magistrates. The accessory symbols in the field may be the signets, either of the magistrate or of the mint-master. Among those which we meet with on the coins of the earliest period are the following:— locust; calf’s head; dancing satyr, kylix; young male head.
The adoption of the Phoenician (?) standard in these northern parts is perhaps owing to the existence in early times on the site of Abdera of a Phoenician trading station or factory, for if the Teian colonists in B.C. 544 had not found another standard already established there, and used for silver in bullion form, it is to be presumed that they would have issued their coins uniform in weight as well as in type with those of Teos, which is not the case. The Octadrachms of Abdera, like those of the Thraco-Macedonian tribes, Orrescii, Bisaltae, Edoni, Derrones, etc., and of Alexander I of Macedon, probably all belong to the time of the Persian wars. Afterwards the tetradrachm is the largest denomination in Thrace and Macedon.
|Griffin with curled wing, seated on fish. Magistrate, ΚΑΛΛΙΔΑΜΑΣ.||ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΕΩΝ in shallow incuse square. In center, a smaller square quartered.|
|Similar griffin, sometimes with pointed wings, on one variety walking. Symbols: cock; owl; kantharos; scarabaeus with ball (Ateuchus sacer); amphora; phallus; small flying figure crowning griffin; beardless head; star, etc. Inscr. on some specimens, ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΕΩΝ.||In place of ethnic, Magistrates’ names, ΕΠ ΗΡΟΔΟΤΟ, ΕΠΙ ΔΕΟΝΥΔΟΣ, ΕΠ ΗΓΗΣΙΠΠΟ, ΕΠ ΙΠΠΩΝΟΣ, ΕΠΙ ΣΜΟΡΔΟΤΟΡΜΟ ΚΑΛ, ΕΠΙ ΦΙΤΤΑΛΟ, ΕΠΙ ΝΥΜΦΟΔΩΡΟ, ΕΠ ΕΡΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΔΕΩ, ΕΠΙ ΝΕΣΤΙΟΣ, ΕΠΙ ΜΑΝΔΡΩΝΑΚΤΟΣ.|
|Griffin with pointed wings, usually rampant, but sometimes seated. Symbols (less frequent) : crayfish; ivy-leaf, etc.||Shallow incuse square with magistrate's name around, and in the center, within linear sq., a type which changes with the magistrate.|
Varieties: ΕΠΙ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΙΤΟ Lyre; ΕΠΙ ΜΟΛΠΑΔΟΣ Young male head; ΗΓΗΣΑΓΟΡΗΣ Young male head; ΜΕΛΑΝΙΠΠΟΣ Head of Athena; ΝΙΚΟΣΤΡΑΤΟΣ Warrior charging; ΠΟΛΥΑΡΗΤΟΣ Grapes; ΑΝΑΞΙΔΙΚΟΣ Hermes standing; ΗΡΟΦΑΝΗΣ Grapes in ivy-wreath; ΕΠΙ ΑΛΕΞΙΜΑΧΟ Kantharos; ΑΘΗΝΑΙΟΣ Bearded Dionysos standing, holding kantharos and young pine tree [Imhoof MG, Pl. C. 2]; ΑΝΑΞΗΝΩΡ Similar; ΑΝΑΞΙΠΟΛΙΣ Bearded Dionysos; Id. Female head (Aphrodite?); ΑΡΤΕΜΩΝ Kantharos; ΠΟΛΥΚΡΑΤΗΣ Goat; ΕΚΑΤΑΟΣ Flying eagle.
Inscr. on obverse, ΑΒΔΗΡΙ or ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΕΩΝ Griffin with wings pointed, or rounded and smooth, without indication of feathers. Reverse-types; Didrachms, ΕΠΙ ΦΙΛΑΔΟΣ Herakles seated; ΕΠΙ ΖΗΝΩΝΟΣ Hermes standing (wt. 160 grs.); ΕΧΕΚΡΑΤΗΣ Head of Aphrodite; ΠΡΩΤΗΣ Prancing horseman; ΕΠΙ ΜΥΡΣΟ Discobolos; ΠΑΡΜΕΝΩΝ Bucranium; ΠΥΘΩΝ Tripod; ΕΥΑΓΩΝ Prize amphora; ΚΛΕΑΝΤΙΔΗΣ Rushing bull; ΕΠΙ ΜΟΛΠΑΓΟΡΕΩ Dancing girl. Drachm, ΕΠ ΟΡΧΑΜΟ Lion. Triobols, ΕΧΕΚΡΑΤΗΣ No type; ΚΛΕΑΝΤΙΔΗΣ Bull's head; ΑΝΑΞΙΔΙΚΟΣ Goat’s head; ΕΠ ΗΡΟΦΑΝΕΟΣ head of Hermes; ΜΟΛΠΑΓΟΡΗΣ Head of Bacchante; ΝΥΜΦΑΓΟΡΗΣ Dolphin; ΠΡΩΤΗΣ Head of Apollo(?); ΕΠΙ ΠΡΩΤΕΩ Three ears of corn; ΕΠΙ ΦΙΛΑΙΟ Hermes standing; ΑΘΗΝΗΣ Stag. Trihemiobols, ΠΡΩΤΗΣ Bull’s head; ΚΛΕΑΝ Ram’s head, etc.
|ΑΒΔΗΡΙ Griffin with pointed wings, usually recumbent.||ΕΠΙ ΚΑΛΛΙΑΝΑΚΤΟΣ Incuse square, within which, Apollo with phiale and branch, standing beside stag.|
|Id.||ΠΟΛΥΚΡΑΤΗΣ Artemis with bow standing beside stag.|
|Id. [Berlin Catalog, I. p. 105.]||ΕΠΙ ΤΗΛΕΜΑΧΟ Fighting Herakles.|
|Similar griffin, ΕΠΙ ΠΑΥΣΑΝΙΩ||ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΕΩΝ Head of Apollo laureate.|
|Id. ΕΠΙ ΙΚΕΣΙΟΥ||Id. (Fig. 160).|
|Griffin with pointed wings.||Id. [BMC Thrace, p. 72].|
AR Triobols, wt. 44 grs.
Magistrates on Triobols, ΕΠΙ ΦΑΝΕΩ; ΕΠΙ ΑΡΧΕΛΑΟΥ. ΕΠΙ ΠΑΥΣΑΝΙΩ, ΕΠΙ ΧΑΡΜΟ.
|Griffin on club.||ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΕΩΝ Id.|
AR Diobols, wt. 25 grs.
Magistrates on Diobols, ΗΡΑ, ΜΗΝΟ, etc. [BMC Thrace, p. 73.]
|ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΕΩΝ Griffin recumbent, with pointed wings.||No incuse. Head of Apollo laureate. [BMC Thrace, p. 73.]|
ΕΠΙ—ΑΝΑΞΙΠΟΛΙΟΥ, ΑΡΧΕΛΑΟΥ, ΔΙΟΝΥΣΑΔΟΣ, ΕΚΑΤΩΝΥΜΟΥ, ΟΜΗΡΟΥ, ΠΟΛΥΦΑΝΤΟΥ, ΠΥΘΟΔΩΡΟΥ, ΠΥΘΟΚΛΕΟΣ, ΙΠΠΩΝΑΚΤΟΣ, ΕΥΡΗΣΙΠΠΟΥ, ΑΙΓΙΑΛΕΩΣ, etc., and ΠΡΩΤΗΣ in the nominative case without ΕΠΙ.
Although it is convenient to distinguish the weights of the coins of Abdera as Phoenician, Aeginetic, and Persic, it seems nevertheless very probable that the changes in weight were gradual rather than sudden.
|Griffin rampant.||Head of Apollo laureate, early fine style : around ΕΠ ΟΡΧΑΜΟ, ΕΠΙ ΜΑΝΔΡΩΝΟΣ, or ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΕΩΝ.|
|Griffin recumbent on club; magistrates, ΦΙ, ΕΡΜΟ, ΕΥΑΝ, ΜΕΝΑΝ, ΕΙ, etc.||ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΕΩΝ Head of Apollo in linear square.|
|Griffin seated.||ΕΠΙ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΑΔΟΣ, ΕΠΙ ΠΑΡΜ...., etc., in quadripartite square.|
|Id.||ΕΠΙ ΘΕΣ... Eagle on serpent.|
|ΑΒΔΗΡΙΤΩΝ Griffin rampant.||Head of Apollo in linear square, ΕΠΙ ΕΡΜΟΣΤΡΑΤΟΥ, etc.|
|Head of Hermes.||ΕΠΙ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΑ Griffin seated.|
The above list of magistrates, extending over more than a century, is by no means complete, but the number of names recorded is sufficient to warrant the suggestion that they may be those of the annual Eponymi of the city. The almost constant presence of the preposition ΕΠΙ, and the prominent place occupied by the name, are arguments in favor of this hypothesis, as is also the fact that down to the end of the fifth century the reverse type seems to be subordinate to the magistrate's name, not only changing with it, but in some cases evidently suggested by it; e.g. ΝΙΚΟΣΤΡΑΤΟΣ, a warrior; ΠΥΘΩΝ, a tripod; ΕΥΑΓΩΝ, a prize amphora; ΜΟΛΠΑΓΟΡΗΣ, a dancing girl; and perhaps others. See Maonald, Coin Types, p. 39.
Several of the magistrates may also be identical with famous citizens of Abdera, mentioned in history. Cf. von Sallet (Z. f. N., viii. 106), who points out that a Nymphodorus, circ. B.C. 430, held the supreme power at Abdera (Thuc. ii. 29). Democritus the philosopher was also an Abderite. He flourished circ. B.C. 440-357, and it is very possible that he may have occupied at one time the chief magistracy of his native town, as may also his brother Herodotus, for both these names occur on coins struck before B.C. 430.
Some of the coin-types of Abdera, notably the Herakles at rest, the dancing girl, the Discobolos, the Apollo, and the Artemis standing beside a stag, are among the most artistically instructive coin-types which have come down to us from any ancient city.
No autonomous coins were struck at Abdera after its absorption into the empire of Philip of Macedon.
Time of Ptolemy Euergetes, B.C. 246-221 (?).
|Head of Ptolemy III (?) r., wearing winged diadem; aegis at neck; border of dots. [Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., Pl. IX. 9.]||ΑΒΔ[Η]ΡΙΤΩΝ Griffin recumbent l.; in front, Star.|
Imperial. Claudius to Faustina. Inscr. often in nominative with emperors’ names in dat.: e.g. ΟΥΕCΠΑCΙΑΝΩ ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΟΡΙ Head of Vespasian. Rev. ΑΒΔΗΡΕΙΤΑΙ ΤΙΤΩ ΚΑΙCΑΡΙ. The types offer no points of interest.
Trierus. This town is known only from the following coins which have always been found on the northern coast of the Aegean. It was probably situate between Chalcidice and Maroneia (Imhoof, Num. Chron., 1873, p. 18).
|Forepart of horse.||ΤΡΙΗ in four quarters of incuse square.|
AR 6.3 grs.
|Head of Apollo. [BMC Thrace, p. 181.]|| „ in the four corners of a square, within which, laurel-branch.|
AR 7 grs.
Cypsela was a Thracian town on the Hebrus, about a day’s journey above the Greek city of Aenus. It seems to have been the chief town of the Thracian Odrysae and to have struck early in the fourth century B.C. the following small bronze coins in its own name.
|Head of Hermes in close-fitting petasos, as on coins of Aenus.||ΚΥΨΕ Two-handled vase (κυφελη).|
A vessel of this shape is seen also on the coins of Hebryzelmis, B.C. 386-385, of Cotys, B.C. 382-359, and of Cersobleptes, B.C. 357-(?) 343, Kings of the Odrysae (see infra (P) and N. C., 1894, 3; also Imhoof MG, p. 530). The coins of these kings would seem therefore to have been struck at Cypsela.
The earliest inscribed coins of the Thracian Chersonese are Attic tetradrachms having on the rev. a head of Athena, evidently copied from archaic coins of Athens. Holm (Gr. Gesch., ii. 17) and Six (N. C., 1895, 185) assign these tetradrachms to the time during which Miltiades was tyrant of the Chersonese (circ. B.C. 515 or earlier, to B.C. 493). The Lion on the obv. with head reverted may have been adopted from early coins of Miletus. These coins were doubtless struck at the city of Cherronesus, perhaps the later Cardia or Lysimachia. The smaller uninscribed coins are conjecturally attributed to the Thracian Chersonese, partly from their resemblance to the inscribed tetradrachm and partly from their provenance, the Hebrus valley (Brandis, Münz-, Mass- u. Gewichtswesen, 524, and R. N., 1895, 103).
|Lion with fore-paw raised and head reverted. [Cat. Allier, Pl. IV. 5; Ann. de Num., 1884, Pl. I. 1; Berlin Catalog, I. Pl. VI. 61; N. C., 1892, Pl. XV. 5; 1895, Pl. VII. 1, 2.]||Incuse square, in which, archaic head of Athena wearing close-fitting helmet with large crest; in front ΧΕΡ or no inscription. AR Attic Tetradrachm|
|Forepart of lion looking back. [BMC Thrace, p. 182.]||Quadripartite incuse square.|
AR 45 and 22 grs.
|Forepart of lion with head reverted.
[BMC Thrace, pp. 183 sqq.]
|Incuse square divided into four quarters; in the two deeper ones, a symbol and a letter or monogram.|
AR Drachm, wt. 40 grs.
If the letters, etc., on these coins stand for different towns the currency must have been of a federal character.
|Lion’s head, or female head facing.
[Ibid., p. 186.]
|Head of Athena. [Berlin Catalog, I. 258.]||Id.|
Aegospotami. Although there is no mention of a town of this name in B.C. 405, when the Athenians were defeated by Lysander at the'Goat River’, yet there are small silver coins with the head of a goat, and with an incuse reverse of Chersonesian pattern (B. M. 12.5 grs.) which are certainly earlier than that time. The bronze coins are later in style than the age of Alexander, and are probably contemporary with the earliest autonomous issues of the neighbouring city of Sestus. In both towns Demeter seems to have been the chief divinity. (See Sestus, p. 261.)
|Head of Demeter wearing wreathed and ornamented kalathos.||ΑΙΓΟΣΠΟ or ΑΙΓΟΠΟ Goat standing. [BMC Thrace, p. 187].|
This beautiful head is identified as that of Demeter by comparison with a coin of the neighbouring city of Sestus, on which the entire figure of the goddess is seen wearing the same head-dress and holding ears of corn.
|Young male head bound with taenia.||ΑΓΑ within a laurel wreath.|
AR Size .7
|Young male head hound with taenia.
[BMC Thrace, p. 188.]
|ΑΓΑΘΟ Owl (sometimes double-bodied); beneath, spear-head.|
|Similar head.||ΑΓ Caduceus.|
|Head of young Dionysos, hair short.||ΑΛΩ or ΑΛΩΠΕΚΟΝ Kantharos. Symbols: fox and bunch of grapes, and sometimes corn-grain. [BMC Thrace, p. 188.] Æ .75-.55|
|Similar head, hair long.||Id. Symbol: club.|
|Head of Athena.||ΑΛΩΠΕΚΟΝ[ΝΗΣΙΩΝ] Id.|
Cardia, a colony of Miletus, was one of the chief cities of the Chersonese. It was destroyed by Lysimachus in B.C. 309. Its autonomous coinage in bronze falls chiefly into the latter half of the fourth century; but if, as some suppose, the silver coins of Chersonesus above described (p. 257) were struck at Cardia, there must have been a mint there before B.C. 500.
|Head of Demeter wearing corn-wreath, in profile or to front, copied from coins of Syracuse. [v. Fritze, Nomism. I. Taf. i. 1-4.]||ΚΑΡΔΙΑ, ΚΑΡΔΙΑΝΟΣ, or ΚΑΡΔΙΑΝΩΝ Lion breaking spear or standing with head turned back a s on coins of Miletus. Symbols: corn-grain, star, etc.|
|Lion or lion’s head.||Corn-grain in linear square.|
For other varieties see Berlin Catalog, I. 246 sq.
The Imperial coins of the Roman municipium, Hadrian to Gallienus, read AI MVN COILA, AEL MVNICIP COEL, AEL MOVNICIP COE, etc. The most frequent reverse type is a Prow surmounted by a cornucopiae; or the Genius of the city holding statuette of Tyche and cornucopiae; or the common Colonial type, Marsyas with wine-skin over his shoulder (BMC Thrace, pp. 191 sqq.). Of exceptional interest is the rev. type of a coin of Commodus as Caesar:— Artemis in short chiton holding phiale and long torch, inscr. ΔIANAE ΔVFEN. AEL. MVNICIPII COELAN (Z. f. N., x. 148). The epithet Dauphena, as applied to Artemis, is elsewhere unknown. It is probably a Latin transliteration of δαοφανος or some such word (= torch-lighting ?).
|Head of Demeter facing.
[BMC Thrace, p. 194.]
|ΚΡΙΘΟΥΣΙΩΝ Grain of corn in corn-wreath.|
|Head of Athena.||ΚΡΙ Corn-grain.|
|Medusa-like head facing.
[Berlin Catalog, I. p. 263.]
|Prow.||ΕΛΑΙ in wreath.|
|Head of Athena.||ΕΛΑΙΟΥΣΙΩΝ Owl.|
|Bust of Artemis.||Bee.|
See also other varieties and Imperial of Commodus and Caracalla in Imhoof MG, p. 45 sq., and Gr. M., Pl. I. 1. On the rev. of the coin of Caracalla is Artemis standing to front; inscr. ΑΡΤЄΜΙC ЄΛΑΙΟΥCΙΝ (= ЄΛΑΙΟΥCΙΩΝ).
Lysimachia. This important city was built by Lysimachus in B.C. 309, near the site of Cardia, which he had destroyed. From its position near the narrowest part of the isthmus it became the key of the Chersonesus, and commanded also the passage of the Hellespont. Lysimachus made it his residence and his principal European mint. After his death the town fell under the rule first of the Seleucidae and then of the Ptolemies, but it probably retained its right of coining in bronze
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.
[N. C., 1896, Pl. I. 16.]
|ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΕΩΝ Nike standing to front, holding wreath and palm.|
Attic octobol AR 82.2 grs.
The most frequent obverse types are—heads of Lysimachus, of young Herakles, of Demeter veiled, of the City turreted, of Athena, of a Lion, or of Hermes. Those of the reverse are-a Lion running, or seated in upright attitude, or the Forepart of a lion; a Trident; Artemis standing, holding long torch; Nike holding wreath and palm; Wreath of corn; Ear of corn, etc. Inscr. ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΕΩΝ (BMC Thrace, p. 195 sq.).
|Rushing bull; above, fish.
[BMC Thrace, p. 197.]
|ΜΑΔΥ Dog seated. Symbols: ear of corn or star; magistrate’s name.|
|Female head, l.
[Z. f. N., xiii. Pl. IV. 2.]
|ΜΑΔΥ Lyre; in field, grapes.|
The rushing bull and fish may symbolize the stream of the Hellespont; the dog is the Kynossema or tomb of Hecuba, which was in the territory of Madytus, κυνος ταλαινης σημα, ναυτιλοις τεκμαρ (Eur. Hec. 1273).
Sestus, renowned in myth for the romantic tale of Hero and Leander, and in history for the crossing of the Persian hosts over the bridge which Xerxes caused to be constructed across the Hellespont, was always a place of considerable importance, but it did not begin to coin money until circ. B.C. 300. After an interval of about 150 years, during which some regal coins may have been struck there, it began once more to issue autonomous bronze coins about the middle of the second century B.C. Cf. an inscription from Sestus (Hermes, vii. 135), where it is recorded that a certain Menas was appointed to superintend the coinage of the town, του τε δημου προελομενου νομισματι χαλκινωι χρησθαι ιδιωι χαριν του νομειτευεσθαι τον της πολεος χαρκτηρα (H. v. Fritze, in Nomisma, I. p. 1, Berlin, 1907).
Obverse types:— Female head with hair in sphendone. Head of Demeter bound with corn. Term of Hermes. Head of Hermes, etc. Reverse types:— Demeter wearing kalathos, seated on corn-basket and holding ears of corn, in front a phallic term. Hermes standing. Amphora with long neck. Term, etc. Inscr., ΣΑ, later ΣΗ. (H. v. Fritze, op. cit., Pl. I. 5-12.)
Obverse types:— Female head as on earlier coins; Head of Demeter; Term of Hermes; Heads of Hermes, Athena, Apollo, Dionysos, etc. Reverse types:— Demeter seated with local epithet ΣΗΣΤΙΑ; Term; Lyre; Caduceus; Amphora; Tripod; Thyrsos; Cornucopiae, etc. Clearly the chief divinities of Sestus were Demeter'Sestia’ and Hermes. Inscr., ΣΗ or ΣΗΣ, sometimes with numerals Α-Ζ (= 1-7) in field (indicating successive issues ?).
Augustus to Philip Jun. Inscr. CΗCΤΙΩΝ, later, CΗCΤΙWΝ. Chief types. Bust of ΙΕΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Lyre; Leander swimming, lighted on his way by Hero in her tower, and by Eros from above (Berlin Catalog, I. p. 274); Apollo standing holding bird and long laurel branch.
Imbros. This island, whose inhabitants were Pelasgians, worshipped the Kabeiri, and Hermes as a god of reproduction in ithyphallic form (Herod. ii. 51), whence his Carian epithet, ‘Ιμβραμος, has been supposed to be derived (Steph. Byz. s. v. ‘Ιμβρος). The island was at an early period colonized by Athenians under Miltiades (?), and it was henceforth always regarded as subject to Athens. Bronze coins were struck in the island, intermittently, from the fourth century B.C. down to Imperial times. Their types are of a mixed Athenian and Pelasgic character. On the island of Imbros see E. Oberhummer (Festschrift für H. Kiepert, 1898, 278).
|Female head; sometimes of Demeter.||ΙΜΒΡΟΥ Naked ithyphallic figure of Hermes Imbramos, standing before a thymiaterion.|
|Head of Athena.||ΙΝΒΡΙ Caps of the Dioskuri or Kabeiri.|
|Head of Athena.||ΙΜΒΡΟΥ Owl.|
|Head of Athena.
[Imhoof MG, p. 49.]
|ΑΘΕΝΑΙΩΝ Hermes Imbramos, standing before a thymiaterion.|
|Head of Athena, copied from contemporary coins of Athens.||ΙΝΒΡΙΩΝ or ΙΜΒΡΙΩΝ Types various :— Owl; Apollo in long chiton standing with lyre and phiale (Kitharoedos); Artemis huntress; Female figure holding double cornucopiae|
|Locust or grasshopper.
[Berlin Catalog, I. p. 278.]
|ΑΘΕ ΙΝΒΡΙ in wreath.|
|ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ Head of Augustus [Imhoof MG, 50; Berlin Catalog, I. 278.]||ΙΜΒΡΙ Caps of the Dioskuri or Kabeiri, or Head of Apollo with lyre in front.|
Lemnos, one of the largest islands of the Aegaean sea, lay, at a distance of about forty miles in each direction, midway between the promontory of Mt. Athos and the entrance to the Hellespont. From the time of the Persian wars down to the earlier half of the fourth century the island was subject to Athens and struck no coins. Its first autonomous issue can hardly be placed later than B.C. 350 as the rev. type is enclosed in an incuse square.
|Bearded head r. resembling in style the head of Zeus on early fourth-century coins of Elis, etc. [Berlin Catalog, I. p. 279.]||ΛΗΜΝΙ Ram walking r. in incuse square.|
The next Lemnian issues are apparently of a later period. They are autonomous bronze coins of the two cities Hephaestia and Myrina.
|Head of Athena in Corinthian helmet.||ΗΦΑΙΣΤΙ or ΗΦΑ Ram.|
|Similar.||ΗΦΑΙ Owl facing; symbols : race-torch and branch.|
|Head of king (Antiochus III ?), diademed.||ΗΦΑΙ Ram.|
|Similar.||ΗΦ Race-torch between caps of the Dioskuri or Kabeiri.|
|Bearded head.||ΗΦΑΙ Two race-torches.|
|Head of Helios, radiate.|| „ Vine-branch and bunch of grapes|
|Bust of Hephaestos.||ΗΦΑΙCΤΙΕΩΝ Race-torch.|
|ΗΦΑΙCΤΙΕΩΝ Bust of Hephaestos.||ΗΦΑΙCΤΙΕΩΝ or ΗΦΕCΤΙΕΩΝ Athena Nikephoros standing.|
Æ 1.1[Imhoof MG, p. 529, Taf. I. 2.]
|ΛΗΜΝΟC Turreted and veiled female bust.||ΗΦΑΙCΤΙΕΩΝ Torch between hammer and tongs of Hephaestos.|
Æ .85[Ibid., Taf. I. 3.]
|Head of Athena, often facing.
[BMC Thrace, p. 214.]
|ΜΥΡΙ Owl, facing or r.|
For varieties see Berlin Catalog, I. 283.
Samothrace. The seat of the famous mysteries of the Kabeiri. The coins of this island seem to be all subsequent to the death of Lysimachus.
|Head of Athena. [Z. f. N., xvi. 2.]||ΣΑΜΟ Kybele seated on throne; beneath which, lion. Magistrate's name, ΜΗΤΡΩΝΑ[ΚΤΟS].|
|Id.||ΣΑΜΟ Forepart of ram or ram’s head. Symbol: caduceus.|
The ram is a symbol of the cult of the Pelasgic Hermes and of the Kabeiri (Z. f. N., xxiv. 118). For a list of some thirty different magistrates’ names on bronze coins of Samothrace, all apparently of the same period, see Journ. Int., 1898, 258, and Berlin Catalog, I. 284.
|Bust of Hermes with caduceus over shoulder. [Hunter, I. Pl. XXVI. 7.]||ΣΑΜΟΘΡΑΚΩΝ ΣΕΙΡΩΝΟΣ ΤΡΙΩΒΟΛΟ, Ram.|
|Bust of Athena. [BMC Thrace, 215.]||CΑΜΟΘΡΑΚΩΝ Kybele seated.|
Thasos. The rich gold mines of this island had at a very early date attracted the Phoenicians to its shores. Later on it was colonized by Ionians from Paros. There was also a Thracian tribe called Saians or Sintians settled in the island. The Thasian possessions in the mining districts on the mainland were a source of enormous wealth, yielding, shortly before the Persian invasion, as much as from 200 to 300 talents annually (Herod. vi. 46). It was apparently from the mainland that the Thasians derived the so-called Babylonic standard of weight, as well as the types of their earliest money. The Satyr carrying off a struggling nymph is one of the class of types mentioned under Lete, supra, p. 197.
As, however, these coins are uninscribed or inscribed only with single letters, e.g. Α, Λ, Θ, Σ, etc., their attribution to the Thasians is not absolutely certain.
|Naked ithyphallic Satyr, with horse's hoofs but no tail, kneeling on one knee or running and carrying in his arms a struggling nymph clad in long chiton.||Quadripartite incuse square. (Fig. 161.)|
AR Obol, 10 grs. (max.).
AR ½ Obol, 5 grs. (max.).
In this period of Athenian supremacy in Thasos the same types of the stater and drachm are in the main adhered to, but there is a steady decrease in the weight, which, on the later specimens, corresponds with the Attic or even falls below it. In style many of these later Thasian staters are admirable as works of art, and evidently by Greek, and not by Thracian, die-engravers. The rude struggle between satyr and nymph, as shown on the early coins, becomes, on these later specimens, a more polite form of abduction, the nymph being evidently not unwilling to be carried off (Fig. 162).
In B.C. 411 Thasos revolted from Athens and received a Lacedaemonian garrison, but was afterwards again dependent upon Athens. As at Acanthus and other towns on the mainland, an abrupt change of standard from Attic to so-called Rhodian took place at Thasos, in the last quarter of the fifth century. This, in the ease of the Thasian money, is accompanied by a change in the types. Gold coins in small quantities were also issued at this time. Cf. contemporary gold coins of Aenus and Maroneia.
|Head of Dionysos, bearded or young, ivy-crowned. [Berlin Catalog, I. 287; N. C., 1880, Pl. I. 4.]||ΘΑΣΙΟΝ Bearded Herakles kneeling, shooting with bow, in linear and incuse square. Cf. a Thasian relief [B. C. H. 1894, 67.].|
AV 60 & 43 grs.
|Id. (bearded). (Fig. 163.)||ΘΑΣΙΟΝ Id. Various symbols in field.|
|Young male head crowned with reeds.
| „ Id.|
AR ½ Drachm, 29 grs.[Imhoof MG, Pl. C. 4.]
|Janiform head of bald Satyr.||ΘΑΣΙ Two amphorae placed in opposite directions.|
AR ½ Drachm
|Satyr, with horse’s tail but human feet, kneeling, holding kantharos.||ΘΑΣΙΩΝ Amphora.|
AR ¼ Drachm, 14 grs.
|Head of Satyr.||ΘΑΣΙ.|
Two dolphins AR 1/8 Drachm, 7 grs.
|Head of Nymph.||ΘΑ Dolphin.|
AR 1/12 Drachm, 4½ grs.
|Head of bearded Herakles.||ΘΑΣΙΟΝ Club, bow, and Bacchic symbol.|
In this period there was also a separate issue of gold and bronze coins intended to circulate in the Thasian territory on the mainland. These coins read ΘΑΣΙΟΝ ΗΠΕΙΡΟ, and were probably struck at Crenides, afterwards called Philippi : obv. Head of young Herakles; rev. Tripod, or Club and bow (see p. 217, and Berlin Catalog, II. 120).
Oesyme, a Thasian colony on the mainland, is placed by Heuzey (Mission de Macédoine, p. 31) close to the Byzantine castle of Eski-Kavala. The following coin, acquired by him on the spot, was probably issued in the latter half of the fourth century B.C.
|Head of Athena.
[Rev. Num., 1866, p. 220.]
|[ΟΙ]ΣΥΜΑΙΩΝ Herakles kneeling, drawing bow.|
During the time of Philip, Alexander, and Lysimachus there are no autonomous Thasian coins, but after B.C. 280 the mint of Thasos was again active for a few years.
|Head of bearded Dionysos, ivy-crowned, of late style.||ΘΑΣΙΩΝ Club in wreath.|
AR Attic ½ Drachm
|Head of bearded Herakles.|| „ Club, bow, symbol, and monogram.|
|Head of young Herakles.||ΘΑΣΙΟΝ Id.|
|Head of Demeter veiled.|| „ Heads of the Kabeiri in vine-wreath.|
After the battle of Cynoscephalae, Thasos, which had formed part of the dominions of Philip V, regained its freedom, B.C. 196, but it is not probable that the series of large flat tetradrachms of base style commenced before the closing of the Macedonian mints in B.C. 148, by order of the Roman Senate. These latest coins of Thasos were issued in enormous quantities, and with those of Maroneia represent the staple of the silver currency of Northern Greece in the second and first centuries, B.C.
|Head of young Dionysos, of base style, wearing band across forehead, and ivy-wreath.||ΗΡΑΚΛΕΟΥΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΘΑΣΙΩΝ Herakles naked, standing with club and lion-skin. (Fig. 164.)|
AR Attic Tetradrachm, 260 grs.
These coins were largely imitated by the barbarous Thracian tribes of the mainland. The inscriptions are usually blundered and illegible. There is, however, one variety on which ΘΡΑΚΩΝ is intentionally substituted for ΘΑΣΙΩΝ in the exergue beneath Herakles. (Z. f. N., iii. 241.) The bronze coins of this late period are of various types, among which the following may be specified :—
|Bust of Artemis.||Herakles advancing, drawing bow.|
Bisanthe was originally a Samian colony on the northern coast of the Propontis, a few miles west of Perinthus. The few autonomous coins struck at this town seem to have been issued shortly after the death of Lysimachus.
|Head of Demeter veiled.
[Berlin Catalog, I. 138.]
|ΒΙΣΑΝΘΗΝΩΝ in corn-wreath.|
|Head of Athena.||ΒΙ or ΒΙΣΑΝ Owl.|
|Head of Apollo.||ΒΙΣΑΝΘΗΝΩΝ Tripod.|
Byzantium was originally a Megarian colony with an Argive element, to the influence of which latter the worship of Hera and the introduction of the myth of Io are perhaps to be ascribed. We gather from a passage in Aristophanes that at the end of the fifth century the Byzantines were using an iron currency (Arist. Nub. 249 et Schol.; Pollux ix. 78; Hesych. s. v. Σιδαρεος). None of this money has been preserved, and in any case its circulation must have been strictly limited. The silver coins of this wealthy port are extremely common, and their chronological sequence is as follows.
|Υ Cow standing on dolphin.
[BMC Thrace, p. 93.]
|Incuse square, quartered, of'mill-sail’ pattern.|
AR Drachm, 84 grs.
These coins correspond in weight with the Persian siglos, which was current in Asia Minor down to the age of Alexander. Like the sigli, the Byzantine coins are very frequently found covered with little countermarks.
is the old Corinthian form of Β. On coins it is peculiar to the money of Byzantium.
After the battle of Cnidus, B.C. 394, several of the Greek cities in Asia which shook off the Spartan yoke, combined in a joint Symmachy, and issued each with its own reverse type, but with a common obverse type—the infant Herakles strangling the serpents,—silver coins equivalent to tridrachms of the Rhodian standard. The following specimen was struck at Byzantium on the re-establishment of democracy there circ. B.C. 389.
|Σ Υ Ν Infant Herakles strangling two serpents.||Υ Cow on dolphin.|
AR 174.2 grs.[Z. f. N., xxv. Taf. vii. 1.]
About the middle of the fourth century the weight standard of the Byzantine silver coinage definitely changes from the Persic to the Rhodian. The types remain the same, but the frequent addition of symbols and monograms in the field indicates the period of Philip as that to which these coins of Rhodian weight should be ascribed. [Tetradrachm, 236 grs. (Fig. 165); Drachm, 59 grs.; Tetrobol, 38, Diobol, 19 grs.]
|Cow on dolphin.||Υ Trident.|
|Cow’s head.|| „ Three dolphins.|
Svoronos has suggested (Ephemeris, 1899; N. C., 1890, 332) that the obv. type may represent Io in cow-form crossing the Bosporus, symbolized by the Dolphin. From the time of the memorable siege of Byzantium by Philip of Macedon (340-339 B.C.) the autonomous coinage ceases until after the death of Lysimachus (c. 280 B.C.). Subsequently, for some years, Byzantium continued to suffer severely from the incursions of the Gauls, whom it was compelled to buy off by the payment of an enormous yearly tribute (Polyb. iv. 46). The state was completely drained of money, and in their straits the Byzantines appear to have been driven to make use of foreign coins, countermarking them with the letter . [Berlin Catalog, I. p. 145, and BMC Thrace, p. 110.]
To this period belong the following rare silver coins, of which the obverse type is identical with that which occurs on the money of Calchedon on the opposite shore of the Propontis, with which city Byzantium seems to have been for a time united in a monetary alliance.
|Head of veiled Demeter, wearing corn-wreath. (Fig. 166.)||Poseidon naked to waist, seated on rock, holding trident and aplustre. In field, and monogram. Magistrates : ΕΠΙ ΑΝΤΙΠΑΤ, ΕΠΙ ΕΚΑΤΟΔΩ, ΕΠΙ ΜΑΤΡΙΚΩΝ[ΟΣ], ΕΠΙ ΜΕΝΙΚ, ΕΠΙ ΜΕΝΙΣΚΟΥ, ΕΠΙ ΟΛΥΜΠΙΟΔΩΡΟΥ, ΕΠΙ CΦΟΔΡΙΑ, etc.|
AR Tetradrachm, 215 grs., and Attic Octobols, 80 grs.
|Head of Poseidon.||Prow which ΒΥ; behind, serpent. Magistrate: ΕΠΙ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΙΟΥ.|
AR Attic octobol, 88 grs.
|Head of Apollo.|| Tripod. ΕΠΙ ΔΑΜΩΝΑΚΤΟΣ, ΕΠΙ ΜΕΝΙΣΚΟΥ, etc.|
|Head of Poseidon.|| Trident : ΕΠΙ ΔΙΟΣΚΟΥΡ.|
|Head of Demeter.||ΒΥΖΑΝΤΙ Cornucopiae. ΕΠΙ ΕΚΑΤΟΔΩΡ, ΕΠΙ ΗΡΑΚ, ΕΠΙ ΝΑΝΝΙ, ΕΠΙ ΦΑΝΙΩΝ.|
|Head of Apollo. [Cf. Hunter, I. 394, 8.]||ΒΥΖΑΝΤ Column: ΕΠΙ ΜΑΤΡΙΚΩΝ.|
|Head of young Dionysos.
[Berlin Catalog, I. p. 148.]
|ΒΥ[ΖΑΝ]ΤΙΩΝ Poseidon standing holding small Nike; magistrates name ΕΠΙ ΑΣΩΠΙΟΥ.|
|Head of Apollo.||ΒΥΖΑΝΤ/ΚΑΛΧΑ Tripod.|
|Head of veiled Demeter.||ΒΥΖΑΝ / ΚΑΛΧΑ Poseidon seated on rock.|
|Head of Poseidon. [Hunter, Pl. XXVII. 3.]||Id. Prow.|
There are various other smaller denominations, on one of which the word ΔΡΑΧΜΑ (sc. χαλκου) occurs.
The approximate date of some of the coins of this series is fixed by the fact that the two names Hekatodorus and Olympiodorus on the tetradrachms have been identified by Svoronos (Ephem., 1889) with those of the two chief magistrates of Byzantium mentioned by Polybius (iv. 47) as προσταται in B.C. 221. Whether these issues continued to be struck after the above date is uncertain. Byzantium now found herself surrounded by states in which coins of the Attic weight prevailed, and was therefore compelled to conform to the new monetary standard, as were also many of the Thracian and Ionian towns which seem to have adopted the types of the coins of Alexander or Lysimachus on account of the commercial prestige which attached to these regal coinages. The Byzantine issues are distinguished by the letters ΒΥ and a trident (Brit. Mus. Guide, Pls. 53 and 64). Many of these quasi-regal tetradrachms, drachms, and gold staters are of very barbarous work, and are probably Thracian imitations.
The next series of Byzantine coins is of bronze, and belongs in style chiefly to Imperial times. The independence of Byzantium was long recognized by Rome. Among the coins most frequently met with are the following:—
|Head of Artemis with quiver at shoulder.||ΒΥΖΑΝΤΙΩΝ Crescent and star.|
|Head of young Dionysos.||Grapes.|
|Bust, horned, of Keroessa(?), daughter of Io, and mother of Byaas.|
[N. C., 1890, 332.]
| „ Cow.|
|Head of Hermes.||Caduceus.|
|Monogram in wreath.||Two tall torches pointed at both ends.|
It has been, perhaps too ingeniously, suggested by Svoronos that the cow or heifer on the reverse of the coin with the bust of Keroessa (?) may be the monument set up by Chares on the shore of the Bosporus in memory of the girl who accompanied him, as his hetaira, on his expedition in aid of Byzantium during the war with Philip of Macedon. Her pet name was Βοιδιον. For the pretty epitaph beneath this sculptured cow, see N. C., 1890. 332.
The crescent on the first of the above coins is the well-known symbol of Artemis as a Moon-goddess identified with Hekate, to whom, according to Hesychius, the Byzantines dedicated a statue in memory of the miraculous light which she once caused to shine in the heavens during a night attack of the Macedonians upon the town, revealing to the besieged their approaching foes. The crescent as a Byzantine symbol was inherited by the Turks after their capture of Constantinople. The tall baskets are stationary, unkindled basket-torches with wicks hanging from their tops. (N. C., 1890, 333.) They are sometimes accompanied by symbols referring, like the crescent, to the worship of Artemis Lampadephoros or Hekate.
|ΒVΖΑΣ Helmeted head of Byzas (the reputed oekist), bearded.||Prow or entire galley, with magistrates 'names identical with those which occur also on other coins with Emperors’ heads.|
|Head of young Dionysos.||ΕΠ ΦΡΟΝΤΩΝΟC ΒVΖΑΝΤΙΩΝ Ostrich hunted by dog.|
Crested helmet with cheek-piece; Dolphin between two tunnies; Artemis Lampadephoros (φωσφορος) standing between two tall basket-torches; Artemis Tauropolos, or Selene, riding on bull; Basket-torch, etc.
On the names and titles of the Magistrates of Byzantium in Imperial times see Pick, in Num. Zeit., xxvii. 27 ff. The names of High-Priests, coupled sometimes with those of Priestesses, often occur, either without titles or preceded by ΕΠΙ and the titles ΑΡΧ(ιερεως), ΒΑC(ιλεως) or ΙΕΡΟΜΝΑ(μονος). A strange and unexplained custom also prevailed at Byzantium of frequently substituting for the name of the actual priest or priestess that of some divinity, deified Imperial personage, or deceased high official (honoris causa), e.g. ΕΠΙ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΟC ΤΟ Β; ΕΠΙ ΔΙΟΝΥCΟΥ ΤΟ Γ; ΕΠΙ ΝΕΙΚΗC ΤΟ Δ; ΕΠΙ ΤΥΧΗC ΠΟΛΕΩC; ΕΠΙ ΘΕΑC ΦΑΥCΤΕΙΝΗC; ΕΠΙ ΜΕΜ ΜΑΡΚΟΥ ΗΡΩΟC ΤΟ Β; ΕΠΙ ΑΙ ΠΟΝΤΙΚΟΥ ΗΡ(ωος), etc. In addition to Pick (l. c.) see also Z. f. N., ix. 147, and cf. a similar custom at Lesbos (B. M. C., Troas, etc., lxx). Games. ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝΙΑ CΕΒΑCΤΑ and ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΕΙΑ. Alliance coins with Nicaea.
Perinthus, an ancient Ionian colony from Samos, was situated between Bisanthe and Selymbria, on the northern shore of the Propontis. Its earliest coins belong to the middle of the fourth century, and may have been struck shortly before the famous siege of the town by Philip of Macedon.
|Head of Zeus r., laureate
[Coll. Fenerly Bey.]
|ΠΕΡΙΝ Foreparts of two horses joined back to back; beneath, ΚΙΣ and monogram.|
AR Stater, 163 grs.
|Head of Kore in corn-wreath (Syracusan type) : beneath, corn-grain.
[Sotheby Sale, 1904, lot 216.]
|Π Ε below the foreparts of two horses joined back to back.|
AR 40 grs.
Æ Size .4
|Head of Kore (?) with long hair.
[Coll. Lischine, 1902, lot 674.]
|Head of Athena in Corinthian helmet.
[BMC Thrace, p. 147.]
|Heads of Zeus and Hera, jugate.
[Coll. Lischine, 1902, lot 681.]
ΘΙΩΝ Bull walking.
The coins which follow these are AV staters and AR tetradrachms of the Alexandrine and Lysimachian types, distinguished by the symbol of foreparts of horses. (See Müller Alexander and Münzen Lysim.)
At Perinthus, Herakles was revered as oekist or founder, and on coins of the time of the Empire his head is accompanied by the inscription ΠΕΡΙΝΘΙΩΝ ΙΩΝΩΝ ΤΟΝ ΚΤΙCΤΗΝ inclusion to the Ionian origin of the colony. The various labors of Herakles are, as might be expected, commonly represented on the large bronze coins of Perinthus in Imperial times. Among other remarkable types are the Samian Hera, ΗΡΑ ΠΕΡΙΝΘΙΩΝ, standing on a prow; the head-dress of Isis, and other Egyptian types—e. g. Harpokrates, Anubis, the Bull Apis, etc.; also Zeus seated, in the sky above him Helios and Selene in their chariots, and, recumbent beneath him, Ge and Thalassa,—the whole within the circle of the Zodiac. There are numerous other types of considerable interest, e.g. ΕΠΙΔΗΜΙΛΒCΕΥΗΡΟΥ Galley in full sail with Emperor standing in the prow; Dionysos standing over sleeping Ariadne (N. Z., 1884, Pl. IV. 5). Perinthus received the title Neokoros for the first time under Severus and for the second time under Elagabalus.
Games. CЄΥΗΡЄΙΑ ΠΡΩΤΑ, ΦΙΛΑΔЄΛΦЄΙΑ, ΦΙΛΑΔЄΛΦЄΙΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ, ΑΚΤΙΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ, and, according to Eckhel, ΗΡΑΚΛЄΙΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ.
Magistrates. Under Hadrian and the Antonines the coins sometimes bear the names of the Roman Legatus and Propraetor, e. g. επι Μαικιον Νεπωτος πρεσβευτον Σεβαστον και αντιστρατηγον (Imhoof MG, 43), or simply ΗΓЄ[μονευοντος] = Lat. Praeses.
Selymbria or Salybria was an ancient city situate about twenty-two miles east of Perinthus. It struck silver money, at first on the Persic and later on the Attic standard.
|ΣΑ Cock. [BMC Thrace, p. 170.]||Quadripartite incuse square.|
AR 76.4 grs.
and small divisions, 8.6-5. grs.
|Cock. [Berlin Catalog, I. 232.]||ΣΑΛΥ Ear of corn.|
AR 67 grs.
This town is several times mentioned in the Athenian Quota Lists. There are no Selymbrian coins after the middle of the fifth century. For other coins sometimes attributed to this town see Dicaea near Abdera (p. 252).
Odrysae. It is not likely that the coins of the Odrysae, a powerful and warlike people, were struck in any organized civic community. They were doubtless issued at the strongholds of their chiefs or kings. The following, however, bear no personal names:—
|Head of Athena facing in three-crested helmet. (Cf. coins of Audoleon.)|
[N. C., 1892, Pl. XVI. 4.]
|ΟΔΡ ΣΙ Bearded figure seated with kausia behind neck; he holds scepter and upright uncertain object.|
AR 15.4 grs.
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.
[Berlin Catalog, I. 197.]
|ΟΡΟΣΙ..? Bull standing on club.|
See also Thracian kings of the Odrysae (pp. 282 sqq.).
Olbia, near the mouths of the rivers Hypanis and Borysthenes, was a Milesian colony which rose to great prosperity in consequence of its trade, on the one hand, with the Scythian tribes of the interior and, on the other, with all the coasts of the Euxine. It struck money in considerable quantities both in silver and bronze from the third to the first centuries B.C. There are also specimens in gold (Pick, Ant. Münz. N.-Gr., I. Pl. IX. 1, 18). The principal varieties are: Head of Demeter; rev., ΟΛΒΙΟ, a sea-eagle flying with a dolphin in its claws, copied from coins of Sinope and Istrus. Head of the River-god Borysthenes, bearded and horned, rev. a Bow in its case and a battle-axe. For numerous other varieties the student must be referred to Burachkov (Cat. of Coins of Greek Colonies, Odessa, 1884, Plates I-X) and Pick (op. cit.). There are also large and small cast bronze pieces of Olbia (aes grave) with a head of Athena, of a goddess with flowing hair to front, with an ear of corn above her forehead, or a Gorgoneion, on the obverse; and either a Wheel or a Sea-eagle with a dolphin on the reverse. There are in addition some curious bronze pieces, made in the shape of a dolphin. The inscriptions on the above coins are sometimes ΟΛ, ΟΛΒΙ, ΟΛΒΙΗ, etc.; but the name of the town is often replaced by personal names such as ΑΡΙΧΟ, ΠΑΥΣ, ΚΡΙΤΟΒΟΥ, ΘV, etc. The fanciful theory first advanced by von Sallet (Z. f. N., x. 144) with regard to ΘV and ΑΡΙΧΟ must be abandoned now that other personal names have been published. Why Olbia issued these cast bronze pieces, which are apparently contemporary with the ordinary coinage, has not been satisfactorily accounted for, The Gorgoneion seems to be copied from the silver coins of Parium, the head of Athena (Burachkov, Pl. II. 9, 10) from coins of Athens, the facing head with flowing hair perhaps from coins of Pharnabazus or Datames (cf. B. M. C., Cilic., Pl. XXIX).
From the weights of the few silver coins of Olbia which are well preserved it would appear that the Aeginetic standard or a reduced form of the Phoenician standard was in use in the third century B.C. For coins of various Scythian dynasts or kings struck at the Olbian mint, and for the gold staters reading ΚΟΣΩΝ, possibly struck at Olbia, see infra, p. 289.
On the cults of Olbia see G. M. Hirst in J. H. S., xxii and xxiii. Olbia was destroyed by the Getae about the middle of the first century B.C., but was subsequently rebuilt. The later coins usually read ΟΛΒΙΟΠΟΛΙΤЄΩΝ or ΟΛΒΙΟΠΟΛΙΤWΝ.
See also infra, p. 289, Kings of the Scythians, etc., for Olbian coins with names of Dynasts upon them, Coson, Scilurus, Pharzoius, etc.
Tyra was a Milesian colony on the river Tyras (Dniester), about twenty miles from its mouth. The earliest autonomous coins seem to belong to the second or first century B.C. (Pick, Ant. Münz. N.-Gr., I. Pl. XII).
|Bust of Demeter veiled, facing.||ΤΥΡΑΝΟΝ Rushing bull.|
AR 86 grs.
|Head of Apollo (?).||ΤΥΡΑ or ΤΥΡΑΝΟΝ Horse’s head.|
Æ Size .9-.6
|Id.||ΤΥΡΑ Bull walking.|
|Head of Demeter to front.||ΤΥΡΑ Cista mystica.|
The smaller autonomous bronze coins bear heads of Demeter, Poseidon(?), Dionysos, Apollo, Hermes, and Asklepios. Reverses, Kalathos, Lyre, Caduceus, Serpent coiled on altar or round omphalos, Thyrsos, Cornucopia, Fish, etc.
For types see Pick (op. cit.).
The chief type of the coins of Viminacium is the Province Moesia standing between the standards or the ensigns, a Bull and a Lion, of Legions VII and IV, which were quartered in the Province. For varieties see Pick (op. cit.).
|Head of Herakles in lion-skin.
[Pick., N.-Gr., Pl. I. 17.]
|ΚΑΛΛΑΤΙ Bow in case, club, and ear of corn.|
AR 88, 44, and 30 grs.
Also gold staters and tetradrachms, copied from the money of Alexander and Lysimachus (or countermarked), which circulated for more than a century and a half in these regions. The portraits on some of the gold staters seem to be of the time of Mithradates. The symbol of Callatis on coins of regal types is an ear of corn.
Autonomous bronze coins are likewise known with the heads of Herakles or Athena (reverse-types as above); of young Dionysos, rev. Ivy-wreath or Panther with thyrsos; of Apollo, rev. Tripod; of veiled Demeter, rev. Corn-wreath, etc. Magistrates’ names, occasionally, in nom. case or in monogram. Callatis was taken by Lucullus in B.C. 72, when its autonomous coinage comes to an end.
The quasi-autonomous and Imperial coinage of Callatis ranges from Faustina Jun. to Philip Jun. Inscr., ΚΑΛΛΑΤΙΑΝΩΝ. Types. Heads of Herakles as ΚΤΙCΤΗC, Demeter, Athena. Reverses. Labors of Herakles; Dioskuri; Kybele on lion; Eros on lion; City-goddess seated; City gateway, etc. From Sept. Severus to Philip the coins usually bear marks of value, Ε, Δ, Γ, Β (= 5-2 Assaria). See Imhoof MG, p. 163.
Imperial. Ant. Pius to Gordian. Marks of value from Commodus onwards, Ε, Δ, Γ, Β (=5-2 Assaria). Inscr., ΔΙΟΝΥCΟΠΟΛ(Є)ΙΤΩΝ. Chief types, Dionysos, sometimes in his temple; the Great God of Odessus (Θεος Μεγας) with phiale and cornucopiae; Sarapis; Herakles; Demeter; and others of no special interest.
|Two heads united, in opposite directions, upwards and downwards.
[BMC Thrace, etc., p. 25.]
|ΙΣΤΡΙΗ Sea-eagle on dolphin.|
AR 108 grs., max.
AR 22 grs.
This remarkable type has usually been explained as a representation of the Dioskuri, whose cult was prevalent on the coasts of the Euxine, but as there is no trace of their special worship at Istrus, either on later coins or in inscriptions, I would suggest that the inverted heads may be meant for the rising and the setting sun-god. The worship of Apollo as Helios may well have been derived from the mother-city, Miletus, and the commerce of Istrus in two opposite directions, east and west, may have suggested this fanciful device. The two heads bear a close resemblance to those of the rayless Helios on the early coins of Rhodes, with which they are contemporary.
The autonomous bronze coins of Istrus of the third and second century B.C. have on the reverses ΙΣΤΡΙΗ Eagle on dolphin, and on the obverses, various types, e. g. head of Apollo as on coins of Philip II; head of Helios radiate; head of bearded River-god Istros facing; head of Demeter veiled; Apollo seated on omphalos, holding arrow and bow. These last bear the magistrate’s name ΑΡΙΣΤΑ(γορας), who is doubtless identical with the Aristagoras honored in an Istrian inscription of the second century. See Pick (N.-Gr., p. 152).
Imperial coins. Ant. Pius to Gordian. Inscr., ΙCΤΡΙΗΝΩΝ. Chief types, Rider-god (Mithras (?) ) wearing modius, before his horse an altar (?) and behind a long torch or column(?) on the top of which, a bird; Kybele seated; Nemesis; Apollo with lyre on column; Hera standing; Athena standing before tree and serpent; River-god ΙCΤΡΟC; Eagle on dolphin, etc. Marks of value from Commodus onwards Ε, Δ, Γ, Β (= 5-2 Assaria).
For other types of local interest see Pick (op. cit.).
Tomis, a Milesian settlement between Istrus and Callatis, is memorable as the place of the exile of Ovid. From the time of Lysimachus down to the first century B.C. gold and silver coins in the name of Lysimachus were struck there.
The autonomous coins belong to the second and first centuries B.C.
|Head of Apollo.
[Congrès de Num., 1900, Pl. IV. 4.]
|ΤΟΜΙ Tripod and magistrate’s name ΠΟCЄΙ.|
AR 47 grs.
|Head of Θεος Μεγας (cf. Odessus).||ΤΟΜΙ and magistrate’s name Eagle in oak-wreath.|
|Heads of the Dioskuri.||ΤΟΜΙ Horses of the Dioskuri or their foreparts.|
|Head of Demeter veiled.||ΤΟΜΙ Ear of corn between stars of the Dioskuri.|
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial. Caligula to Philip Jun. Inscr. ΤΟΜ(Є)ΙΤΩΝ or, after Aurelius, ΜΗΤΡΟΠ ΠΟΝΤΟΥ ΤΟΜΕΩC with marks of value ΑC, Β, Γ, Δ, and ΔC (= 1½-4½ Assaria). Chief types, Head of Tomos the founder with legend ΤΟΜΟC ΚΤΙCΤΗC or ΤΟΜΟΥ ΗΡWΟC, Trophy between captives; The Dioskuri recumbent side by side, or standing beside their horses; City-goddess standing over swimming figure of Pontos Euxeinos with crab-shell head-covering. (Svoronos, Ephem., 1890, Pl. II. 13.) For numerous other types see Tacchella (R. N., 1893, 51 ff.), Pick (N.-Gr., Pls. V-VII), and Soutzo (Congrès de Num., 1900, Pl. IV).
Odessos. A colony of Miletus at the mouth of the river Panysus. Its earliest coins are gold staters and tetradrachms of Alexandrine or Lysimachian types, many of them with abbreviated magistrates’ names, among which the Thracian name ΚΥΡΣΑ.... occurs. This name is also found upon an autonomous tetradrachm of Odessus of the second century B.C. (cf. the analogous coins of Maroneia and Thasos).
After circ. B.C. 200.
|Bearded head of the'Great God’ of Odessus bound with taenia, hair falling in lank locks (Fig. 167).||ΘΕΟΥ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΟΔΗΣΙΤΩΝ Bearded figure draped, standing, holding phiale and cornucopiae; beneath, ΚΥΡΣΑ.|
|Bearded head laureate
[Pick, Jahr. Arch. Inst., XIII. 161.]
|ΟΔΗΣΙΤΩΝ Rider-god holding cornucopiae.|
|Female head (or head of Apollo ?).||ΟΔΗΣΙΤΩΝ The Great God reclining, holding cornucopiae and phiale; in field, reversed amphora.|
Also Imperial from Trajan to Salonina. Inscr., ΟΔΗCCΕΙΤΩΝ. Types— The'Great God’ of Odessus holding phiale and cornucopiae, and sometimes wearing kalathos; Hades; Asklepios; Nemesis; Demeter, etc. Games, ΔΑΡΖΑΛΕΙΑ (see Pick, Jahrb. Arch. Inst., XIII. 157). Mark of value Ε (= 5 Assaria).
Anchialus, between Mesembria and Apollonia, struck money only in Imperial times. Quasi-autonomous:—
|ΑΝΧΙΑΛΟC Young head of traditional founder Anchialos.||ΑΝΧΙΑΛΕΩΝ Asklepios standing|
|Bust of Sarapis.||ΑΓΧΙΑΛΕΩΝ Isis Pharia.|
Imperial. Domitian to Gordian III. Inscr., ΟVΛΠΙΑC ΑΓΧΙΑΛΟV (Hunter Cat., p. 419), but usually ΟVΛΠΙΑΝΩΝ ΑΓΧΙΑΛΕΩΝ. Only once with name of the Legate, preceded by ΗΓ(εμονευοντος). Chief types, Artemis Huntress; Apollo (or Orpheus ?) seated on rock playing lyre; Demeter before tall torch; Hermes seated; Coiled serpent; Kybele seated; Triptolemos; Herakles subduing Cretan bull; Hermes of Praxiteles carrying infant Dionysos; City gate; Zeus defending walls of Thebes against Kapaneus (Ephemeris Arch., 1889, Pl. II. 16); Three Nymphs holding vases. Games, CΕΒΗΡΙΑ ΝΥΜΦΙΑ.
Apollonia Pontica (Sozopolis) on the Euxine was another Milesian colony. It possessed a famous temple of Apollo and a colossal statue of the god by Kalamis which Lucullus, when he took the city, carried off to Rome, B.C. 73 (Pick, Jahrb. Arch. Inst., XIII. 167).
|Anchor with crayfish as adjunct symbol.||Swastika in incuse of same form.|
|Id.||Gorgoneion in concave field.|
AR 58-50 grs.
|Id. with crayfish and Α.||Id.|
AR 50-44 grs.
|Id. with crayfish and ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝ. [Imhoof MG, p. 234.]||Id.|
AR 110 grs. (?)
|Head of Apollo laureate, hair rolled.||Anchor with Α and crayfish in field, and magistrates’ names.|
Tetradrachm AR 260-225 grs.
Diobol AR 21-19 grs.
|Head of Apollo laureate, to front.||Id.
|Head of Apollo laureate, hair rolled.||Id. around ΔΙΧΑΛΚΙΗ and Ε|
Æ .55 Wt., 33.5 grs.
|Apollo with himation over lower limbs, seated on omphalos and resting on bow.||Anchor with Α and crayfish; in field, magistrates’ names.|
Æ size .65
|Apollo standing facing, holding long branch and bow.||Anchor with Α.|
Æ size .55
|Head of Apollo r. laureate, to front. [Pick, Jahrb. Arch. Inst., XIII. Pl. 10. 29, but see infra Peparethus.]||ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟΣ ΙΑΤΡΟΥ Apollo standing to front, holding long branch and bow.|
The above-described coins, hitherto conjecturally attributed to various cities, Abydus, Astacus, or Apollonia ad Rhyndacum, have been at last identified by Tacchella (R. N., 1898, 210) as the coinage of the Pontic Apollonia (cf. Zeit. f. Num., xv. 38).
|Head of Apollo. [R. N., 1900, 257, and Blanche’s Bull. Int., 1903, 61, for reverse legend.]||ΚΑΒΥ|
ΛΗΝΩΝ Artemis standing.
Mesembria. There were two places of this name in Thrace, one an important colony of Megara on the Euxine, the other mentioned only by Herodotus (vii. 108), who calls it a continental stronghold of the Samothracians. It is to the former that the coins with the name of Mesembria, with the probable exception of the specimen described above (p. 248), belong. They are of the Rhodian standard.
|Crested helmet facing.||Incuse square.|
AR Obol, 8 grs.
|Id.||ΜΕTΑ in the four quarters of a radiate wheel.|
|Head of Athena.||ΜΕΤΑ (? T) between the four spokes of a wheel.|
|Head of Athena.|| in dotted circle.|
Æ .5[Berlin Catalog, I. 189.]
The silver coins seem to be of the Rhodian standard. The reverse type has been interpreted as referring to solar worship, the radiate wheel being the midday sun (cf. the meaning of μεσημβρια). See Gardner in Num. Chron., N. S., 1880, p. 59. The use of the form T (= ΣΣ) is peculiar to the Ionian sea-board and to the Pontic coast of Thrace. It is discussed by Foat in J. H. S., XXV. 338 and XXVI. 286. (Cf. also Hogarth, Archaic Artemisia, 142.)
|Helmet r. with cheek-piece.
[Berlin Catalog, I. Pl. V. 51.]
|Head of City veiled and turreted.||ΜΕΣΑ Ear of corn in wreath.|
|Diademed female head.
[B. M. C., Thrace, p. 132.]
|ΜΕTΑΜΒΡΙΑΝΩΝ Athena in fighting attitude.|
|Head of City-goddess in turreted stephanos.
[Oreschnikow, Beiträge, Pl. I. 1.]
|ΚΑΡΚΙ Prancing horseman, and magistrate’s name abbreviated.|
Cercinitis, on the western coast of the Tauric Chersonesus (Friedländer, Annali dell’ Inst., 1844, p. 233), struck bronze coins probably during the third century B.C.
|ΚΕΡΚΙ Poseidon (?) seated on rock, holding sceptre surmounted by dolphin or double axe ?||Horse trotting l. Magistrate’s name.|
|ΚΕΡ Head of Artemis l., with quiver at shoulder.||Stag advancing l. Magistrate’s name in field.|
Oreschnikow (Beiträge) would identify Cercinitis with Carcine, but see Imhoof, Kl. M., ii. 527.
Cherronesus (near the modern Sebastopol) was a colony of Heracleia Pontica. The types usually refer to the worship of Artemis Tauropolos, whose symbol as a moon-goddess is the bull. She often appears, however, on the coins as Artemis Agrotera or Elaphebolos.
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.
[BMC Thrace, p. 1.]
|ΧΕΡ Artemis with bow and arrow, seated. Magistrate’s name.|
AR Didrachm, 142 grs.
|Id. [Ibid.]|| „ Rushing bull.|
AR Drachm, 72 grs.
|Head of Artemis in turreted crown.|| „ Stag.|
AR Drachm, 62 grs.
|ΧΕΡ Artemis spearing stag.
[BMC Thrace, p. 3.]
|Magistrate’s name. Rushing bull, torch, and quiver.|
|Galloping quadriga.||ΧΕΡ Naked warrior kneeling.|
Æ .85[Berlin Catalog, I. Pl. I. 8.]
|Artemis with bow, kneeling.
[BMC Thrace, p. 2.]
| „ Griffin running.|
|Artemis seated beside stag, feeling the point of her arrow. [Burachkov, Pl. XIV. 36.]|| „ Bull upon a club.|
|Janiform heads of young Dionysos(?) and Zeus (?). [Berlin Catalog, Pl. I. 7.]|| „ Lion seizing bull.|
Subsequently Cherronesus sought the protection of Mithradates against the incursions of the Taurians and Sarmatians, and it formed part of the kingdom of Bosporus until it was liberated by the Romans (Plin. iv. 26), after which it struck coins reading ΧЄΡCΟΝΗCΟΥ ЄΛЄΥΘЄΡΑC.
|ΧΕΡ Bust of Apollo with lyre.||ЄΛЄΥΘЄΡΑC Artemis huntress; beside her, a stag recumbent.|
These coins are followed by a series bearing dates 73-131 reckoned from an era commencing B.C. 36. For list of recorded dates see Berlin Catalog, I. p. 7. The earliest dated coin is a gold stater of year ΟΓ (73 = A.D. 37)(op. cit. Pl. I. 10).
|Head of nymph; hair in sphendone.
[Berlin Catalog, I. p. 8.]
|ΝΥΝ Vine-branch in incuse square.|
AR 73 grs.
Μ branch in incuse square AR 4 grs. (Coll. de Hirsch.)
Panticapaeum (Kertch) was a Milesian colony founded in the sixth century on the west side of the Cimmerian Bosporus. Its earliest coins are drachms of Phoenician (?) weight with a lion’s scalp on the obv. and an incuse of 'swastika’ form on the rev. These are followed by others which, on account of their legends Α Π and have been usually attributed to Apollonia Pontica. As, however, they are frequently found at Kertch, and are identical in type with others reading (= ΠΑΝΤ), it is probable that the original name of Panticapaeum was Apollonia. They date from the fifth century B.C. The issue at Panticapaeum of gold staters in the fourth century is remarkable.
|Lion’s scalp facing. [Cat. Lemmé, 1872, Pl. I. 7; B. M. C. Thrace, etc., p. 87; Berlin Catalog, I. 137.]||Α Π and two stars, or Α Π Ο Λ in the four quarters of a shallow incuse square|
AR 73 grs., 24 grs., and 4 grs.
|Id. [Berlin Catalog, p. 9.]||Π Α Ν Τ Id.|
AR 48 grs.
|Id.||Π Α Ν and star in the four quarters of incuse sq. (Hirsch Collection).|
AR 126 grs.
|Lion’s scalp facing.||ΠΑΝΤΙ Ram’s head in incuse square|
AR 24 grs. and smaller.
|Head of Apollo, or head of Satyr.|| „ Id.|
AR 24 grs.[Burachkov, Pl. XIX.]
|Head of bearded Satyr with pointed animal-ear, facing or in profile, sometimes with ivy-wreath (Fig. 168).||ΠΑΝ Winged Panther, usually with horned goat’s head and spear in mouth, standing on a stalk of corn.|
AV Stater, wt. 140 grs.
These gold staters are fine works of art without any trace of barbarism. The winged and horned monster is a variety of the griffin, the fabled guardian of the gold-producing regions of the north (Herod. iii. 116), the Ural or Altai mountains, whence the Greeks of Panticapaeum obtained gold in great quantities, as has been proved in our own time by the enormous masses of treasure unearthed in the tumuli near Kertch. It was perhaps owing to the cheapness of gold at Panticapaeum that the stater attained there the excessive weight of 140 grs.
The Bull’s head points to the cultus of Artemis Tauropolos. The Lion breaking a spear is perhaps only a variant of the winged monster on the gold coins. The bronze coins are numerous and for the most part resemble the silver in their types.
In the third and second centuries the silver coins have usually a head of young Dionysos or of Apollo on the obverse, and the inscr. ΠΑΝΤΙ ΚΑΠΑΙΤΩΝ, with various types of no special interest, usually a bow in case or bow and arrow, on the reverse. On one of the largest of the bronze coins of this time the head of Mithras (?), in Phrygian cap, occurs, with, on the reverse, Dionysos standing with panther beside him. Among other types may be mentioned the drinking Pegasos, and the Cornucopia with the caps of the Dioskuri. For others see Burachkov (op. cit.).
|Helmeted head of Athena.
[Burachkov, Pl. XVIII. 1, 2.]
|ΘΕΟΔΕΩ Bull’s head facing, horns filleted.|
AR 32 grs. and 4 grs.
Kings of the Odrysae, etc. Between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars these petty kings had gradually extended their sway over the greater part of Thrace.
|Horseman with two spears.
[N. C., 1891, Pl. IV. 7.]
|ΣΠΑΡΑΔΟΚΟ Incuse square, within which eagle devouring serpent.|
AR Attic Tetradrachm
|ΣΠΑΡΑΔΟΚΟ (retrogr.) Horse walking. [Berlin Catalog, I. 328.]||Incuse square. Flying eagle with serpent.|
|ΣΠΑ Forepart of horse.||Id.|
From the reverse types of these coins we may infer that they were struck at Olynthus.
|Armed horseman (Fig. 169).||ΣΕΥΘΑ ΑΡΓΥΡΙΟΝ or ΣΕΥΘΑ ΚΟΜΜΑ No types.|
AR Attic Didrachm
|ΣΕV Horse galloping, etc.
[N. C., 1892, Pl. I. 5.]
|ΣΕΥΘΑ ΚΟΜΜΑ No type.|
These coins are remarkable for their reverse inscriptions, which show that we must probably interpret αργυρον and κομμα simply as'coin', without any special definition either of type or value. The more definite use of χαρaκτηρ by Aristotle (Ath. Pol. c. 10), as referring to the denomination rather than to the type of the coin, seems to be exceptional (see Athens, infra). Analogous examples are ΚΟΤΥΟC ΧΑΡΑΚΤΗΡ (see Cotys, p. 285), and ΓΟΡΤΥΝΟΣ ΤΟ ΠΑΙΜΑ (see Gortyna). On the other hand, the legend ΦΑΝΟΣ ΕΜΙ ΣΗΜΑ,'I am the sign of Phanes (?)’ (see Ephesus), clearly refers to the type, a stag, as a symbol or signet.
Metocus, circ. B.C. 400, called Medocus by Xenophon (Anab., VII. ii. 32; iii. 16; vii. 3, 11. Hell., IV. viii. 26). See Zeit. f. Num., v. 95.
|ΜΗΤΟΚΟ Head of bearded Dionysos.||Double-axe. Symbol, grapes.|
AR 18 grs.
The double axe is a symbol of Dionysos as well as of the great Thracian goddess Kotys or Kotytto, a divinity closely allied to the Phrygian Magna Mater (Preller, Gr. Myth., i. 549).
Amadocus II (?), circ. B.C. 359-351. The money of this king was struck at Maroneia and bears the name of the municipal magistrate, whence we gather that Amadocus was virtually supreme in this Greek city for a short time.
|ΑΜΑΔΟΚΟ Double-axe; above, caduceus. [N. C., 1891, 119.]||Incuse square. ΕΠΙ ΔΗΜ[ΟΚΡΙ]ΤΟ or ΕΠΙ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟ Vine in dotted square.|
Teres III (?), circ. B.C. 350. The coins of Teres resemble those of Amadocus, and must also have been struck at Maroneia. Inscr. ΤΗΡΕΩ and ΕΠΙ ΚΑΣΙΓΝΑΚΙΟΣ, Æ .9 (Zeit. f. Num., v. 97; N. C., 1891, 120).
Eminacus (?). Silver stater found near Olbia.
|ΕΜΙΝΑΚΟ Herakles with lion-skin over head and back, kneeling on one knee and stringing his bow. [Z. f. N., iii. Pl. II. 4.]||Incuse sq. containing wheel round which swim four dolphins.|
AR 181 grs.
Eminakos is probably the name in the genitive of some unknown Thracian dynast.
|Female head with hair in net.||ΣΑΜΜΑ... Lion’s head in incuse square|
AR 17 grs.
Saratocus, circ. B.C. 400. This dynast is only known from his silver coins (wt. circ. 17 grs.), reading ΣΑΡΑΤΟΚΟ, ΣΑΡ, or ΣΑ. Some of them with types of Thasos, obv. Kneeling Satyr, rev. Amphora, may have been struck in that island (Zeit. f. Num., i. p. 163). Others, with a youthful head on the obverse, and a bunch of grapes on the reverse, were probably issued from another mint on the mainland of Thrace (Imhoof MG, p. 53).
|Seilenos kneeling or running, carrying nymph.||ΒΕΡΓΑΙΟΥ written round incuse square|
AR 50 grs.
|Head of Seilenos.
[Zeit. f. Num., i. p. 164.]
Spoces. Unknown Thracian petty dynast about the middle of the fourth century, who struck some small silver coins in the vicinity of or at Abdera. Obv. ΕΠΙ Ν[ΕΟΜ]ΗΝΙΟΥ, Head of Apollo (?) in linear sq. Rev. ΒΑ.. ΣΠΟΚΗΣ Griffin recumbent. AR 37 grs. (Berlin Catalog, I. 118).
Cetriporis, B.C. 356. This Thracian dynast is mentioned as an ally of the Athenians against Philip in an inscription found some years ago on the Acropolis at Athens (Hicks and Hill, Gr. Hist. Inscr., p. 255). His coins resemble those of Thasos.
|Head of bearded Dionysos.
[Berlin Catalog, I. Pl. VIII. 75.]
|Bearded head l. in plain circle.
[N. C., 1894, Pl. I. 2.]
|ΕΒΡΥΖΕΛΜΙΟΣ Forepart of lion in incuse circle.|
|Female head in turreted stephanos.
[Svoronos, Ephemeris, 1891, 161.]
Β Ρ Vase of the some shape as that on the coins of Cypsela.
[BMC Thrace, p. 202.]
|ΚΟΤΥΟΣ, ΚΟΤΥ, or ΚΟΤΟ. Vase of the same shape as that on the coins of Cypsela.|
AR 13 grs.
|Horseman. [Ibid., p. 203.]||Similar.|
|Female head wearing sphendone.||ΚΕΡ Vase as on preceding.|
Cersobleptes was the son and successor of Cotys I, and, like his father, appears to have struck his coins at the town of Cypsela (p. 257).
|Head of Zeus (?).||ΣΕΥΘΟΥ Horseman.|
|Eagle with closed wings.
[Z. f. N., xxiv. 45.]
|ΣΕΥΘΟΥ in corn-wreath.|
The money of this king is more plentiful than that of any other of the successors of Alexander. His reign may be divided into three periods. I. B.C. 323-311, from the death of Alexander to that of the young Alexander (the son of Roxana). In this period Lysimachus, as Regent in Thrace, struck money in the name of Alexander the Great and of Philip Aridaeus with Alexandrine types. II. B.C. 311-306, from the death of the son of Roxana to the date of the adoption by Lysimachus of the title Βασιλευς. The coins of this period still bear the name of Alexander, though the letters ΛΥ are frequently added. III. B.C. 306-281, coins inscribed ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΟΥ, at first with types of Alexander, and later with Lysimachus’ own types, as follows :—
|Head of the deified Alexander with horn of Ammon (Fig. 170).||Athena Nikephoros seated.|
AV, AR Attic wt.[B. M. Guide, Pl. XXVIII. 18, 19; XXXI. 19, 20.]
|Young head (Ares ?) in close-fitting helmet.||Lion. Half lion, or lion’s head.|
Æ Various sizes.
Æ Various sizes.
|Head of young Herakles.||Corn-wreath.|
Æ Various sizes.
The money of Lysimachus was issued from numerous mints, in Thrace B.C. 311-281, in Macedon B.C. 286-281, and in Asia Minor B.C. 302-281. After the death of Lysimachus his coins were imitated, indiscriminately with those of Alexander, by numerous autonomous cities, by no means exclusively in Thrace (see Müller, Münzen des Königs Lysimachos, and B. M. Guide, Pl. XLI. 1; LIII. 3, 4; LXIV. 3, 4).
Orsoaltius, circ. B.C. 300. Known only from his tetradrachms, copied from those of Alexander, but reading ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΟΡΣΟΑΛΤΙΟΥ (E. Muret, Bull. Corr. Hell., v. 331).
Cersibaulus, circ. B.C. 300. Known only from his tetradrachms of Alexandrine types, belonging in style to the first half of the third century. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΚΕΡΣΙΒΑΥΛΟΥ. (Berlin Blätt., H. 259; Berlin Catalog, I. Pl. VIII. 72.)
Cavarus, circ. B.C. 219-200. The last Gaulish king in Thrace (Polyb. iv. 46, 52). He struck tetradrachms of the Alexandrine types, probably at Perinthus. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΚΑΥΑΡΟΥ. Symbol, Figure holding two torches. (Bull. Int. de Num., II. 1; cf. Z. f. N., xxiv. Pl. II. 2.) Also Æ.
|Head of Apollo.
[BMC Thrace, p. 207.]
|ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΚΑΥΑΡΟΥ Nike standing.|
|Head of bearded Herakles.||ΒΑΣΙΛ ΚΑΥΑ Cornucopiae.|
Mostis, circ. B.C. 200, or later. Tetradrachms in imitation of the latest Lysimachian issues, but with portrait of Mostis on the obverse. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΟΣΤΙΔΟΣ, and dates ΕΤΟΥΣ ΙΓ , ΚΒ , ΛΒ , or ΛΗ , and sometimes magistrate’s name ΕΠΙ ΣΑΔΑΛΟΥ. Also Bronze. Obv. Head of Apollo, Rev. Horse, Æ .75; Obv. Heads of Zeus and Hera jugate, Rev. Eagle on fulmen (N. C., 1892, 5); and Obv. Head of bearded Herakles, Rev. Bow in case (Z. f. N., xxi. 211).
|Rude head of Dionysos r., copied from coins of Thasos.||ΚΟΤΥΟC ΧΑΡΑΚΤΗ[Ρ] Herakles standing.|
AR Tetradrachm 252 grs.[Z. f. N., iii. 242.]
Whether the king who struck this coin was the Cotys who died circ. B.C. 16 (Z. f. N., l. c.) or an earlier dynast of the same name (Lenormant, Mon. dans l'Ant., ii. 195), we will not venture to decide. The curious legend ΚΟΤΥΟC ΧΑΡΑΚΤΗΡ,'coin with the stamp of Cotys,’ finds its counterpart on the early coins reading ΓΟΡΤΥΝΟΣ ΤΟ ΠΑΙΜΑ (see under Gortyna in Crete) and ΣΕΥΘΑ ΚΟΜΜΑ (p. 282).
|Head of Apollo.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΙΞΑΤΕΛΜΕΩΣ Amphora.|
From the date of the constitution of the Roman Province of Macedonia, B.C. 146, down to the age of Augustus, we possess very scanty notices of Thracian affairs, and the only coins to which we can point as belonging to this period are base copies of the money of Lysimachus and Alexander, and rare tetradrachms imitated from the late coins of Thasos, reading ΗΡΑΚΛΕΟΥΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΘΡΑΚΩΝ (Z. f. N., iii. 241). On what occasion the Thracians were sufficiently united in one homogeneous community to make use of a common currency we have no means of ascertaining.
The subsequent coins struck by kings of Thrace in Roman times are as follows. As they can hardly be called Greek coins, it will be sufficient to describe them very briefly.
|Head of Cotys r., diademed.||ΚΟΤΥΟC or ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΚΟΤΥΟΣ Eagle on fulmen.|
|Head of Sadales r., diademed.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΑΔΑΛΟΥ Eagle on fulmen.|
|ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΡΟΙΜΗΤΑΛΚΟΥ Head of king r., diademed. [Hunter, I. 437.]||ΚΑΙΣΑΡΟΣ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΥ Head of Augustus.|
Other coins of this king bear the heads, jugate, of Rhoemetalces and his Queen on the obverse (sometimes with a third small head in front), and of Augustus or Augustus and Livia on the reverse. There are also coins with the legend ΒΥΖΑΝΤΙΑ (sc. δραχμα?) behind the head of Augustus (Journ. Int., I. 17).
Cotys IV and Rhaescuporis, A.D. 12-19. AR with ΚΟ (in monogram).
Bizya, near the sources of the Agrianes, about eighty miles north-west of Byzantium. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial. Hadrian to Philip II. Inscr., ΒΙΖVΗΝΩΝ Magistrate under Hadrian, Presbeutes and Antistrategos; under Septimius Severus ΗΓΕ[μονευοντος] (Berlin Catalog, I. 139). Chief types— Head of young Dionysos, Rev. Seilenos with kantharos and askos; View of city enclosed by walls and turrets (Z. f. N., xxi. Pl. VIII. 5); Kapaneus with shield, spear, and scaling ladder (Ephem. Arch., 1889, Pl. II. 15); Apollo (Iatros) between Asklepios and Hygieia; Banquet of God and Goddess (θεοξενιον) (Pick, in Jahr. Arch. Inst., XIII. 145); Hera seated with peacock on her knees; River-god, etc. Alliance coins with Byzantium.
Philippopolis. Imperial from Domitian to Elagabalus. Inscr., Domitian to Trajan with Latin legend on obv. and Greek on rev.; afterwards wholly Greek:— ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ, or, after Severus. ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄΩC ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛЄΩC, with addition of ΝЄΩΚΟΡΟΥ in time of Elagabalus. Occasional names of magistrates, with titles ΠΡ(εσβευτου) ΣΕΒ(αστου) ΑΝΤ(ιστρατηγου) under Ant. Pius, or, later, ΗΓΕ(μονευοντος. Types numerous, among which, representation of Mt. Rhodope, ΡΟΔΟΠΗ, seated on rock (R. N., 1902, 177); the River-god Hebros recumbent, with name ЄΒΡΟC beneath; two River-gods recumbent beneath three mountain-peaks, hence the name Trimontium borne by Philippopolis (Ephem. Arch., 1889, 105); Statue of Herakles on mountain-peak; Orpheus seated on rock playing lyre to animals (R. N., 1900, 415); City standing before recumbent Hebros; also agonistic types, e. g. Prize crowns, etc., with legends ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΘΡΑΚΩΝ, ΑΛЄΞΑΝΔΡЄΙΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ, ΑΛЄΞΑΝΔΡΙΑ ЄΝ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛЄΙ, ΚЄΝΔΡЄΙCЄΙΑΠΥΘΙΑ ЄΝ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛΙ ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩ. These last-mentioned games received their name from a Thracian god Κενδρισος who was identified with Apollo (Reinach, L'Hist., 124). In the time of Caracalla and Geta the formula of acclamation occurs as at Pautalia ΙC ΕΩΝΑ ΤΟVC ΚΥΡΙΟVC ΕΠ ΑΓΑΘΩ ΤΗ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛΙ (Z. f. N., 1902, 190).
Serdica. Although this town was situated to the north of Mt. Haemus, it was at one time included in the province of Thrace. Imperial coins from Aurelius to Caracalla, and, after a break, again, under Gallienus. Magistrate’s title, ΗΓ(εμονευοντος) under Severus. Types, numerous, e.g. Head of Isis; Kybele on lion; Athena seated, feeding serpent twined round olive tree; Dionysos, Hermes, Ares, Asklepios, Herakles, Hera, or Aphrodite, standing; naked Apollo resting on staff of Asklepios with infant behind him (N. Z., 1891, Pl. III. 5); Tyche of Serdica seated on rock with swimming river-god (Oiskos) at her feet (Z. f. N., xxiv. 43); River-god (Oiskos) recumbent. For others see B. M. C. Thrace and Berlin Catalog I. Inscr., ΟΥΛΠΙΑC CЄΡΔΙΚΗC, or, on small coins, CЄΡΔΩΝ.
Topirus was probably situated about twenty miles NW. of Abdera, near the river Nestus or Mestus. It struck Imperial coins from Antoninus Pius to Geta. Inscr., ΤΟΠЄΙΡЄΙΤΩΝ or ΟΥΛΠΙΑC ΤΟΠЄΙΡΟΥ, sometimes with magistrates’ names preceded by ЄΠΙ. Usual type, Herakles seated on rock.
Augusta Trajana (Eski-Zaghra). The coins of this inland Thracian city were formerly confounded with those of the coast-town Trajanopolis, near the mouth of the Hebrus. Imperial, M. Aurelius to Geta, and, after a break, again under Gallienus. Inscr., ΑVΓΟVCΤΗC ΤΡΑΙΑΝΗC. Magistrate’s title, ΗΓΕ(μονευοντος) (= Praeses) on earlier coins. Chief types—Bust of Sarapis; Harpokrates; River-god; Demeter; City-gate; Three Nymphs; Dionysos; Kybele; Nemesis, etc.
Trajanopolis, on the Via Egnatia, near the mouth of the Hebrus. Imperial coins from Trajan to Geta. Inscr., ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ, usually without magistrates’ names, but occasionally with ΗΓ(εμονευοντος). Types—Apollo naked placing lyre on tripod with serpent round it; Hermes; Orpheus seated on rock playing lyre (Jahrb. Arch. Inst., XIII. 137).
In addition to the various Thracian kings and dynasts described under § P there are a few other coins of barbarous kings which, from their provenance, appear to be Scythian rather than Thracian. All seem to belong to the second or first centuries B.C., but as their dates are uncertain, I enumerate them in alphabetical order.
|Heads of the Dioskuri jugate.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕ ΑΚΡΟΣΑΝΔΡ. Busts of horses of Dioskuri.|
|Heads of Demeter and Persephone jugate.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕ ΑΚΡΟΣΑΝΔΡ. Two ears of corn.|
|Head of Zeus.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕ ΑΚΡΟΣΑΝΡ. Cornucopiae.|
Canites. Æ. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΚΑΝΙΤΟΥ. (Rev. Num., 1903, 31; Zeit. f. Num. ix. 155.) Obv. Heads of Demeter and Kore jugate; Head of Zeus laureate Rev. Two stalks of corn; Eagle on fulmen. Cf. with these the coins of Acrosandrus and Scilurus.
|Procession of three men in Roman togas, the foremost and hindmost carrying an axe over his shoulder. In front, sometimes monogram : In ex., ΚΟΣΩΝ.||Eagle standing on scepter, holding wreath in one claw. [Berlin Catalog II Pl. II. 16.].|
AV and EL 130 grs.
These much discussed gold staters (see Berlin Catalog, II. 23) have been since Eckhel’s time (D. N., VI. 23) assigned to L. Brutus, who, Appian (Bell. Civ. IV. 75) says, struck coins from the treasures consigned to him by Polemocratia the widow of a Thracian dynast. The obv. Type is doubtless copied from the denarii of Brutus, but the coin must have been issued by an independent dynast named ΚΟΣΩΝ. The monogram LBR stands, in my opinion, not from L. BR(utus) but for ΟΛΒ (= Olbia) the place of mintage. The Eagle holding a wreath is an Olbian type (cf. Burachkov, Pl. VII-IX), and the rude workmanship corresponds with that of the Olbian coins. The provenance also, Dacia (according to Eckhel), points to Scythia rather than Thrace as the district to which they should be assigned.
Pharzoïus. King of the region of Olbia.
|Head of Hermes or of king; in front, caduceus.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΦΑΡΖΟΙΟΥ Eagle and O (Num. Zeit. viii. 238). AV Stater|
|Head of Hermes.
[Zeit f. Num., ix. 155.]
|ΒΑΣΙΛΕ ΣΚΙΛΟΥΡΟΥ Caduceus and ΟΛΒΙΟ.|
Scostoces. Æ. Head of Apollo, Rev. ΣΚΟΣΟΤΟΚΟΥ, Galloping horseman (Rev. Num. 1903, Pl. V. 3). The coins of this dynast seem to be earlier than those of Scostoces, whose name occurs on gold staters and tetradrachms of the Lysimachian type. (Imhoof MG, 53, 55; Rev. Num., 1903, 34; Hunter, I. Pl. XXIX. 6.).